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  5. Egyptian Art and Architecture Essay examples

They are almost alive. Large, brilliantly-colored images of gods, the famed leader Chan Muan, nobles, a procession, musicians, war, priests and prisoners adorn the walls of three rooms. Overcome by the beauty and power of the murals, Manal asked, "What colors did they use? Maybe they were of a higher quality than what the Egyptians used. Ours were preserved by the dry climate, but these have survived so vividly in a wet, humid, difficult climate.

After Bonampak, Manal had to leave our private tour, and she and Yolanda hugged good-bye. As I continued on with Yolanda to other ruins and other sites, I understood that both she and Manal were fired up by questions raised when they were together. But, understandingly, with their formal training, they were cautious about stating that there were any historical connections without visible, tangible proof. All photos are by Paul Ross. I find it interesting that Judie, untrained in archeology, is free to see similarities, posit connections, and think about ways in which the cultures in different parts of the world might have connected.

Perhaps the underlying message is for all of us to look, to see, to think about connection rather than focusing on difference. The Olmec stone heads and people are clearly ancient Chinese. That hat the stone heads wear is classic Chinese Shang dynasty and the facial features are too! Shang dynasty collapsed about BC then they ended up in mesoAmerica. They claim Ben Franklin was black! But do some research on the Olmec art too , you will see dragons and Buddha babies and Asian slit eyes on all statues not to mention jade and on and on.

Your racist comment about Europeans is what creates more racism. Go to school and learn about the real things Africans have done. Try to be a less angry person. In this documentary he looks for the great similarities in both cultures and a third party: the civilization of Cambodia Angkor Wat. If you haven't seen this documentary, I'll suggest you watch it. But another thing, there is a also a great connection between the South-Americans and the Cambodians.

And if you take a close look at some of their sculptures and other cultural elements, there is great resemblance, as well as in the architecture.

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Now, the Cambodians were not Austronesian, but they were heavily influenced by the Austronesians in the east: the kingdom of Champa. And also this kingdom show great resemblence in their cultural elements with the South-Americans. And some historians even claim that the predecessor state of Kampujadesa the ancient Cambodian kingdom , Funan, was in fact controlled by Austronesians. And furthermore, the king who reigned when Angkor Wat was build, was said to be half Malay cited in old Chinese records. There are many theories about the Egyptians having contact with the South-Americans, and one historian even proved this fact by building an ancient Egyptian ship and sailing across the Ocean.

If we are making theories like many historians have done before, like Hancock, it is also possible that this knowledge was passed on to the Austronesian, who in addition were legendary seafarers, due to their outstanding navigation skills, which could have been in effect due to the great knowledge of the galaxy. I'll suggest you watch the documentary, made by Hancock, and I'm realy interested in what you think.

Furthermore, if you check out the similarities in culture and architect from both the people of Kambujadesa and Champa, I think you would be really surprised on the astonishing similarities, also described in the documentary, except for the link between Austronesians and South-Americans. I think there are connections and have read about this for years and have visited several MAYAN sites. But I admit to having stopped reading when she wrote "Mexican ruins.

That would be as egregious as calling Hadrian's Wall an "English ruin. I've noticed that the poor black African isn't given any credit for anything in world history. The Arabs claim they were the ancient Egyptians. The Mexicans claim that Mayans were indigenous and just appeared out of thin air. Even when the evidence of thick lips and flat noses on sculptures are right in your face as evidence.

Ancient Egypt: Civilization and Society

Common sense tells you if the first man and woman came from Ethiopia and black men and women roamed the Earth for tens of thousands of years then all primitive settlements throughout the world of places like Greece, Xia Asian Dynasty, Mayans, Israel, etc. The gene for white skin came about less than 10, years ago in the Caucus Mountains area. You will not find a mummy with white skin older than 10, as DNA testing has shown. Surprise Surprise. The brown skin you all have you guys didn't come from whites.

And Mexicans fiercely hold on to their Spanish ancestry who mutilated and murdered those Indians but shun their black Indian side. They come across as being just as racist as some whites. The gene for white skin?? All of your claims are blatant lies. I can't stand people like you who are either totally illiterate or purposefully spreading racist nonsense.

Ancient Egyptian Art And Art Essay

The ancient Egyptians were a branch off of the Sumerian people who are closest to a group in modern day Iraq. They were Caucasian with darkish skin which only comes from the sun and varying amounts of melanin. Modern India people are Caucasian. Those Olmec stone heads are Chinese. The hat is classic Shang dynasty of bc after their empire collapsed they sailed to mesoamerica. You must also look at Olmec art. Just look at the statues all dragons, buddah babies and the classic Chinese eye shape on all people. This is only a small example there's tons of other proof too like jade and other China area items.

That's where they get the pyramid from who inturn got it from Sumerians. The Tower of Babel which has been found, is Sumerian and then they , after fighting with immigrants, branched off to create ancient Egyptians. There's even more proof of that! They left behind stone pallets of the story how they left Sumer and conquered the local tribes so they could creat the land of Horus by "the followers of Horus". Most average people only know what they see on TV and news so this amazing real evidence is only there for people who go looking.

Sadly that is why so many clueless people come to blogs and post this crap they claim is true. I'm an archaeologist so I read all science journals but I'm so irritated by so many comments on this blog. They are lies and made up stories with a racist slant. Read the work of David Rohl he's the best for that area. More specifically there are a large number of genes working together to decide what color you come out.

That is why there's such an array of hair and skin shades.

Ancient History & Civilisation

How many genes you have of each type pulls your skin and hair one way or another. We people of African descent don't have to wait on other people to validate us, We know that we have to tell our on History, where ever black people are slavery did not just bring us there a lot of us was already there. Sharon I agree with you if we wait on other people to tell our truths, they will not do it. We are everywhere. Yes the Mayan and the Egyptians had cultural ties, let others disprove it.

There is no way two separate cultural going to build the same structure in two separate parts of the world with no connection. I guess these people sit down and study ways to tell people lies. I heard the same lie when I when to Egypt from the tour guide, when one lady asked about the skin color of the Egyptian Soldiers, " don't matter about the skin color that not important". I don't know why people, of all race and cultures, are so against admitting that all people have been intermarrying since the beginning of sex! Black people were active and mixed into the Egyptian culture after they settled in the Nile from Sumer.

It's ridiculous to deny this. Most people only see 2 or 3 of the big Olmec heads and thats it but there are tons of other ones as well as statues that are not just heads. Also it is finally starting to be accepted that the out of Africa theory is not correct. Over the years there has been so much physical evidence piling up now they cant deny it.

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We, modern man, has been around at least for 4 million years. Graham Hancock and many others have proved beyond a shadow of a doubt that there was a global very advanced civilization that spread throughout the globe and then, after the great flood, the continents were split up and we all became separated.

That is when the different languages evolved and why so many languages are so similar and why ALL cultures have the same historic myths and stories. That is why there are pyramids all over the globe. The same advanced people built them. I think it was there before the cataclysm and maybe even part of the cause. According to many scientists, especially Chris Dunn www.

He shows exactly how it worked. This is mentioned many times in the Bible also it says those were the colors of Noah's 3 sons. I'm sure that is not meant literal it is some parable or something. I'm still studying this. But its fascinating! If you can remember that the ancient writings originally were written as a way to pass on ancient knowledge to all people but sadly many evil men took control of them, hid many of them even till this day, and they now have become guilty by association, it has a stigma attached to it because so many uneducated redneck type of people have latched onto it and now people think to read the bible means we will be like these uneducated people.

It's a shame. Human being. A lot of info real about our human history is in those books. They are not myths they are parables to teach people in ALL languages and also in the future. For example, Jesus spoke about the ego but that word was not invented until Freud came along so he had to use the lion as a substitute. That way he knew we could all learn. Anyway, I'm going off track. Don't forget we are all mixed and there are NO genes for race!

Purpose built monumental statues of the pharaoh, Ancient Egypt - Civilisations - BBC Two

None for black people , Mongoloid or white people There is no gene for skin color either. There is a gene for melanin and they simply just have less or more that is all. There is a gene for curly hair. Until you can see them in person. Anyone who says otherwise is a liar or sadly misinformed. I don't get the racist anger I see on this board, or any other place for that matter. There are black archeologist too you know.

You don't need to wait for anyone, you are correct. But white people, scientists, academics, etc That is BS. But its from ALL of us. They lie about our origins and push Darwin BS when there still has never been 1 single piece of physical evidence. And NO I'm not a creationist from the Bible. I have no idea how we began but it wasn't Darwins way. It is not singling anyone out. We, all humans, were not from apes. Please don't buy into anything just because someone told you so. The modern Maya have many of the features present in the Olmec heads and trying to claim that they are African in origin is stealing the history of the indigenous peoples of the Americas.

I would be happy to give you details as to why, but some people always assume zebras when they hear hoofbeats. You missed the big picture. It's clearly not about the heads alone. If I write a 1, page essay, and you write almost the same essay 7, miles away African people are not the only people in the world to have the facial features depicted in the statues. Indeed those features are present in modern Mayan people to this day. So all I'm saying is indigenous Americans made statues that looked like them. I have no clue why people can't accept that.

It's ridiculously obvious. Like why couldn't it be that they made statues?

Egyptian Art and Architecture Essay examples

Were they not capable of it or something? Why is it only possible to you that Africans influenced the Olmec? Why couldn't they have done it on their own? You claim it's not just the heads, but their religions, calendars, systems of agriculture, and genetic legacies are wildly different as well. So if it's not about the heads, you might want to say what it is that is so similar because to the educated observer there's a huge amount of obvious differences. Additionally writing the same essay independently despite being separated by many miles describes the invention of calculus.

But I would point out, this very much isn't the same essay if you look closely. No one ever said facial features cannot be similar Again, it was everything together that matters. Math is not an invention It's a recorded observation. I observe that poison ivy has 3 leaves. A similar plant 7, miles away has 3 leaves. I didn't invent anything. I only observed what was already there. An essay on the other hand is thousands of characters put together from a person's random musings Now, for the Olmec to create a whole society that is clearly based on a society thousands of miles away That is thousands of flukes.

It's a statistical improbability. Did every human culture invent iron working? Even stranger would be an isolated civilization inventing these and then another across the world inventing the exact same things This is what you are proposing Let me tell you hon, one thing most cultures have in common is a phrase to describe why your logic is illogical. Therefore, one origin. Architecture, gods, clothing, religion, science, writing, art, and tradition I'm sorry I brought this up, but calculus is not an observation. Basically it was just a rectangle of linen, knee-length, which was wrapped around the waist and anchored in front by knots or sashes or by a simple overlap and tuck-in.

Then some Egyptian Beau Brummell decided to have his kilt pleated; a rival lengthened the material and arranged the long overlapping end in a series of folds, fastened in front so that it fell like a pleated apron over the front of the thighs. One variant shortened the ends and brought them up in a sharp curve to meet at the waist; the resultant gap in front was filled in by a stiffened piece of material like a phallic sheath. The so-called bag tunic was a piece of cloth folded over and sewed up the sides, leaving open slits for the arms and a hole cut out for the head.

Both sexes wore cloaks and mantles. Winter nights in Egypt can be chilly, even in the south. He might also wear a two-piece outfit consisting of a pleated skirt and a plain shirt with wide, pleated sleeves. The shirt was collarless and tied at the neck. There are many variations in the standard costume, some of them depending on the occupation of the wearer.

Field-workers, men and women alike, wore only a loincloth or short kilt. The graceful acrobats and the dainty little serving girls who waited on guests at parties were adorned only with narrow girdles and strings of beads. The vizier affected a straight, unpleated robe which fell from below the armpits to the ankles; it was held up by narrow tapes around the neck. Sailors, and perhaps sportsmen, seem to have preferred an odd nether garment made of leather cut into an openwork, weblike pattern, with a solid patch left on the seat.

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Priests wore various ornaments to indicate rank; the most picturesque uniform was that of the Sem priest, a leopard skin arranged so that the snarling head lay on his breast. Although most people went barefoot, they did wear sandals when they got dressed up. The gold and silver shoes, of which a few examples have been found, were probably only for funerary use. They certainly would have been hideously uncomfortable in the hot climate of Egypt—but then, people are notoriously willing to suffer in order to be beautiful. These descriptions of costume come from painting and sculpture.

The marvelous climate of Egypt preserves fragile materials remarkably well, but, as it happens, mummies were usually buried with no covering except the mummy wrappings. However, we do have a surprising number of garments which were actually worn, and these shed some interesting sidelights on the fashion story told by the monuments. The oldest surviving dress in the world comes from a First Dynasty tomb at Tarkhan. It is almost five thousand years old. Years later someone found the dress in a pile of dirty linen rags Petrie had brought back from Tarkhan, and it was carefully restored.

Can you imagine ironing the pleats in a dress five thousand years old?! Sleeves and yoke were intricately knife-pleated, and the skirt was a separate piece, sewn to the yoke. Two other garments are somewhat unusual. They consist of a network of colored beads, arranged in symmetrical patterns. Dresses like these are shown in some reliefs and sculptures; they are worn by goddesses and by servant girls.

The ones in question had to be painstakingly reconstructed, since the thread holding the beads in place had rotted, and I wish I had the space to describe the expertise and patience necessary for this job. Dresses like these, which were more common than was formerly believed, were usually worn over a simple linen sheath. In either case, jolly old Snefru must have enjoyed himself a good deal. But the bead dresses would have been hard to sit on. The gold coffins and mask, the shrines, the jewelry, have obscured some of the less conspicuous but equally important objects.

Among these were garments once worn by Tutankhamon and packed carefully into chests and boxes so that he would be just as fashionable in the world of the dead. One of the first objects to catch the eyes of the excited discoverers of Tutankhamon was a gorgeous painted chest, with scenes of the king hunting and fighting in battle. It is so beautiful that one forgets it was not an object in itself.

When he first opened the chest, Carter found a pair of sandals on top and, to the left of them, a crumpled bundle which his expert eye immediately recognized as a royal robe. Its surface was entirely covered with a network of faience beads, arranged in squares with a gold sequin filling in each alternate square. The robe was bordered with bands of tiny colored glass beads, arranged in patterns. The patterns could still be seen, but all the thread which had held the beads in place had rotted away, and the slightest movement was sufficient to jar the loosened beads into a meaningless jumble.

How on earth, Carter wondered, could he get this unique object out of the chest without losing the design of the beads? This robe had been tossed onto the floor, and when the priestly restorers came to straighten up the tomb they did not fold the garment neatly, but wadded it up and jammed it into the box. He might have stiffened the cloth and fixed the beads in place by means of wax or some other substance, but then he might not have been able to unstiffen it in order to see what the underneath portions of the robe were like.

Something had to go, either cloth or pattern, and Carter decided to sacrifice the cloth. He picked it out, fragment by rotting fragment, and removed the decoration in its original pattern. Once this tedious task was finished, Carter was not even halfway through with the chest. Luckily the sandals were in good condition and could easily be removed. Under them and the robe was a second layer—three pairs of sandals made of leather elaborately decorated with gold. Two pairs were of the type that some of us still wear during the summer, with one strap coming up between the toes to join a band encircling the instep.

The stem was inlaid with tiny bits of gem material, and the flower was attached to the wide side straps, which were gracefully curved and beautifully inlaid. The third set of footwear was a pair of slippers; heelless, they had leather toes and sides covered with little golden sequins. Under the sandals Carter found a sadly decayed mass which was beyond hope of preservation. He thought there were at least seven different garments tangled up in the bundle, all covered with spangles and sequins and rosettes of precious metal. Two other robes, bundled hastily into another box in the Annex of the tomb, had resisted time and decay somewhat better.

Carter believed them to be ceremonial garments. Both were shaped like long, loose vestments, with rich, tapestry-woven decoration and fringe. One had needlework of palmettes, desert flowers and animals in a broad pattern at the hem and at the neck opening. Another was covered with colored rosettes, flowers, and cartouches woven into the fabric, and its neck opening had the shape of a falcon with outspread wings. Some statues depict men and women wearing embroidered or woven robes, but these are rare.

We wonder, therefore, whether the representations tell the whole story. Maybe the colorful woven garments had a specific function ritual! The conventions of Egyptian art limited poses and attitudes, so perhaps they limited clothing styles as well. The Egyptians had no complexes about nakedness.

Generally speaking, the richer you were, the more clothes you wore, at least in public. When we talk about hairstyles we are also talking about wigs. They were worn by both men and women. Most were of human hair. During the New Kingdom, elaboration in clothing was accompanied by increasingly fancy coiffures. Most of the hairdos shown in tombs must have been wigs; it would have taken hours to produce all those curls and braids and ringlets. Some of the styles are enormously puffed, like the bouffant hairdos of today. When her own locks were inadequate they were padded out with hairpieces, and when she tired of black or brown hair she could dye it red with henna.

Other popular styles were the long, shoulder-length bob and the short cap of tight curls set in formal rows. In the New Kingdom a new coiffure swept the country, at least among noblemen. It was cut in two layers. The top consisted of long, thin sausage curls or tightly crimped locks, and the under layer was made up of rows of shorter curls or marcelled waves hanging to the shoulders.

This is one of the reasons why some of the sculptured heads of the period are very hard to identify. We are somewhat degenerate ourselves, so the hairstyles popular with some of our young people may tend to prove this thesis. However, the ladies of the Fourth Dynasty—a period of classic dignity, with no discernibly nasty habits—also favored a mannish haircut upon occasion. Also, while fashions in clothing and hairstyles may be bound up with cultural progress and cultural decline, I have yet to see anyone prove it.

I suspect the reliefs do not tell all there is to be told about hairstyles. This suspicion is based on the mummy of a middle-aged woman who was found among the royal mummies of Deir el Bahri. She has the most extraordinary hairdo for an Egyptian woman. As a rule, facial hair was not cultivated by the Egyptian male—nor, I hardly need say, by the female. At certain periods neat little mustaches were worn, and sometimes beards seem to have been fashionable. But the Egyptian gentleman, and peasant, was usually clean-shaven.

The long stiff beards worn by kings for ceremonial reasons were artificial. Although some robes and dresses were woven in colors, the Egyptians usually preferred to wear white clothing and depended on their ornaments for color. Egyptian jewelry is marvelous; the craftsmen of the earliest periods had attained real excellence. Inlay, embossing, filigree, gilding, and plating—they could do most of the things modern jewelers can do. One of their supreme achievements was granulated gold work, in which tiny spherical grains of gold are fused onto the golden background. They also excelled at a technique which looks like cloisonne: instead of enamel, bits of precious stones, faience, or glass were set into cells outlined by thin gold strips.

The gems used in jewelry were semiprecious stones; except for an isolated case of pearls, none of the precious stones were known to the ancient Egyptians, although emeralds do occur in the eastern desert. Carnelian, turquoise, garnet, feldspar, rock crystal, obsidian, and lapis lazuli were favored. The most useful and ubiquitous material used for jewelry—and other objects—was faience.