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What continuities of practice existed with former times? How was the desire to restore the church to an imagined pristine state manifest in music and liturgy? How did developments in exegesis arising from the massively increased knowledge and access to the Bible in Hebrew and Greek affect the way composers wrote and congregations heard? Why did some reformers embrace music, while others rejected it? If you have personal access to this content, log in with your username and password here:. Your Access Options.
Log In If you have personal access to this content, log in with your username and password here: Email or username: Password: Remember me. Forgotten your password? The contract of d'Orvanne had still three months to run. His contract was dated June 3, , and under its con- ditions within eighteen months four hundred families had to set- tle in the territory of his grant.
The contract was therefore abrogated December 3, Through law of January 30, , all contracts whose terms had remained unfilled were abrogated. The latter arrived at Gal- veston July I, He could not conceal longer from Prince Solms-Braunfels the real truth regarding his con- tract. The prince addressed letters to the "Verein" showing the real condition of affairs. Organische Statut dcr Colonisation. Entzvickelnngs-Geschichte, p. Kordiil, p. Fischer and Burchhard Miller under the same conditions as those given to W. Peters and others, February 4, This act had been extended to anyone whom the president in his judgment saw fit to approve.
Fischer and Miller were to receive a premium of ten sections for every hun- dred families, and of five sections for every hundred single men. Kordiil gives the date as Sept. The first was dated June 7, , but was essentially the same. Germans in Texas 19 hundred families one-third of the required number had to be brought in by the end of the first year, or the contract became null and void. Every alternate section of land was left in pos- session of the State. Fischer travelled to Europe, and under date of June 24, , a contract was signed between Count von Castell, repre- senting the Verein, and Fischer.
The Union was to receive two- thirds of the profits resulting from sales of land and industrial establishments; Fischer and Miller, one third. The special ex- ecution of colonization was left to a colonial committee of six members, of which Fischer or his appointee was to be one; in this committee, the Verein was to have five votes, Fischer three.
For this, the Verein received the rights of Fischer and Miller in the contract. It believed it had really purchased land and hence made the promise of acres to each family, and acres to each unmarried man. The land was miles from the coast and miles from any settlement. It was in the possession of hostile Indian races. Good land could have been bought within the settlements at that time for five to ten cents per acre. This shows the lack of business sense of its members. A little cal- culation would have shown them that their undertaking was a gigantic affair.
Briefe eines unter dem 20 Germans in Texas possibility as the land might have been sold for some price, and money thus raised. Solms was friendly received in Texas by the president and members of Congress. The latter considered the presence of the German count in Texas as promising an important immi- gration of Germans. The count was unfavorably disposed toward Fischer's grant for the reason that he believed that he could obtain from the Texan Congress more favorable terms and a longer contract. He reported to the Directory in Germany that Fischer's grant was too far away in order to carry on trade with Mexico ; that it was 80 miles from the plantation of Nassau and miles from the coast; that the Indians still occupied the land and had to be expelled from it.
Had the suggestions of the prince been followed, the future troubles of the colonists might have been avoided. Their contract was signed June 24, , and by Septem- ber, , families must be brought over. This was in- creased to a period of six months longer on January 9, , so the Verein had only eight months and six days with which to fulfill the conditions of the contract. Letter under date of April 6, , p. His figures are as follows : For persons.
Provisions for 6 mo. The members now consisted of twenty-three nobles, of which the Countess zu Isenburg-Meerholz was one. They were to have the right to bring over any number of immigrants from to 6, and the time was extended to September i, , within which to fulfill the conditions. The "Weserzeitung," Bremen, September 25, , says, "that almost never before were seen so many emi- grants, among them many persons, who, in accordance with their dress and their many effects, seem to belong to the better class of emigrants.
They are the members of the first expedition destined for the colony of the Verein, in Texas. A physician, surgeon, geometer, engineer, carpenters, masons, saddlers, bakers, and many apothecaries, accompany the expedition. The ships con- tain the best kind of surgical instruments, machine parts, etc. Persons are sent to purchase cattle, seeds, etc. December 25, of that year, a Christmas festival was given by the prince to the children of the immigrants. The camp was then pitched at Spring Creek, beyond Victoria. During March, , the prince rode ahead, accompanied by some of his officers, to San An- tonio.
He left Bremen Sept. He went from Galveston to Indian Point and remained there two days. On Dec. Then journey to Victoria and was there three weeks. Moved forty miles into the interior. April 6th, he arrived at last at the settlement. His journey took him seven months. Quoted in Kordiil, p.
Germans in Texas 23 Germany, was laid out. The first wagons of the immigrants crossed the Guadaloupe March 21, The town was laid out beside the high steep banks of the Comal river which served as a sort of protection against the Indians. The location for picturesqueness and beauty could not be excelled. As wc stood viewing the romantic landscape, our companion, a Vir- ginian, calls out, 'There is nothing like it in the Old Domin- ion! This plain was bounded on the south by gently sloping hills, on the east by the Guadaloupe, on the north and northwest by the Comal.
Be- yond the Comal, a steep precipice of some feet or higher de- scends, which draws away in its northeastern direction to the other bank of the Guadaloupe. This precipice is covered with a thick forest of red cedars. The Guadaloupe, which flows east of the town, is a thirty- foot wide stream rushing over a rocky bed. The waters of both the Guadaloupe and the Comal have a purity which scarcely any of the mountain streams of the Alps can equal.
Just be- yond the city the Guadaloupe unites with the Comal. The settlers, however, joyous on ac- count of being freed from their long journey in the wilderness set forth to build their houses, and to regulate their homes. All streets crossed each other at right angles, and the main streets met in an open " Victoria Texas Advocate, Feb. Hospitals were built, and cannons placed in the city. On April 28, , the prince laid the foundations of a stronghold which he called "Sophienburg" after his lady- love.
The prince was not fitted to carry out such an undertaking. He was a typical noble of a small German State. He had an exaggerated idea of his own im- portance, and thought he could carry himself in America with the same attitude toward his people as he could in Germany. He rode around the country followed by a retinue of officers dressed in the fashion of German military officers. His train consisted of an architect, a cook, and a professional hunter jager.
They, of course, did not understand such conduct. It was entirely out of accord with the free and open life of the plains. He deserves great credit however for the sacrifices which he made, and the efforts he gave to try to better a bad condition of affairs. His greatest lack was, however, his little knowledge of business. Texas Quarterly, II, pp. Tribune, Jan. Kaiserl, Konigl, apostolischen Majestat Rittmeister Germans in Texas 25 The reports of the prince to the colonial directory in Ger- many show, however, that he understood the conditions of affairs in Texas; that he was active in the interests of the Verein and that he read correctly the motives of such men as Bourgeois d'Orvanne and Fischer.
He was evidently a dreamer and thought of establishing in Texas a German State that would gain for the Fatherland all of the commercial advantages which had accrued to England through the East India Company. He under- stood thoroughly what sort of land was needed to carry out the aims of the Verein and might have obtained it at much more favorable terms, had the German noblemen listened to his re- quests.
Fischer had caused the Verein to think that they had enough money to carry out the undertaking. They had not reckoned on prices in Texas. Prince Solms resigned his position and on February 24, , Baron von Meusebach was appointed his suc- cessor. On his way, he was met by Germans who presented complaints against the society. Roemer met him while in Texas and accompanied him on his expedition into the Indian country.
Roemer says that the new commissary-general began his activ- ity with the carrying-out of a more regular business policy and a more carefully systematized method of keeping the accounts. He im Konig Friedrich August von Sachsen 3. Cuirassier-Regiment, Gross- kreuz des konigl. Hannoverischen Guelphcn-, dcs Herzogel. Georg von Lucca. He studied jurisprudence and political science and finance in Bonn and Halle. He had held many offices in Germany before leaving for Texas. He was a diplomatist of great skill. This is shown by his treaty with the Indians and his relations with the Anglo-Americans.
He knew how to create respect and obedience. He was looked up to by the Indians. He was unpopular at first with the Germans, but later they came to know his real worth, and in they chose him as State Senator. He became a naturalized American citi- zen under the name of John O.townvegualangwind.gq/womens-studies/the-fall-121216.pdf
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He bore himself well under the heaviest stress of circumstances. Kapp says, had he remained in Germany, he would have risen to the highest position. On May 15, , Solms-Braunfels left, and when von Meusebach entered upon his work, he found affairs at a crisis. A number of colonists were on their way to Texas. The money had been spent. As soon as he arrived, he demanded an ac- counting from the treasurer of the Verein, which that official was unable to give. Prince Solms had left for Galveston shortly before the new director's arrival. Fest-Ausgabe, p. Fest-Ausgahe, hereafter, will be used in place of Entzuickelungs-Geschichte.
McCulloch County, Austin, ; also cf. Fest- Ausgabe, p. Germans in Texas 27 lot of immigrants arrived. In a letter dated November 30, Soergel states that the Verein secretary, Dr. Hill, told him that persons, in seventeen ships were leaving for Texas. He was in new straits. The treasury was empty, and this large mass of emi- grants was about to be thrust upon him.
Some 5, immigrants were to be landed on the coast and there was only a mere pittance with which to care for them. Twelve were from Antwerp, and twenty-four from Bremen. These ships landed 5, persons. Some 2, reached New Braunfels and Friedrichsburg. A thousand were left at Indian Point, and on the road towards New Braunfels. Five hundred returned to Germany. Fiir Auswanderungslustige! Leipzig, , p. S, Ansivers to Interrogatories. Roemer says the number was Roemer, p. Kapp states the number who died in the summer of , on the way, at New Braunfels and at Friedrichsburg, as They were huddled together in the holds, steerage, and on the decks of the ships like sheep, and when they reached shore, they were in a very weak condition.
They were covered with vermin. Hundreds died soon after they landed. Some 3, were left at Indianola. The shore was covered with improvised tents and huts, chests and cofifers, clothing, etc. Roemer says it would remind one of an Oriental caravan. After a journey of two months, only 2, out of 2, passengers in all the vessels, entered Galveston. They were then transported to Indian Point. It consisted of a few houses. Barracks of boards were built which afforded refuge for only a few.
The rest dwelt in tents. They had to wait more than six months along the low, un- healthy shore. The war with Mexico had taken all means of transportation. The price for transportation rose to enormous sums. There was not enough money among the poor immi- "' Letter quoted, Bracht,- p. This has reference to immigrants of Soergel, Alwin H. Leipzig, , pp. Soergel was an eye-witness of accounts he narrates ; also of.
Kapp, Aus und uber Amerika, p. Based mainly on Soergel; also, article by H. All are sub- stantially the same. Kapp says this condition was no exaggeration. He was in the colony in Germans in Texas 29 grants to purchase teams. Rain and north wind poured through the dwelHngs. Wood and water were lacking. They were sur- rounded by swamps in which mosquitoes swarmed, and fevers arose.
Rum holes increased their misery and changed men into beasts.
Many fell a prey to epidemics. Whole families betook themselves on the road to New Braunfels. The whole road was lined with corpses of dead or with dying men. In many instances the set- tlers along the way were forced to buiy the bodies of immi- grants who had been left by their companions to die by the way- side unpitied and alone. In the day was heard the cry of beasts of prey; in the night, the howl of wolves and the shrill cry of the Comanches.
One man left his wife to perish and later was left by his companions. Arrived in New Braunfels, conditions be- came worse. The place was without means of sustenance. The poor peasants tried to forget their misery by dancing and drink- ing. It is even stated that men were torn from their wives and buried before they were dead.
This was the condition of affairs that von Meusebach had to face. In the summer of '46, there were still several hundred persons camping on the coast. Things changed. The last immi- grant was brought to New Braunfels. Camps were pitched on both sides of the Comal and Guadaloupe rivers. Horses, oxen and cattle grazed beside hut or tent.
In March, , Meusebach raised money on credit, and arranged for the transportation of the immigrants. In the mid- dle of December, '45, he sent thirty-six men to break a way north of the Pedernales. In the beginning of , block-houses were built. This became the later settlement of Friedrichsburg. On April 23, , the first settlers were sent thither. They consisted of about twelve persons. As soon as possible the com- "' Kapp says two-thirds died of epidemic.
Soergel says one-third. Schubert and placed him in command of the new settlement. Schubert built here a wretched inn and made a journey to the limits of the land. This was in the territory of the Comanche Indians. In April, Meuse- bach betook himself to the Farm "Nassau" to obtain grain and supplies for the people in Indianola and New Braunfels but without any result.
Friedrichsburg num- bered 1, souls by August, He signed a treaty with the Indians. This was dedicated March 22, This society was the first German protestant association and the first incorporated com- pany in Comal county. Spies became Meusebach's successor in office as direc- tor general. Spies and Dr. Herff had arranged a special con- tract with the Verein for the settlement of a new colony. Castell is "' Ibid, p. Roemer's account, Roemer, Ch. Germans in Texas 31 to-day quite a settlement. Leiningen is a small settlement. Meerholz has disappeared. It was a communistic colony, and was named "Bettina" after the author, Bettina von Arnim.
Dresel was made general business agent of the society. He had charge of the finances of the society. A combat en- sued in which a man was killed. Spies and his confederates were tried for murder. This cost the Verein a large amount. Under its auspices, the first public holiday was celebrated July 4, of that year. The first number of the "Zeitung" contained a call of a committee of citizens to defend their rights against the Bastrop claimants and other separate claims. Roeder lost all. Half of this was reserved for the State.
The Union lost possession of all its lands. Quar- terly, III. He was appointed general agent of the society and was recognized as such by the Texan government. The Verein had great difficulty in maintaining its rights to the land grants which it had received, both from the Texan Republic and from the government of the State of Texas. The commissioners appointed by the latter issued grants of 1,, acres to the Verein. Fisher and Miller had assigned on Decem- ber 30, , its principal interest in the contract to the German Emigration Society, as the Verein was officially designated by the Texan government.
The expenses of the enterprise were enormous. The Society became badly in debt and the legislature of Texas passed a law Jan. The company was permitted to receive its share of the land direct from the state. On September 15, , the company assigned and trans- ferred to their Texan creditors all their property in Texas and all rights accruing to them by the colonization contract. After the creditors had thus gained the land from the Verein, the legis- lature took it from the former and granted it to the colonists or their assignees. Statutes of Texas Vol.
During the year , 8, Germans landed at the port of Galveston, and during three months previous to July, , 4, Germans had landed at that port. A certain Ludwig Martin was the moving spirit. He says that the members consisted of himself, Avhom he styles advocate of Freiburg, Graf von Cas- ' Rosenberg, p. Loher, p. Germans in Texas 33 tell, and railroad director, Ubaghs. It offered roseate prom- ises similar to those of the "Adelsverein," if that were possi- ble.
An agent was to accompany the emigrant to the place of abode. This came to naught, and sim- ply shows that the idea of the Verein still held root. After the catastrophe of the Adelsverein, emigration stopped until the Revolution of ' High officers. State offi- cials, aristocrats, teachers, merchants and peasants came in great numbers. The colony now became flourishing. Mills were established, and the industrious German people soon forgot the troubles of the forties.
Wies- baden, Leipzig, To be Continued. Copyrighted, , by J. The Discovery of the Mississippi. The first German upon the lower Mississippi was one of the last companions of the French explorer, La Salle. As the found- ing of the first settlement of Germans on the lower Mississippi also took place at a very early period in the history of Louisi- ana, we will first cast a glance into the history of the discovery of the Mississippi and the taking possession of the northern gulf coast by the French.
Twenty years later Ponce de Leon came to Florida, and in 15 19 Cortez began the conquest of the Aztec empire of Mexico. In the same year another Spaniard, by the name of Pifieda, sailed from Jamaica to circumnavigate Florida, which at that time was still thought to be an island; and as he always sailed along the northern gulf coast, he finally reached Mexico. For a long time it was believed that Pifieda on this voyage had discovered the Mississippi and called it "Rio del Espiritu Santo" ; but Hamilton, in his "Colonial Mobile," maintains that the river discovered by Piiieda was not the Mississippi, but the Mobile River, and that Piiieda passed the mouth of the Mississippi with- 34 The Settlement of the German Coast of Louisiana I35 out noticing it, it being hidden by sand banks, drift wood, and bushes.
In an expedition to Florida led by Panfilo de Nar- vaez failed, but, in April, , four of its members, among whom was Gabeza de Vaca, reached Mexico by land after many years of wandering. These men must have crossed the Missis- sippi on their way to Mexico, and from their voyage and that of Pineda date the claims of Spain for the ownership of the whole northern gulf coast from Florida to Mexico. Induced by de Vaca's glowing descriptions of the country, De Soto, in , began his adventurous expedition from Florida into the interior.
About the 30th degree of latitude, he discovered the Mississippi April, and found his grave in it; where- upon Moscoso, with the remnants of the expedition, floated down the Mississippi and reached the Spanish possessions on the gulf coast. This discovery was without any practical results, how- ever, as no second attempt to reach the mouth of the Mississippi was made for the next years.
Meanwhile the French had set foot on Canada Port Royal, later called Annapolis, ; Quebec, and discovered the upper Mississippi. Many years, however, passed before La Salle, coming from Canada, followed the great river southward in its whole length, reached its mouth, and there, on the 9th of April, , took possession of the Mississippi valley for France, calling it "Louisiana," in honor of the king of France, Louis XIV. Then he returned by the same way to Canada, and thence went to France to report on his discoveries and submit his plan to estab- lish communication between Canada and the Gulf of Mexico by means of the Mississippi, and to secure the Indian trade of these vast regions by a chain of forts.
La Salle's propositions found favor with the king of France, and on the 24th of July, , he sailed from La Rochelle for the Gult of Mexico, intending thence to enter the Mississippi and to found on its banks a French establishment. San Domingo was then and had been for many years the headquarters of the buc- caneers, whose calling was at that time considered a quite legiti- mate business, the riches of the Spanish silver ships and the many obstructions to commerce in Central and South America having, so to speak, provoked the other nations to smuggling and piracy.
Merchants and many other highly respectable people of Europe furnished and sent out privateers, and rejoiced at their golden harvests. French, English and Dutch adventurers soon congre- gated in San Domingo, and these were joined by many Germans who had grown up in the wild times of the Thirty Years' War, and could not find their way back to peaceful occupations. In this company La Salle's men gave themselves up to riotous living, in consequence of which many fell victims to disease, and La Salle was compelled to enlist new men.
The First German on the Lower Mississippi. Among the new men engaged in San Domingo by La Salle was a German, a buccaneer, an artillerist, who was known only by the name of "Hans ;" i. The French wrote his name "Hiens," but Hennepin, a Dutch contemporary, calls him "Hans," and all agree that he was a German. The record of La Salle's attempt to find the mouth of the Mississippi River from the Gulf of Mexico reveals a series of quarrels between the commanders, of misfortunes, errors and malice.
One of the four ships of his flotilla laden with thirty tons of ammunition and utensils and tools for his new colony, was cap- tured by the Spaniards near San Domingo, because Beaujeu refused to follow the course recommended by La Salle. The expedition landed in Matagorda Bay, in Texas Febru- ary, , where the frigate L'Aimable, on attempting to enter a river, was stranded.
Joutel, an eyewitness, says : "Circumstances reported by the ship's crew and those who saw the management were infallible tokens and proofs that the mischief had been done designedly, which was one of the blackest and most detestable actions man could be guilty of. Then Beaujeu abandoned La Salle, left with La Joli for France, and took the crew of L'Aimable with him, thus violating his agreement with La Salle, and leaving the latter behind with the La Belle with eight cannon and not a single cannon ball.
Finally, La Belle ran aground and was also lost. La Salle then built a fort in Texas Fort St. Louis for the protection of his people, and from there made several attempts to find the "fatal river," as he called the Mississippi. On one of these expeditions, which brought them up to the Coenis Lidians, Hans, the German buccaneer, almost lost his life. They were crossing a river, when Hans, "a German from Wittenburg" so Father Anastasius, a priest accompanying the expedition, calls him got stuck so fast in the mud "that he could scarcely get out.
This was to be a desperate attempt to march with a picked crew of seventeen men from Texas over- land to Canada to get succor, and on the way there to find the "fatal river. Twenty persons, among whom were seven women, were left behind in the Texas fort, where they eventually perished.
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In this plan Duhaut, of whom all seem to have been afraid, was openly defied by Hans, the German buccaneer, and Father Anastasius, an eye witness, reports as follows : "Those who most regretted the murder of their commander and leader had sided with Hiens, who, seizing his opportunity, two days after sought to punish crime by crime. In our presence he shot the murderer of La Salle through the heart with a pistol.
He died on the spot, unshriven, unable even to utter the names of Jesus and Mary. Hiens also wished to kill L'Archeveque and thus com- pletely avenge the death of La Salle, but Joutel conciliated him. This he received.
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Only a few of La Salle's last companions reached Canada. Two of them, Father Anastasius and Joutel, published accounts of La Salle's last voyage, which have been followed in this nar- rative. Gleditschen's Son, Leipsic, Ten years passed before steps were again taken to found a French settlement on the northern gulf coast.
After ascending the river as far as the village of the Oumas, opposite the mouth of Red River, he sent his barges back to the mouth of the Mississippi, while he with two canoes entered Bayou Manchac, discovered Lakes Maurepas and Pont- chartrain, and reached Ship Island by this route in advance of his barges. Despairing of getting his big ships over the bar of the Mis- sissippi, he resolved to make a settlement on the coast of the Gulf of Mexico; and on the 8th of April, , active work was begun at the present site of the town of Ocean Springs, Missis- sippi, on "Fort Maurepas," the first French establishment in Louisiana.
The main settlement, however, was ''Fort Louis de la Louisiane," founded in , "sixteen leagues from Massacre Dauphine Island, at the second bluff" on the Mobile River. Near there Creoles still fondly point out the site of 'Vieux Fort,' and there French maps, as early as , place a 'vieux fort, detruit. There, then, on a wooded spot, twenty feet above the river, hardly deserving the name of bluff, save above ordinary high water, was Fort de la Louisiane, commanding the wide, turbid river.
It was not one of the many Forts St. In a great rise in the river occurred, which overflowed both the fort and the little town that had sprung up around it. A change of base was then decided upon, and "Fort de la Louis- iane" was built on the site of the present city of Mobile. In 17 10 the old fort was abandoned. The Settlement of the German Coast of Louisiana 41 Here, at the old and at the new Fort de la Loiiisiane, or rather on Datiphine Island, at the entrance of the harbor of Mobile, where the large vessels from Europe discharged their passengers and cargoes, around the Bay of Biloxi and on Ship Island Isle aux Vaisseaux in the Gulf of Mexico, the life of the colony of Louisiana centered for the next twenty years.
Here the principal events took place, and here also landed the first Germans. In the beginning of the colony the French committed the grave error of not giving any attention to agriculture. Two years after the founding of Mobile, in , the civilian part of the population of Louisiana consisted of only twenty-three families, with ten children, who lived along the shore in huts with palmetto or straw roofs, fishing and hunting.
It is true that they also had little gardens around their huts, but for pro- visions they relied on the vessels from France. They pre- tended that nothing could be grown on the sandy soil of the 42 The Settlement of the German Coast of Louisiana gulf coast, and they complained not only of the soil, but of the water also. Says Dupratz 1, : "The soil and the water of Mobile are not only barren as regards the propagation of plants and fishes; the nature of the water and of the soil contributes also to the prevention of the in- crease of the animals ; even the women have experienced this.
I have it from Madam Hubert, the wife of the 'Commissionaire Ordonnateur,' that at the time when the French were at that post there were seven or eight sterile women who all became mothers from the time when they established themselves with their hus- bands on the banks of the Mississippi, whence the capital had been transferred. The truth is that the first colonists did not want to work, and the governors of that period complained bitterly of that fact.
The people expected to find gold, silver, and pearls as the Spaniards had done in Mexico. The French also expected to do a great deal of business with the Spaniards in Mexico. Since the expected mineral treasures of the gulf coast, how- ever, have not been discovered even to-day — since the Spaniards, who claimd the whole northern gulf coast for themselves, were unwilling to trade with the French — since the trade with the Indians and with the Canadian hunters was too insignificant, — since France, whose treasury had been emptied by Louis XIV.
The Settlement of the German Coast of Louisiana 43 Louisiana was for many years in a precarious condition and at times on the very verge of ruin.
Thus the colony continued until, in , Crozat, a French merchant, took in hand its management as a commercial venture. He received the trade monopoly for fifteen years, but after the first five years he found himself compelled to ask the, regent of France to rescind his contract, which request was granted. This company received the trade monopoly for twenty-five years. It was granted the right to issue an unlimited number of shares of stock, and the privilege not only of giving away land on con- ditions, but also of selling it outright.
For these and other considerations the company obligated itself to bring into the colony during the life of its franchise at least white people and negroes. The shares of the company were "guaranteed" by its assets. These were: first, the supposedly inexhaustible mineral treas- ures of Louisiana; secondly, the fabulous wealth of its soil, which was at that time not known at all, as "nothing could be grown on the sandy soil of the gulf coast," the only part then inhabited ; and, thirdly, the immense revenues to be derived from the trade monopoly.
In order to develop all these sources of wealth to their fullest capacity, agriculture was now also to be introduced on a grand scale. For this purpose large tracts of land, concessions, were now given to such rich men in France as would obligate themselves to bring the necessary number of people from Europe to till the soil. One of the largest concessioners was John Law, the presi- dent of the company, who caused two concessions to be given to himself.
The larger one was on the lower Arkansas River, 44 TJie Settlement of the German Coast of Louisiana on whicli he obligated himself to settle many people, for whose protection against the Indians he promised to keep a company of dragoons. His second concession was seven lieiies below New Orleans, on the Mississippi River, below English Turn, and ad- joining one of the concessions to the minister of war, Le Blanc, whose principal possessions were on the Yazoo River.
As a shrewd business man, which he no doubt was, John Law knew that, to make his venture a success, he needed not only capital but also people able and willing to toil for him; and, as he knew from the reports of the former governors how little adapted to agriculture the former French colonists had proven themselves, he resolved to engage for his own conces- sions Germans from the country on both sides of the river Rhine, and from Switzerland. A great agitation was now begun, partly to induce rich people to take shares in the general enterprise and buy land for their own account, and partly to entice poor people to become engages hired field hands for the company or for the different concessioners.
After a while, land was also to be given to the poor engages to enable. A German Description of Louisiana in the Year About this time, pamphlets in several languages were printed, containing extracts from letters of people who had already set- tled in Louisiana, and giving glowing descriptions of the country. Such a pamphlet, in German, which, perhaps, came to Louisiana with one of the German pioneer families, was found by the author some twenty-five years ago in a little book shop in Ex- change Alley, New Orleans, and at his suggestion it was bought for the Fisk Library, where it can be seen.
It was printed by J. Friedrich Gleditschen's seel. The northern lim- its are entirely unknown. In , a Canadian, M. But there is still another district known of over miles, for which reason it is almost to be supposed that this country extends to the 'Polum Arcticum. The abundance of the country can- not be easily imagined. Deer is the most useful game, and the French carry on a great "negotium" in doeskins, which they purchase from the savages. Ten to twelve leaden bullets are given in exchange for such a skin.
The principal things, however, are the mines : "The land is filled with gold, silver, copper, and lead mines. If one wishes to hunt for mines, he need only go into the country of the Natchitoches.
Feuilleton 353 — Where is Elisabeth Guertler?
There we will surely 'draw pieces of silver mines out of the earth. The savages will make them known to us. Soon we shall find healing remedies for the most dangerous wounds, yes, also, so they say, infallible ones for the fruits of love. About New Orleans a man writes to his wife in Europe : "I betook myself to where they are beginning now to build the capital, New Orleans. Its circumference will be one mile. The houses are poor and low, as at home with us in the country.
They are covered with large pieces of bark and strong reeds. Every- body dresses as he pleases, but all very poorly. One's outfit con- sists of a suit of clothes, bed, table, and trunks. Tapestry and fine beds are entirely unknown. The people sleep the whole night in the open air. I am as safe in the most distant part of the town as in a citadel. Although I live among savages and Frenchmen, I am in no danger. People trust one another so much that they leave gates and doors open. From this basis it follows that acres, which, as stated already, cost Talers when purchased, are really worth 30, Talers.
For this reason one can easily understand why these shares may yet rise very high," No wonder that the agitation on both banks of the river Rhine, from Switzerland to Holland, bore fruit, and that thou- sands of people got themselves ready to emigrate to Louisiana. Ten Thousand Germans on the Way to Louisiana. German historians state that, as a result of this agitation, 10, Germans emigrated to Louisiana. This seems a rather large number of people to be enticed by the promoter's promises to leave their fatherland and emigrate to a distant country; but we must consider the pitiable condition under which these people lived at home.
Never before nor afterwards were such barbarous deeds perpetrated as by Turenne, Melac, and other French generals in the Palatinate; and whether French troops invaded Germany or Germans marched against the French, it was always the Palatinate and the other countries on both banks of the Rhine that suffered most through war and its fearful consequences; pestilence, famine, and often also religious persecution, — for the ruler of a country then often prescribed which religion his subjects must follow. So they went forth, not only from the Palatinate, but also from Alsace, Lor- raine, Baden, Wiirtemberg, the electorates of Mayence and Treves Mainz and Trier , and even from Switzerland, some of whose sons were already serving in the Swiss regiments of Halwyl and Karer, sent by France to Louisiana.
The statement that 10, Germans left their homes for Louisiana is also supported by unimpeachable French testimony. The Jesuit Charlevoix, who came from Canada to Louisiana in December, , and passed "the mournful wrecks" of the set- tlement on John Law's grant on the Arkansas River, mentions in his letter "these 9, Germans, who were raised in the Palatinate.
Only a small portion of these 10, Germans ever reached the shores of Louisiana. We read that the roads leading to the French ports of embarkation were covered with Germans, but that many broke down on their journey from hardships and privations. In the French ports, moreover, where no prepara- tions had been made for the care of so many strangers, and where, while waiting for the departure of the vessels, the emi- grants lay crowded together for months, and were insufficiently fed, epidemic diseases broke out among them and carried off many.
Indeed, the church registers of Louisiana contain proofs of this fact. In the old marriage records, which always give the names of the parents of the contracting parties, the writer has often found the remark that the parents of the bride or of the bridegroom had died in the French ports of L'Orient, La Rochelle, or Brest. Others tired of waiting in port, and, perhaps.
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The Settlement of the German Coast of Louisiana 49 becoming discouraged, gave up the plan of emigrating to Louis- iana, looked for work in France, and remained there. Then came the great loss of human life on the voyage across the sea. Such a voyage often lasted several months, long stops often being made in San Domingo, where the people were ex- posed to infection from tropical diseases. When even strong and healthy people succumbed to diseases brought on by the pri- vations and hardships of such a voyage, by the miserable fare, by the lack of drinking water and disinfectants, and by the ter- rible odors in the ship's hold, — how must these emigrants have fared, weakened as they were from their journey through France and from sickness in the French ports?
At one time only forty Germans landed in Louisiana of who had gone on board. Martin speaks of Germans who landed out of Sickness and starvation, however, were not the only dan- gers of the emigrant of those days. At that time the buccaneers, who had been driven from Yucatan by the Spaniards in 7, were yet in the Gulf of Mexico, and pursued European vessels because these, in addition to emigrants, usually carried large quantities of provisions, arms, ammunition, and money; and many a vessel that plied between France and Louisiana was never heard of again.
In a French ship with " very sick Germans" on board was captured by buccaneers near the Bay of Samana in San Domingo. After considering all this we are ready to approach the question of how many Germans really left France for Louisiana. This statement, if not correct, comes evidently so near to the truth that we may accept it.
To this it may be added that according to my own searching inquiries, and after the examination of all the well-known author- ities, as well as of copies of many official documents until recently unavailable, I have come to the conclusion that of those Ger- mans who left Europe for Louisiana, only about one-third — 50 The Settlement of the German Coast of Louisiana — actually reached the shores of the colony.
By this I do not mean to say that Germans settled in Louisiana, but only that reached the shores and were disembarked in Biloxi and upon Dauphine Island, in the harbor of Mobile. How many of them perished in those two places will be told in another part of this work. French Colonists. Besides John Law, who enlisted Germans, the Western Company and the other concessioners also carried on an agita- tion for the enlistment of engages.
How this was done, and what results were obtained with the French colonists, is de- scribed by the Jesuit Charlevoix, an eye witness, who came to Louisiana in to report on the condition of the colony. He says : "The people who are sent there are miserable wretches driven from France for real or supposed crimes, or bad conduct, or per- sons who have enlisted in the troops or enrolled as emigrants, in order to avoid the pursuit of their creditors.
Both classes regard the country as a place of exile. Everything disheartens them; nothing interests them in the progress of a colony of which they are only members in spite of themselves. The Chevalier Champigny in his Memoire La Haye, expresses himself stronger: "They gathered up the poor, mendicants and prostitutes, and embarked them by force on the transports. On arriving in Louisi- ana they were married and had lands assigned to them to cultivate, but the idle life of three-fourths of these folks rendered them unfit for farming.
You cannot find twenty of these vagabond fami- lies in Louisiana now. Most of them died in misery or returned to France, bringing back such ideas which their ill success had inspired. The most frightful accounts of the country of the Miss- issippi soon began to spread among the public, at a time when Ger- man colonists were planting new and most successful establish- ments on the banks of the Mississippi, within five or seven leagues from New Orleans.
This tract, still occupied by their descendants, is the best cultivated and most thickly settled part of the colony, and I regard the Germans and the Canadians as the founders of all our establishments in Louisiana. Five thousand people are said to have disappeared from Paris in April, , alone. And again : "Prisoners were set free in Paris in September, 17 19, and later, under the condition that they would marry prostitutes and go with them to Louisiana. The newly married couples were chained together and thus dragged to the port of embarkation. The complaints of the concessioners and of the company itself concerning this class of French immigrants and engages were soon so frequent and so pressing, that the French govern- ment, in May, , prohibited such deportations.
This, how- ever, did not prevent the shipping of a third lot of lewd women in 1 72 1, the first and the second having been sent in and Arrival of the First Immigration en Masse. The first immigration en masse took place in the year There landed then in Louisiana, which at that time had only inhabitants, on one day persons, so that the population on that one day was more than doubled.
How many Germans were among these I cannot say ; but, as several concessions are mentioned to which some of these immi- grants were sent, and as the church registers of Louisiana men- tion names of Germans who served on these concessions, we may assume that there were some Germans among them. In the spring and summer of immigration to Louis- iana was suspended on account of the war which had broken out between France and Spain.
The Louisiana troops took Pensacola from Spain, lost it again, and retook it.
- Individual Offers.
- Genuine Bargains?
- Adam Crabtree;
- Within in a Yard of Hell;
- Understanding Salvation;
- The Final Cry of Ecstasy.
In front of Dauphine Island, in the harbor of Mobile, where there were some concessioners with their engages, a Spanish flotilla ap- peared, shutting off the island for ten days. The crew of a 52 The Settlement of the German Coast of Louisiana Spanish gunboat plundered the property of the concessioners lying on the shore, but were repulsed in a second attempt by the French solders, some Indians, and the people engaged by the concessioners.
Access to manufacturers’ warehouses allows indication of higher availabilities
A Misstatement. This report is taken from "Relation Penicaut. French, whose "Historical Collection of Louisiana" is well known, translated it and published it in the first volume of his "Louisiana and Florida. For in the first place, the original text of "Relation Penicaut" which Margry printed in his volume V. They cleared the land at the site of the present Biloxi, built a fort, houses, and barracks for officers and soldiers, magazines, and "even a cistern.
Governor Bienville also took up his residence there on the 9th of September, , but transferred it to New Orleans in the month of August, From this time until the beginning of the Spanish period, in , the Swiss formed an integral part of the French troops in Louisiana. There were always at least four companies of fifty men each in the colony. They regularly received new addi- tions, and, at the expiration of their time of service, they usually took up a trade, or settled on some land contiguous to the Ger- man coast.
It was even a rule to give annually land, provisions, and rations to two men from each Swiss company to facilitate their settling. According to the church records of Louisiana marriage and death registers , the great majority of these Swiss soldiers were Germans from all parts of the fatherland under Swiss or Alsatian officers. Of the latter, Philip Grondel, of Zabern, be- came celebrated as the greatest fighter and most feared duellist of the whole colony.
He was made chevalier of the military order of St. Louis, and commander of the Halwyl regiment of Swiss soldiers.