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  3. Billion-Dollar Ball: A Journey Through the Big-Money Culture of College Football
  4. Full text of "The last word on the TI/4A"

The comparison and analysis between large and small schools, in regards to the number of varsity sports offered, as well as the number of athletes participating was intriguing. Some schools, like Texas, are very focused on what sports programs they offer, while others, such as tiny Haverford College, offer more opportunities for athletes interested in playing sports at the college level. Athletics and Academics are considered separate entities within a university, and are therefore, receiving separate funding. Where revenues go was riveting.

Probably not. We now have overinflated egos who are paid overinflated salaries, and for what?

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  • Book review: James Patterson's "Cross My Heart" a disappointment. - Civil Discourse Now;

I like college football, but I think our priorities are skewered. No wonder college athletes think they should be paid! The discussion regarding the University of Akron and their football program was most interesting, as I live and work close to Akron. While the rest of the student body is expected to assume some responsibility and show up for class on their own, football players are treated like they are in elementary school.

These kids are here to play football. Why waste money on a super nice learning facility that they are not going to appreciate? One kid, Griffin Hamstead, age 15, was there promoting his product. It also made me think a lot about questions that I and fellow Ohio alumni have about Ohio State University and the use of our logo as ruled in a court of law and what type of royalties our school Ohio might be receiving. Every few years, college presidents do realize that they have created a monster, and in turn, conduct a study for how to fix things in the world of college football.

They realize they need to be disciplinarian, but nobody is brave enough to take the first step off that platform, so they shelve the study, and a few years later, the process starts all over again. In the end, there are over Division-I schools. The 5 power conferences, mentioned earlier, consider themselves the elite of the elite, and have positioned themselves to try and block any interloper s from invading their sacred space.

Case in point: Boise State. Gaul: The notational idea that college football is still a game, as opposed to an elaborately rich entertainment is rapidly receding from the American landscape of sports. What they really are is highly profitable enterprises. I doubt anything will ever change, but at least one senator gets it! Finally, I disagree with the idea that college athletes should be paid. They receive a lot of benefits that the average student can only dream about. At the end, Gaul provides a great theory that could prove right for the future. It will be interesting to see what path college football takes.

May 22, James rated it really liked it. Big elite football schools focus on their football programs, which pays for other sports but offers less of them total. The book breaks down issues into separate chapters. Chapter three details how football head coaches are often the highest paid public employee of a university and that their salaries keep spiking in order to keep up with elite football universities.

Chapter four demonstrates the vast support network for football players, including tutors to boost grades, walkers to make sure students get to class, and rule bending for football players, and in some extreme cases, no show classes for football players. Chapter five moves into the Southern domination of college football, noting how much of an institution places like Alabama or Texas are. Accordingly, the football programs are aggressive about protecting their logos and colors, to the point of threatening and sometimes actually suing small businesses who use them.

Finally, chapter seven illustrates that university presidents realize the extent of the runaway problem of collegiate athletics unbalancing educational priorities yet do little to stop or reform it. Key Themes and Concepts -The main problem is that athletic programs have been allowed to operate as independent semiautonomous to larger universities, meaning elite football programs spend to their hearts content and are hugely profitable, but it also means the vast majority of football programs have to be subsidized in order to keep up with the top Dec 31, Paul Pessolano rated it really liked it.

Gaul, published by Viking. This book is a must for any college football fan. This book is an investigative look at college football by a two time Pulitzer Prize winner. Gilbert M. Gaul looks into the many questions the majority of us have wondered about. The reader will be staggered at the amount of money billions that are generated by the elite college football programs, and the truly unbelievable salaries of college coaches and their assistants.

The incredible cost of attending a college game, especially if one is a holder of season tickets or purchaser of a luxury box, not only is one paying a high price for their seats but they also must donate to a college fund in order to be eligible for these seats. One must also question why the cost of seats is tax deductable. You may also have wondered what kind of courses these student athletes are taking and, what degrees they are working towards. Many great questions and many great answers, a highly readable book that will be of great interest to the sports fan.

May 19, Dad rated it liked it. This book was exactly as my daughter stated and she accurately predicted how I would evaluate it. It contains some very interesting and noteworthy facts which should rightfully trouble a football fan at one of the major schools. But the author here has an agenda that permeates throughout and detracts from what should have been a neutral and unbiased account.

Aug 30, Jeanne rated it it was amazing. This was a very well written and extensively researched book. I am interested in the subject matter but I think it would hold most people's attention. It talks about big time college football and the effect it has on universities, faculty, and athletes. It is a pretty grim picture and this book really highlights the destruction of the concept of the scholar-athlete in the revenue sports.

Sep 04, Tom Blumer rated it it was amazing. I thoroughly enjoyed this book. It confirms many things that I already suspected, but I did not know the magnitude of the problem. Sep 06, Nathan Albright rated it really liked it Shelves: challenge I found in reading this book that while I appreciated the author's wit, the author's politics had a clear negative side for me. A great deal of the vitriol that the author shows for the context of college football appears to be his socialist leanings and his opposition to capitalism and the workings of college football as a market.

Now, plenty of criticisms could be made about college football [1] and its nature as a cartel, but this author's problems appear to be of a different nature than my I found in reading this book that while I appreciated the author's wit, the author's politics had a clear negative side for me. Now, plenty of criticisms could be made about college football [1] and its nature as a cartel, but this author's problems appear to be of a different nature than my own are.

That does not mean that this is a bad book. It is, in fact, a pretty good book, and certainly an entertaining read about a corrupt business that takes odd and surprising angles. That said, everything the author says has to be read with a critical eye, as the author's worldview and approach are ones that cannot simply be trusted or taken at face value. If you have critical feelings about college football as a business and the way that academic institutions prostitute themselves for revenue sports, this is a good book to read, but be prepared to have some critical feelings about the author as well.

In terms of its contents, this is a book of slightly more than pages of material that begins with a look at Penn State and the author's thoughts on real universities. After that the author bloviates about this being the guilded age of college football and comments that college football is an unusual charity with its demand for seat deposit donations in order for people to obtain season tickets. The author then turns to a look at colleges paying their coaches not to coach--here's looking at you, Charlie Weis, who turned the enviable trick of being paid not to coach by both Notre Dame and Kansas.

The author takes a walk through a university campus with someone who is hired to help college athletes go to class and then looks at why the SEC wins at football so much. The book then closes with a look at how women's rowing provides key numbers of female athletes to balance out football teams for Title XI purposes and a look at how college presidents fumbled the chance for reform of the athletic systems. The book then comments on the fate of poor little colleges that spend a lot of money to keep up with the Joneses and notes on sources as well as acknowledgements and an index.

The author clearly prefers an egalitarian model where universities recruit only serious students and eschew the changes that result from corporate sponsorship and fund their sports in an egalitarian fashion. If we wanted our universities to have a socialist and egalitarian mindset, that would not be a bad thing--clearly the author wishes to be consistent with his worldview, even if it's one I don't agree with. Even for those who do not like the mindset of the author, though, there is clearly something wrong when taxpayers and students are supporting through increased fees mediocre to poor football teams that should be competing on lower and less demanding levels.

The question is, what do we want college football to look like, and who has the power to do anything about it? So long as people watch games and buy tickets and jerseys and cheer on teams, not much is likely to change. Whether or not that is a good thing is up to each and every person to decide for themselves. I see no problem with college football being a big business, so long as we are all aware of the dangers to players and everyone is compensated fairly for their efforts. The author, though, seems to have a different goal in mind in seeking to delegitimize college sports because it is such a profitable business.

Sep 24, Mark Tilley rated it did not like it. This review has been hidden because it contains spoilers. To view it, click here. I rarely take the time to write a book review but this one begs for it. I read this book with the hope of gleaning a little more knowledge about the inner workings of college football and how the management side of the business works. A college football coach is paid from athletic revenue and a professor is paid from general university revenue This argument then becomes universally applied to scholarships, tutoring services, academic facilities, etc.

I could go on for a long-time talking about how challenging it was to get through this book which I did with the hope of learning more about the inner workings of the sport but as a self-acknowledged college football fan I can simply sum it up this way: I know the sport has flaws and is not perfect. Oct 16, Gareth Evans rated it really liked it. As a newcomer to American football, I have been intrigued by the popularity college game. How could so many people pay so much to watch amateur sportsmen at work?

And it certainly shows how much the athletic departments of universities are paid. The book explores the relationship between universities and their football teams. Whilst As a newcomer to American football, I have been intrigued by the popularity college game. Whilst not asked explicitly, the question is which is more powerful, the college president or the athletic department director.

It would seem to be the latter. The book also explores the academic outcomes for athletes and other students. It is interesting to note that in a good number of colleges the general student fee can subsidise the athletics. Overall, this is a well-written and fascinating book. Sep 28, Tom rated it really liked it. Very interesting read, pretty quick and hits on a number of different examples. The part on the University of Alabama going after a local baker and artist were really indicative of the times.

I'm curious how college football does long term; it seems the rise in the popularity of the NFL lead to a huge spike in revenues and interest in college football. If the NFL continues to decline - and a part of that decline is a decline in the pool of available talent - what will be the knock-0n effect for Very interesting read, pretty quick and hits on a number of different examples.

If the NFL continues to decline - and a part of that decline is a decline in the pool of available talent - what will be the knock-0n effect for college football? Currently the Top 25 seems weak and not very deep; they have so many bowl games that teams with losing records get invited now.

I think it's only going to get worse and eventually there will be 10 top teams and then everyone else. Apr 22, Cindy rated it really liked it. If you love college football, you will love reading this book. I don't know if I should just shrug my shoulders and say "life isn't fair" or if I should care about the small schools that don't have a prayer as far as competing!

I have always thought it is amazing that I could get so excited about games where people basically knock each other silly, but now it is amazing to realize the dollars behind these same games. BUT football is king I live in t If you love college football, you will love reading this book. I live in the south I will continue to keep going to these games I love as long as we can find a way! I guess you can say I am part of the problem! Hook 'em Horns!

It also states whether or not the design is economically feasible. It does this through comparing heat savings to project cost and heat savings to interest that could have gotten from the same investment. Minuses: The computations are approximate rather than actual. If you want to change a dimension while inputting your design, the program takes you back to the menu. Documentation: Almost non-existent. The saving grace is that after trying the program several times, you won't need documentation.

Skill level required: Could be used by a beginning computerist. How long can you endure? When will it end? We're not talkirig about a new shoot 'em up game for the Commodore 64, but Commodore's own disk operating system! Commodore made a great computer in the 64 but left its disk operating system out in the cold. If you've been waiting for a true disk operating system, here it is! If you've been waiting for a great BASIC language enhancement that will let you utilize the Commodore's many special features, here it is! What is it?

It's graf DOS, the great new utility from Xylex Software that allows the user to actually become friendly with the Commodore 64! The BASIC allows you to do high resolution and low resolution graphics, sound, sprite program, plus much, much more for a total of 40 commands! Plus included in every package is MINIMON, a powerful machine language monitor that includes another 20 commands for use in machine language. The disk also comes with sample pro- grams and demos including a great music generator! How could you have lasted this long without it? Make your programming easier! Harvard Blvd.

Dealer inquiries invited. After e can be changed to jiae the program runs. No special computer expertise is required. Call or send for more information today. With only a few programs on the disk, it was easy to find any one of them. Now, with dozens of disks and hundreds of files littered around my basement, I have become a victim of creeping overhead; an ever-increasing fraction of my time is devoted to locating files rather than using them. Think about me with hundreds of disks-Ed.

I decided that one modest step towards putting things in order would be to alphabetize the catalog on each of my disks. Of the 35 tracks on a standard DOS 3. I set out to write a program which would read all current directory en- tries, sort them, and re-write them so that subsequent CATALOGS would list them in alphabetical order.

I first had to decide on what kind of sorting procedure to use, and whether to use BASIC or machine language. For a description of all the sorts mentioned in this article, see [l]. I didn't know how the blame should be split between the slow speed of BASIC and my choice of sorting algorithm, so I replaced the bubble sort with the generally-faster Quick sort and tried again.

I decided to throw in the towel and re-write the program in machine language. I also decided to use an insertion sort, which performs well for a short list less than 50 that is already partially sorted. I thought this would be appropriate since 1 1 anticipated No. The finished product listed in this article does the sort in under one second. The user is prompted by the program to insert the disk to be alphabetized into the drive drive 1, slot 6 and to press the RETURN key.

It is surprising to find that the disk has been updated in this short interval. Using the Program. The pro- gram will ask for the disk to be alphabetized to be inserted into the drive. I strongly suggest trying the program first on disks that you have backed up, just in case you made a mistake in entering the program. Since the program tampers with track 17, which is critical to accessing the other tracks, any scrambling of data could result in the effective loss of all files on the disk. How the Program Works. All of the secrets of direct access to directory entries are given in the DOS Manual.

The pertinent information is given in the description of the RWTS routine pp. Each file on a disk has a 35 byte entry in the diskette directory on track Following the track and sector numbers is a one-byte code for the file type text, binary, etc. Finally, the last two bytes give the number of sectors used by the file. The first byte of the entry actually doubles as a flag. If the associated file has been deleted, an "FF" is entered in this position.

If the entry has never been opened, a "00" is used. Since neither value represents a legitimate track number for file storage track is used for DOS , there is no conflict involved. As the entries are read, if the lead byte is not "FF", the RAM address of the entry is put into a separate table. When all entries have been read, the entry table and the address table are duplicated in memory. A sort is done by swapping addresses rather than entries this greatly speeds up the process in one of the tables.

When this is accomplished, entries in one entry table pointed to by the sorted addresses are transferred to the other entry table in the correct order at the positions pointed to by the remaining address table. The sort used is very straightforward. An insertion sort 41 rz Apple uses pretty much the same algorithm that most people would use for a manual sort of a few items. Suppose I want to alphabetize a stack of index cards, each of which has a single name on it. I start by taking the first two cards and swapping them if they are out of order.

I take the third card and put it in the correct position in the first two. The fourth card is then inserted into the first three, and so on. Bibliography 1. The new Delta- 15 printer kicks out AnyCalc, easy as 1,2,3! In a 9 to 5 woNd fiill of changing spread- sheet data, you need a business printer that moves fast. A printer that constantly fires out printed infor- mation. A printer called Delta Delta has the ability to print multi-copy spreadsheets at an intense cps. Its throughput never rests. In fact , it never even wavers in speed.

That means that Delta constantly fits the most work into every single second. Delta comes in a 10" or 15 V2" carriage size. It offers you the flexibility of standard 8K parallel and serial interface. And has the ability to underline, accept macro instruction, and print characters that range from full graphics to everyday printing to sci- entific notations. Plus, as always, you get our unique day warranty 90 days on print head. So for everyone who needs their spreadsheet data "yesterday," this is as close as you can come! Computer Peripherals Division 3.

Box , Dallas. Mailorders also by certified check, etc. Contact your local Commodore dealer or RTC. PAL is a copyright of Brad Templeton. Next month we will conclude the program with the print and sort routines. It never fails. No matter how hard you try to keep your disk library in some semblance of rational order, it never seems to remain that way for long.

Files that you know are on a par- ticular disk have disappeared, and others have mysteriously moved from one disk to another. If this sounds familiar to you, then here is the solu- tion. There is room for 64 disk IDs and file names. This directory can be sorted and printed in a variety of ways and saved to disk for use later or by other programs.

The main menu will then be displayed — six op- tions are available. Press the key cor- responding to the number of your choice. If you make a mistake, press return as the next input and you will be returned to the menu. The first option is to read the in- No. The program can only read DOS 3. To read the disk, insert it in drive one, enter the disk ID 1 to 8 characters] and press return. The next two options allow the master directory to be saved to or read from the disk.

Insert the disk into drive 1 and enter the filename. Any DOS errors that occur will be trapped and the appropriate error message printed. Option 4 is for sorting the directory. A Shell-Metzner sort is used — it can sort entries on two fields in nine seconds. To select the sort fields, enter the number next to the field name on the sort menu. One to three fields can be entered in any order. The first field entered is the most important descend- ing to the last entered being the least important. The sort returns to the main menu when finished. Printing the directory is the fifth op- tion.

Similar to the sort, up to three fields can be entered for printing in any desired order. To select the field, enter the number of the field from the sort mini-menu. A page eject is issued after each 65 lines. Be sure that top-of-form is set to the top of the page before printing. This routine also returns to the main menu. The Program The program doesn't have a search function because in the time taken to load the directory and find the desired file name will take longer than to look it up in an alphabetized list kept next to your Apple.

I keep one of these lists handy at all times. It has proven an in- valuable time saver. Modifications are made to DOS to allow direct access through use of machine language. Another modification allows the in- terception of DOS errors after the error message has been printed. The menu box is then set up and protected by lowering the top of the text screen.

The main loop is entered and a keypress is checked for to choose the correct subroutine. Each disk ID is stored in this buffer with an index to this name stored with each filename. The reading of individual en- tries is simple — consecutive directory sectors are read and processed. Each en- try is checked to see if it was deleted or the end of the directory. When a good entry is found, the disk index, file type and file name are copied into the name buffer.

The buffer pointer is in- cremented and a memory check is done with appropriate error handling. Then the next entry is read. Drive 1 is defaulted in the program, however, this may be changed. Since this is the buffer where I was reading the filename from while it was being printed, some very strange conflicts occurred. This problem took some time to find, but the new arrange- ment works perfectly.

The only part I will mention is the comparison of Disk IDs. For the file type and name, a direct comparison is made in the entries in the file names buffer. The disk ID is a single number of no alphabetic significance. It must first be converted to an address in the disk ID buffer. The IDs then pointed at are compared and a swap of the entries in the buffer made, if needed. The disk IDs are never reordered, they stay in the buffer in their original entry order and are accessed by pointer only.

There is a ROM multiply routine that I recently discovered that may be of use in your own programming. After getting the numbers cor- responding for the fields to be printed, the print routine converts these numbers to a range of This value is used to test which field to print. The printer is initialized with a "PR 1". The needed titles are printed and the fields are printed centered under the titles. The disk ID and file name are copied directly from the buffer. When the printing is finished, a "PR 0" disconnects the printer. If you need more information — the file size, disk volume number, free space remaining or other parameters — it can be read from the disk, stored and printed.

Much more than just a phone modem. When you're on-line, time is money. By monitoring the duration and cost of your phone calls. And by sending and receiving messages, unattended, at preset times when the rates are lower. For example, you'd have to buy both the Hayes Smartmodem plus their Chronograph for about S to get a modem with time base.

A convenient 'Help " command displays the Menu of operating command choices for quick reference whenever there's a question about what to do next. Extensive internal and remote self-diagnostics assure that the system is operating properly. See your local dealer for complete details. He'll show you how to save time. And money. Prometheus Products, Inc. Six Pak Plus. Third St. Pre-paid orders receive free shipping within the UPS Continental United States with no waiting period for certified checks or money orders. Larger shipments may require additional charges.

NV and PA residents add sales tax. All items subject to availability and price change. Westock manufacturer's and third party software for most all computers on the market. Call today for our new catalog. ACE 1 Interface CBM G4 1. Ledger I S Choplilter S Facemaker S OO Crumbled Chomp. Home Accountant.. Call tor exact pricing in Canada. R iiiember faMi! No more scattered bits of paper, business cards, etc. Imagine the same system giving you a typed sheet you could put into a notebook or print out for a party and instantly change, or add to, at a moments notice.

Imagine cross- referencing to suit both your business needs and personal desires so that all your data was organized into one little black book! On top of all this - imagine having fun putting it together. Its more. Like the address book. The user simply selects a tab and the txyok is opened to the proper page s. A second set of tabs are available that can be labeled by the user i. Therefore, his learning ability is hampered and re- mains so for many hours of use, UNLESS the computer has been designed to run simply.

This system can instantly add or delete information, sort alphabetically, and transfer data to other locafions in the book. You may also use th column display that requires no ac ditional hardware. The program asks for what type of disk you have, and then asks for the filename.

The program currently has subroutines for DOS and Pascal. DOS 3. The Global Program Line Editor is a handy set of line editing commands and is available at any time, even with a program already loaded. Pluses: The program is always waiting to be called. If you forget to load a line editor while working on a program, then you have to save, load the editor and reload the pro- gram. If you program a lot and haven't used a line editor, get one right away. A new runtime package is being included for transportability. Documentation: A page manual clearly explains how the programs work and how to manage your own vectors.

Skill level required: Some programming experience is necessary for full use. Reviewer: Phil Daley can be stored on a library disk with unique picture labeling and retrieval system. Optional equipment includes dot- matrix printer, plotter, color printer, and digitizer. Pluses: The system is menu driven and easy to become aquainted with. Scale drawing is accurate and easy to do. Zoom works at many levels of nesting, greater than I part in a billion giving effectively unlimited screen resolution. Picture complexity is only limited by space on disk.

This system has to be seen in operation to appreciate its power: especially its ability to produce highly detailed tech- nical drawings. Minuses: On complex pictures this system can be slow. Redrawing a picture on screen can take several minutes. Documentation: An easy to read and well indexed manual answers all questions on operation. Skill level required: Some drafting experience will help get the full benefit of all the sophisticated features.

Steven C. Brandt Description: A real bargain.

Book review: James Patterson's "Cross My Heart" a disappointment.

A program to teach you how to use VisiCalc and to use as reference. Manual supplements material with exercises and reference. The basic system includes 4 disks, manual, interface module a copy protection device and a precision controller much more accurate and ver- satile than a joystick. It has such features as zoom, pan, angle locks, grid locks, scale drawing, move, find, ex- change, line color and type, text entry and more. Pictures Pluses: Very interactive,- easy to use. A professional, top- quality package. Minuses: Disk lessons do not cover all commands, such as window and title commands, but are covered in the reference disk.

Documentation: Well-written, indexed manual contains command reference, examples and exercises. Skill level required: Anyone interested in learning about VisiCalc. Very little computer experience needed. Reviewer: Mary Gasiorowski Continued on next page No. View, CA Description: A graphics tablet operating from the game controller port with extreme smoothness and precision. The 4x4 inch active surface can be activated with finger or stylus. It includes two controller buttons. Pluses: This product is a great refinement over a joystick.

It is much easier and more natural to control than paddles or conventional joysticks. I immediately improved my previous high scores on every game I tried it on. Program- ming is identical to paddle programming. Minuses: The KoalaPad Touch Tablet does not have self- centering such as a joystick has, and removing your finger from the tablet may result in untimely moves during the progress of a game.

Documentation: A very complete, clear and well written booklet is included with the tablet. Skill level required: No prior skill needed. Also available are credit card accounts, and checkbook recon- ciliation. Defaults make date input and editing a snap. PFM prints out any display you wish and will also move each year's records to another disk for long-term storage. Pluses: Ample room for the average person, PFM has superb error-handling checks and messages to guide you along.

Minuses: You can't track income which would give you a better income vs. Having to continually load modules from disk slows PFM's speed. Not being able to make financial projections will annoy some of you. Documentarion: An attractive and concise booklet is pro- vided with the master disk and backup.

Skill level required: Any person able to turn the computer on and follow directions. Triples PrDgrammlng Speed! Atiirr l nrruuti t. It's all there! The squall of sirens, the crazy turns down endless city streets, the anxious search for ill-gotten gain, the race against time for a safe place to stash your cash! Now your gas tank is nearly empty and night is about to fall.

The coppers are closing in fast. Before you learn again that crime doesn't pay.. Phone , or in California. Or write Atari Program Exchange, P. Box , Santa Clara, CA You're in for a nasty spell In the dusky world beneath your keyboard the gruesome Typos dwell Term paperdue tomorrow? Got to get that book re- port typed? The Typos will devour your letters as you type! That could spell DO-M-E for you! Before you start typing, get down to the real work: destroy the Typos before they destroy your proase Oh NO! It might even improve your typing! You may be surprised by the results of this coin between using exponentiation and simple mi tion to square a number.

Other comparisons wish to try are: using a number vs. COS[ No. Daley 3t' 'Version 1.? Anybody can instatl M bps Auto Dial. Data Is transfer- red by RS at rates of baud to baud — switch selectable. The UART is controlled parity etc. Complete source listing is included in the documen- tation. This board uses a Microprocessor and a CRT controller. The runs during the horz.

The serial input port is interrupt driven. A character silo is used to store data until the can display it. Dynamic RAMs No. Screen editor with user -definable controls. YES Macro-assembler with local labels. YES Virtual memory. YES Multiple disk drives. YES Floating-point mathematics. Can be expanded into a telecommunication system as a stand-alone package. Real time clock and calendar C. Help Commands D. Auto dialer F. Programmable Intelligent Dialing G. RS interface H. Serial 2. Parallel 3. Real Time clock and calendar 4. Manufacturers' warranties Includea. Include payment by personal check, money order, or cashier's check with order and SGC will pay shipping charge.

Call for amount of shipping charge when paying by credit cand. All Items are normally in stock 4X5 And we'll be here to help afteryou receive your order. Last month I pro- mised a new phone number for the Dakota Database. It is , and is available 24 hours a day, except for maintenance. Since mid-July, we have logged over calls, and have nearly fifty regular users. Most of the users have computers that are not CoCos.

There are even a few data terminals who make a regular appearance. The new keyboard is nice, and is really the same style board with new keycaps. I like both keyboards very well, and prefer the new one, but those who like a longer throw on the keys should look into the Mark Data model, or one of the other professional keyboards. The formatting problem I was work- ing on last month has been solved.

I found my drives to be out of time, just as was suggested to me. My drive zero was way off, and that was probably the majority of my initialization problems with the 1. The ROM works well with either computer, and my old drives are purring again. Interfacing a Drive Unit I promised a look at drive interfac- ing with the CoCo, so let's take a look at what is required.

This opens up a wide market for drive selection, and CoCo users can either shop for price or qual- ity or both. On top of that, they No. The Tandon drive is a popular unit, and available from many sources, so we will look at installing these units. The first requirement is a controller board. There are several different brands available, but only two that I know of that are compatible with the Radio Shack format.

The Radio Shack card is available as a replacement part, and you can order a replacement case, putting a complete controller together. The next requirement is a drive cable, which can be ordered from Radio Shack, or you can use any external drive cable for a Model HI if you con- figure your drives see below. Drive cables are available either in two or four dtive versions. The Color Com- puter drive cables are configured, which means that the cable determines which drive becomes drive zero, and which becomes drive one, etc. Many companies configure the drives, in- stead.

Configuring the cables allows you to swap drives zero and one at any time without internal modification of the units. On the other hand, it is easier to configure the Tandon drive unit, than to configure the cable. You can buy the configured cable from Radio Shack, or you can order an unconfigured cable from the place you get your Tandon drive units.

My recommendation is to order a cable from the drive supplier that has gold plated connectors and configure your drives. The Tandon TM is a forty track single sided, double density drive. Tandon sells their drives without case and power supply, so be sure to ask about this before you buy a drive unit. The Dakota Database drive units are housed in a two drive case which cuts down on cost and space.

If you are planning on two drives, you might look into that combination. Drive Configuration Configuring a Tandon drive is easy. The configuration process allows the controller card to distinguish between drive units. On the Tandon, the con- figuration is done by jumpering a pro- grammable shunt socket. This 16 pin IC socket is located toward the right rear of the circuit board near the drive connector See figure Ij. Some com- panies provide a DIP shunt which is sitting in the socket, while others leave you to your own devices.

If you did not receive a shunt, a common staple will perform the job quite satisfactorily. Figure two is a diagram and pinout of the socket. Configuration is easy. Make sure to connect pins 9 and 8 together. This is done on all drives. To configure a drive as drive 0, connect pins 2 and Drive I requires connections between 3 ant Drive 2 connections are to pins 4 and 13, while drive 3 connections are made to pins 5 and Make sure no other pins are connected, except 9 and 8 and the desired drive number pins.

Figure two shows the illustration for a drive 0. Once a drive is configured it can be used as that drive with either a configured or non-configured cable. The X variable refers to the column the computer will be printing the information in. Line positions the cursor at the point on the screen at which we want a letter printed. X indi- cates the column that the "M" will be printed in. There is a space before the letter "M.

This erases the previous "M" that was printed on the screen and gives the illusion of an "M" moving Fig. The computer com- pletes lines to six times before it goes on the next line. Lines move the "0" across the screen in a similar manner. Line erases the "0" from the line that it was moving on. Line moves the "0" up one line, placing it immediately after the "M.

Lines move an entire word across the screen. This space erases the letter "W" in the word previously printed. If there were no space, a line of "Ws" would be printed across the screen. Lines use the SIZE command to erase the entire word and print it one line lower. Line ends the program. Although this program moved only letters across the screen, using this technique of printing and erasing you can use graphics created with new characters and move them anywhere on the screen. Sometimes a new value will be entered by the computer user, other times the programmer wants the computer to use a value different than the one previously calcu- lated.

The computer needs to be able to keep track of the value by storing it in a place in memory so it can recall the value when it needs to.

To accomplish this, the program stores the value as a variable. The B variable would become The LET command is used to set a variable to a value. The command does not have to be used. See flowchart in Fig. Listing Line sets the A variable equal to Line sets the B variable equal to Line sets the C variable equal to Line prints all three variables on the same line.

As you can see, when the computer is told to print a variable, it prints the value that it stored in that variable. Flowchart for Listing Assign Variable Values. The value of a variable can be changed and reused throughout the program. A variable can also be used instead of a number for an arithmetic oper- ation. Type NEW and enter the program shown in Listing Names can be used as variables. Line prints a message on the screen. Since the value of the variable will be printed on the same line, a semicolon is placed after the quotation mark and before the variable.

There is no need to place a space between the last letter of the last word and the quotation mark since there will be a leading and trailing space when the number is printed. Line performs the calculation that determines the perimeter of the room. Line contains two print statements. The first PRINT command is not followed by a mes- sage ; it brings the cursor down one line so that the message contained after the second PRINT com- mand will be one row below the last message. A print statement by itself skips a line on the screen. This message will be printed on the next line of the screen.

Whenever possible, the same variables should be reused in a program. This saves memory and is efficient. Each time a vari- able is assigned a new value, the computer forgets the old value.

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Line skips a line on the screen, then prints another message on the screen. The colons be- tween parts of the message tell the computer to use a new line for that portion of the message. Line skips a Hne on the screen, then prints the message containing the area of the room. It is important to note that there mtcst be a semicolon or comma between the message and the variable in the print statements. To print the value of the variable on the next screen line, use a colon instead of a semicolon.

There are many different uses for this command when you are writing a program that needs to know which vari- able is the largest. The MIN command is just the opposite. It determines which variable or number is smaller. It shows how the MAX command can be used. These variables could be any score, but have been set here for this example. Ftowchart for Listing Change Variable Values. This is the current high score for this game.

The score for this game is shown in row The computer will beep before the current score is printed. Line is a timing loop. It waits for a few seconds so you can read the screen. Line compares the current score to the high score. The variable for the current score will be reset to zero for the next game. Line changes the score. Now the new high score is on the screen.

Line is another delay loop to give you a chance to read the screen. The program ends after this line. However, string variables cannot be used in arithmetic functions even though they may store numbers. Numbers that you will not be adding, such as dates or ID numbers are best housed in strings. Like numeric variables, string variable names can be letters, groups of letters, or words. By placing a at the end of a variable name, you are telling the computer that this is a string variable.

Just like numeric variables, the contents of string variables can be printed on the screen. See the flowchart in Fig. Store information in strings Fig. Flowchart for Listing String Variable Value. The letters, numbers, or characters that are placed in each string variable must be enclosed by quota- tion marks.

Lines print the information in each string on the screen. Like numeric variables, string variables hold their contents until they are changed by the pro- gram. LEN There are times when you need to know the length of a string. For example, you may want the title of your new program to be centered on the screen with the instructions printed under it. Your program would look like Listing flowchart in Fig. Line uses the LEN command to find the length of the string. It places this information in variable L.

Line divides the length of the title in half. We know that 28 letters can be placed on one row of the screen. If we subtract half of the length of the title from the center point of the screen 14 , we will know where we should start printing the title. Line places the cursor at fourth row and in the P column.

The title will be printed in the center of the screen. Lines begin the instructions for this pro- gram. Line is a loop that makes the computer wait until the FCTN and 4 keys are pressed. If a program repeats itself or reuses some of 40 c start Clear screen Place information into string Get length of string Compute printing position Display centered title Display message Loop until clear is pressed 3 Fig. Flowchart for Listing Finding the Middle.

Listing the variables, you can clear the previous informa- tion from a string by setting the string equal to " " two quotation marks with nothing between them. This sets the string length to zero and erases all previous information.

Billion-Dollar Ball: A Journey Through the Big-Money Culture of College Football

A string with no information in it is called a null string. However, you don't always know the values ahead of time. The INPUT command allows you to enter a number, letter, or characters from the screen while the program is in use. If numbers are to be entered, then a numeric variable can be used for the entry. If letters or characters are entered, a string variable is used. This is very useful when there can only be two answers to a question, and you don't want the computer to accept anything else. A True or False test is one example. The value entered would have to be a number and would be stored in the variable "B.

The BEEP option can be used to get the user's attention. In addition, specific characters or letters can be en- closed in quotation marks, and those characters would be the only characters that the computer would accept. Any of these options can be used together. Here is an example of the use of some of these commands. The answer entered cannot be longer than five letters. If a negative number is used with the SIZE option, no spaces will be. The value of that number will determine how many characters will be accepted. The entry will still be limited to five characters. The next program Listing and flowchart in Fig.

The program demonstrates the commands discussed in this chapter. The program then waits until you enter a number. The program does not want the tax entered as a decimal or with the percent sign. The TAX variable will now be equal to the number that you entered. Line changes the number that you entered to a decimal by dividing the amount stored in TAX by Line uses the PRINT command to place a space between the last message that was entered on the screen and the new one.

The message between the quotation marks will be printed on the screen. The com- puter will wait until an amount has been typed, and ENTER has been pressed before going on to the next program line. Enter the cost of the item, 44 but do not enter a dollar sign. A period can be used as a decimal point. Line calculates the tax on the item. The state tax is the cost of the item times the tax. Since we are dealing with money, we want the tax to be rounded to the nearest penny.

To do this, we add. We then multi- ply the entire amount by This shifts the decimal point two places to the right. If the tax came out to. Multiplying it by would move the deci- mal to the right. The number would be Now we take the integer INT of this number— that is, take only the whole number and ignore the decimal—and we have Divide this by and we have the tax of. Be sure that this line is entered exact. The next two colons have no space between them. At the 22nd row and 28th column, the computer will beep.

The SIZE l option erases one character at row 22, column If it is a null string, the computer will go back to line and wait for another key to be pressed. If the string is not empty, then it must contain an "N" or a "Y. Line prints once to skip a line, then ends the program. We can change lines to to accept a default value. Look at the two alternate lines printed below the main listing. Line is changed to include a space and a " Y" after the question mark. This will be printed on the screen. In line , the value after SIZE is changed to a - 1.

Now when the program is run, the "Y" will appear on the screen after the question. The program can con- tain this information within itself. This information is called data. The computer will not use this information until it is told to. The computer starts with the first DATA line and uses the first piece of information there, if there is more than one piece of information on the line, it will continue with this data line until all the information is read. Each time the computer uses the READ command it will get the next piece of information. The data can be numbers or letters.

Numbers can be read into numeric variables or string variables. Letters can only be read into string variables. Each piece of data must be separated from the other by a comma. The DATA line can hold a maximum of 31 elements, or 30 commas. Flowchart for Listing Colors. This way, the information can be reused. The screen color will also be printed. Listing Line changes the colors of the letters from the third set through the ninth set. The first set is numbered zero.

The I variable represents which set will be changed. The number two changes the character color to black. The 16 changes the background of that letter to white. Now the let- ters will show up on all the screen background colors. Line clears the screen. Since we are reading the number and color as a set, the READ command reads the number and the word with one command followed by both variables. The comma separates the variables on the line. Line changes the color of the screen to the color value just read. This length will be used to center the word on the screen. Line divides the length of the word in half, then subtracts that number from The fourteenth position is the center of the screen.

By subtract- ing half the length of the word from the center, we can center the word on the screen. You will notice that the word is printed in black and the background color of the letters is white. If we did not place a delay loop in the program, the screen would change colors too fast for you to read the color name on the screen. Line clears the screen again. Line sends the computer back to line The program will continue to change the screen color and print that color on the screen until the FCTN and 4 keys are pressed.

Lines contain the data that the computer uses to change the screen colors and print the colors on the screen. The number indicates the color that the screen will be, and the word is the corresponding color. Numbers or letters can be stored in an array. Figure shows how an array is arranged. This is a one-dimensional array, because it contains only one row. Storing numbers in a numeric array. In another program the array could hold a pre- determined value for plotting points on the screen or determining various statistics.

An insurance program could have an array that would contain various ages and the rate of insurance for each age group. Each location in the array is called an element. If you will be using ten or less elements in the array, you do not have to use the DIMension command. In the program in Listing flowcharted in Fig. Listing Line sets the option base for the program. It is possible to use the zero element of an array. Line places a message on the fourth row begin- ning with the first column. Line begins a FOR. The DAY variable will count to seven, the number of days that the trip was for.

Line asks the user to enter the number of miles driven on a particular day. If you look closely at this line, you will see that the number of the day is stored in the variable DAY. This variable is printed before the question mark and after the word "day. Only a number can be entered. Flowchart for Listing Mileage. Line contains a running total for the number of miles driven. Each day's mileage is added to the previous total. The program continues until the number of miles for all seven days has been en- tered. Line finds the average mileage. The total number of miles are divided by the number of days in the trip 7.

Since this number does not have to be a whole number, we need to round it. For example, divided by 7 equals The integer is , so the average miles driven per day would be However, if miles were driven, then the average number of miles driven per day would be Line displays the total miles driven. Line shows the average miles driven per day. The program in Listing uses a one- dimensional numeric variable array. The one- dimensional string array works the same way. The next program Listing is a simplified spelling program.

The words are entered into a one-dimensional string array. These words are then flashed on the screen for the child. A maximum of 20 words can be stored in this program. Flowchart for Listing Spelling. This loop will accept up to 20 words. The computer will beep and erase 18 spaces on the screen. Up to 18 letters can be entered for each word. If it is empty, then no word has been entered, and the computer will go back to line to wait for a word.

Line checks to see if the word is XXX. If it is, then the computer knows that you are done with this part of the program. The computer is sent to the next part of the program that tests the user on these words. The spelling word is placed there. Line continues the loop. This part of the pro- gram or routine will continue until 20 words have been entered, or until the user enters an XXX. Line begins the test part of the program. The screen is erased and the message is displayed on the screen.

This way, the program will not begin until the user is ready. Line begins another FOR. We do not want to count up to the value of COUNT because it is one more than the number of words entered. Line erases the screen and prints a spelling word on the screen. Line is a delay loop that keeps the word on the screen long enough to be read, but not so long that the user can study it.

If you would like the word to be removed from the screen more quickly, change to a smaller number. If you would like to leave the word up longer, increase the value from to a higher number. Line erases the word and asks the user to enter the word that was just on the screen. The com- puter will wait until a word is entered.

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Line is used when the word entered is not the same as the word that was flashed on the screen. This line tells the user that the word entered was wrong and displays the correct word on the screen. Line is another timing loop. This one gives you a chance to read the message. Line continues the program until all the words have been flashed on the screen.

Line ends the program with a message. In the previous programs, you used one- dimensional arrays. At other times, you may need a two-dimensional array. You can think of your screen as a two-dimensional array. All the charac- ters are placed in a particular row and column. In a two-dimensional array, you must tell the computer how many rows and columns the array will need Fig.

Storing words in a two-dimension string array. The string array will use eight rows and two columns. The program in Listing Fig. Listing Line sets aside the memory needed for the string array. Line reads two words from the DATA line. The first word is stored in the first column of the array, the second in the second column. The variable COUNT will indicate which element of the array will continue this routine until all six sets of words have been read.

Line displays the English word on the screen. Line tells the computer to sound a beep and wait for an answer. Line checks the answer that was entered. Each set of words will be stored in corresponding parts of the string array. For example, the third row, first column of the array is the word green. The third row, second column of the array is verde, the Spanish word for green. This vari- able does not change its value until the correct Spanish color is entered. Flowchart for Listing Spanish Colors.

Lines are the DATA lines. As you can see, each line contains the English and Spanish color. When we figured out the area of a room or moved letters across the screen, the program ran from start to finish without any consideration of the information entered by the user. It processed everything in the order that it was instructed. Some of the programs that we've entered so far did take into consideration the entries.

The Spelling program allowed the user to stop the first routine by entering XXX. When the computer must choose between different program paths, we are talking about logic or decision making statements. The computer must decide which path to take. This decision is determined by information that has been entered or calculated in the previous part of the program. THEN statement. IF the first part of the statement is true, THEN the program continues with the second part of the statement. These statements are often used after an input statement to check the answer entered for erroneous answers.

Other times it is used after a computation to decide on the path the computer must take in the program. Listing flowcharted in Fig. THEN statements. Use the keys that have the arrows on the side of them. Do not use the "FCTN'' key. These keys will con- trol the ball on the screen. The IF. THEN statements keep the ball on the screen. Line clears the message.

Line places the ball on the screen. In this program the uppercase "0" will represent the ball. Line uses a CALL command. This command will check to see what key, if any, has been pressed. Line uses an IF. If the value of STATUS is other than zero, then the computer will not continue with statement, but go on to the next line of the program. Line tests the value of KEY. If its value is 83, then the S key was pressed and the computer is directed to line Line checks the value of KEY for a If it is, then the D key was pressed and the computer will go to line Line looks for This is the value KEY will be if the E was pressed.

The computer will be di- rected to line Line checks for the value of This is the value of the X key. When this key is pressed, the com- puter will go to line Line directs the computer to line The computer will reach this line if KEY does not equal any of the previous values. Line moves the ball to the left edge of the screen. One is subtracted from the COL value. This variable is then tested for a value that is less than one.

If the COL variable becomes a zero, it is printed off the screen, so, when COL is less than one, it is reset to the value one. Line erases the ball from its present position on the screen. One is added to the value of COL because the old position is one more than the new position. Printing a space will erase the old ball. Line sends the computer to line where the ball will be reprinted on the screen. Line adds one to the value of COL. This will move the ball to the right. Again the value of COL is checked for the edge of the screen. This time, if the value of COL reaches 29, it will be reset to 28 so that the ball will not be printed off screen.

Line erases the ball from the previous position. Line sends the computer to line to reprint the ball. Line adjusts the ROW variable. By subtracting one from its value, we can move the ball up on the screen. The value of ROW is checked for a zero. If it is zero, it is reset to one. Line erases the ball from the screen. This time we are adding one to ROW since that is the vari- able that we just subtracted one from.

Full text of "The last word on the TI/4A"

Line directs the computer to line to print the ball in the new position. Line adds one to the value of ROW. The ball can now be printed one row lower on the screen. The value of ROW is tested for If it reaches 25, it is reset to This keeps the ball on the screen. Line erases the ball that is currently on the screen. Line prints the ball on the screen. If the ball has reached any 59 edge of the screen, it will not move since that variable has been reset to the edge position.

Line sends the computer back to line where it waits for another key to be pressed. THEN statements is to exit a loop. An example of when you would use IF. THEN as an exit is as follows: You are getting information from the user, but you do not determine ahead of time the exact number of en- tries the user will enter.