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Author Sullivan, Mark P. Specialist in Latin American Affairs. Publisher Library of Congress. Congressional Research Service. Place of Publication: Washington D. About Browse this Partner. What Descriptive information to help identify this report. Foreign economic relations -- U.

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RL, Jones. In this context, the growing economic presence of China in Latin America is perceived as a challenge to US security. This is especially the case with regard to the access to scarce raw materials, especially oil. On the other hand, there are suspicions that some Latin American countries, while playing the Chinese card, could take a more independent course in their relations with the United States. The Chinese presence in the Western Hemisphere is perceived as a sign of the erosion of both the power and the geopolitical position of the United States in the region.

One should mention that offensive realism is also quite influential among Chinese international relations scholars and their analysis of US policies. This strategy was applied quite successfully by the Bush administration according to the former deputy assistant secretary of state for East Asia and Pacific Affairs, Thomas J.

Similarly, Charles S. For example, the granting of an observer status to China in the Organization of American States OAS and the Inter-American Development Bank can be seen either as an indicator of waning US influence or as a strategy to integrate China into institutions created by the United States a long time ago. The same is true with regard to participation of Chinese compa- nies and investors in the development of the Panama Canal. In a Senate hearing, Rogelio Pardo-Maurer, deputy assistant secretary of defense for Western Hemisphere Affairs declared the following: Now, China is one of the largest users of the canal and fast-growing.

I think it is the third largest user. So from what we can tell, it is in their interest to have a canal that works and is dependable and is reliable. So to me the canal is actually a classic example of how bringing China in or helping China become a responsible trading partner, a responsible member of the world trading community, is in our interest. On the other hand, a more benign view of Chinese investment in oil exploration in Latin America contends that: if Washington takes a broad future-oriented perspective, we may be surprised at some of the common interests we share.

Latin American oil brought to the surface by Chinese companies or firms or interests probably is going to end up in the United States.

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In the view of most US specialists, China implicitly recognizes Latin America as a US sphere of influence Ellis, a and is keen not to produce suspicion in the United States with regard to Chinese motives and intentions. Both governments are interested in avoiding misunderstandings.

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The last round of dialogue took place in Washington in March between then interim assistant secretary for Western Hemisphere Affairs, Roberta S. Jacobson, and Chinese counterpart Yan Wanming. There could be more cooperation in Latin America between the countries in the future. The European Union is still a major economic partner of Latin America, Russia is an important exporter of weapons to Latin America especially to Venezuela and Iran is a new actor in the region.

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There are also more Asian countries with strong trade links to Latin America such as Japan, Korea, Taiwan and, last but not least, India. Moreover, the argument incorrectly transmits the view of Latin America as a unitary actor. Likewise, it is not in the interest of Latin American countries to focus their foreign policy only on China and the United States, or to substitute one hegemon with two hegemons. The first started in — with numerous publications by US think tanks and academics as well as congressional hearings on the topic.

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Moreover, China got observer status in the OAS in It was, after all, still the most important trade partner of Latin America, whereas Chinese investment in Latin America was quite small compared to that of the United States. In terms of economic, political, and cultural linkages, the United States has remained predominant in the region.

Congressional Research Service, , p.

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In general, there have been some concerns that China has been using surveillance facilities in Cuba to intercept US radio and telephone transmissions and to practice cyber espionage. This topic later received less attention in the United States because China only achieved some limited Pap. Today, 11 of the 23 countries that maintain diplomatic relations with Taiwan are still located in Latin America and the Caribbean.

The US economy had been debilitated by the financial crisis of —, while Chinese trade with Latin America was still growing at high rates. Between and , US participation in Latin American exports and imports went down from During the same period, Chinese participation in Latin American exports and imports grew from 1. In Brazil a key country , China overtook the United States as the most important trade partner. Moreover, trade with China was increasingly supplemented by Chinese investment and Chinese credits.