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It was one of the few places where African Americans could socialize. The Centennial Beneficial Association owned the hall from to , when the few surviving members sold the building to Elmer Campher as a church. It was restored by the Charles Sumner Post 25, Inc. In local African Americans founded their own Methodist church. William Perkins and James A. Jones were among the founders.
The church occupied two other buildings before the current structure named for Bishop Janes was erected years ago in on the corner of Cross and Cannon Streets It was designed and built by mmbers of the church using hand-made concrete bricks. Candy Miles. James A Jones, a grocer, butcher, tavern-owner, and money-lender, was one of the most successful 19th century African-American businessmen in Chestertown.
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Other landowners made similar sales in other years. As a result of their efforts, dozens of African Americans were enfranchised and the property requirement was eventually dropped. Another Black neighborhood dating to the nineteenth century was focussed on upper Calvert Street and College Avenue.
Site of the original Garnett School, a high school for African American students built in and founded through the efforts of Miss Emma Miller. The school was named for Henry Highland Garnet, a nationally and internationally known Black abolitionist who was born into slavery in Kent County. He was the M. He died in the s. Among the original trustees were William Floyd, a sailor, and David Blake, a laborer. The church has been a focus of uptown African American life.
Frederick Jones, Sr. Two busloads and several carloads of Freedom Riders arrived to rally in support of integration and other civil rights. Biographical Sketches. Last Will and Testament. George Washington. Thomas Jefferson. John T. Slavery In Massachusetts. Benjamin Franklin's Humor. Paul M. From Superman to Man. Illustrated Souls of Black Folk. Negro Orators and Their Orations. Carter G. The Testimony of a Refugee from East Tennessee. Hermann Bokum. Starr King In California.
Simonds William Day. John A. Thomas Jefferson: His Essential Wisdom. Carol Kelly-Gangi. The Americanism of Washington. Henry Van Dyke. The Future of the Colored Race in America. William Aikman. Historic Papers and the Causes of the War. Charles Edward Russell. Shadow and Light. Mifflin Wistar Gibbs. Francis Asbury, A Biographic Sketch.
John Miley. Blago Kirov. Starr King in California. William Day Simonds. John Brown: A Retrospect. Alfred Roe. John F. Richard Francis Burton. Abolition Fanaticism in New York. John Greenleaf Whittier. Charles Eliot. Great Eulogies Throughout History. Right on the Scaffold, or The Martyrs of Archibald Henry Grimke. William Lloyd Garrison, The Abolitionist. The Ultimate Criminal. Modern Industrialism and the Negroes of the United States. Occasional Papers No. How to write a great review. The review must be at least 50 characters long.
The title should be at least 4 characters long. Your display name should be at least 2 characters long. At Kobo, we try to ensure that published reviews do not contain rude or profane language, spoilers, or any of our reviewer's personal information. You submitted the following rating and review. He sailed once more for Europe on May 22, , the second anniversary of Brooks' attack. Sumner chose to refuse anesthesia, which was thought to reduce the effectiveness of the procedure.
In France he visited Brittany and Normandy, as well as Montpellier. He wrote his brother: "If anyone cares to know how I am doing, you can say better and better. Sumner returned to the Senate in When fellow Republicans advised taking a less strident tone than he had years earlier, he answered: "When crime and criminals are thrust before us, they are to be met by all the energies that God has given us by argument, scorn, sarcasm and denunciation. In "The Barbarism of Slavery", he attacked attempts to depict slavery as a benevolent institution, said it had stifled economic development in the South and that it left slaveholders reliant on "the bludgeon, the revolver, and the bowie-knife".
He addressed an anticipated objection on the part of one of his colleagues: "Say, sir, in your madness, that you own the sun, the stars, the moon; but do not say that you own a man, endowed with a soul that shall live immortal, when sun and moon and stars have passed away. Senator Sumner was a member of a faction of the Republican Party known as the Radicals.
The Radicals primarily advocated the immediate abolition of slavery and the destruction of the Southern planter class. Senate Radicals included Sumner, Sen. Zachariah Chandler , and Sen. Benjamin Wade. Although the Radical Senators desired the immediate emancipation of slaves, President Lincoln, in , was initially resistant to freeing the slaves, since the Union slave states Delaware , Maryland , Kentucky , and Missouri would be encouraged to join the Confederacy.
As a compromise, the Radicals and President Lincoln passed two Confiscation Acts in and that allowed the Union military to free confiscated slaves who were carrying weapons, among other tasks, for the Confederate army.
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Sumner and other Radicals had persistently advocated that Lincoln emancipate the slaves. Sumner believed that emancipating the slaves would keep Britain from entering the Civil War and the millions of slaves freed from bondage would give America higher moral standing. Lincoln described Sumner as "my idea of a bishop" and consulted him as an embodiment of the conscience of the American people. On December 9, , the Senate Radicals established the Joint Committee on the Conduct of the War , whose purpose was to investigate battle defeats and determine the loyalty of generals fighting for the Union War effort.
General Charles P. Baker , who was a close friend of President Lincoln's, was killed and Brig. Stone was blamed for the defeat by the Union press. Sumner, upset at having learned Brig. Stone had ordered two runaway slaves to be denied asylum in the Union Army, castigated Brig. Stone in a Senate speech. Stone wrote Sen. Sumner a terse letter and demanded satisfaction from Sen. On January 31, , Brig. Stone defended himself in front of the Senate Committee under Radical chairman Sen. Stone was arrested on February 8, , and federally imprisoned for days.
On the onset of the American Civil War in , President Lincoln's administration made a great effort to ensure the war would not be a revolution waged against slavery. Sumner had counseled President Lincoln in May to make the end of slavery the primary objective. Sumner believed President Lincoln's policy to save the Union would be impossible without abolishing slavery. Sumner took an unprecedented step and spoke openly in a speech that the Civil War's sole cause was slavery and the primary objective of the Union government was to destroy slavery. Sumner stated that the Union government had the power to invoke martial law and emancipate the slaves.
Sumner's speech was denounced as incendiary and Sumner was viewed as mentally ill and a "candidate for the insane asylum. Sumner's speech. Sumner continued to make public speeches that the goal of the Civil War was to end slavery by emancipation. Mason and John Slidell. The British government dispatched 8, British troops on the Canada—US border and efforts were made to strengthen the British fleet. Seward believed that Mason and Slidell were contraband of war. Sumner, however, believed that the men did not qualify as war contraband, since they were unarmed, and that their release with an apology by the U.
In the Senate, Sumner suppressed open debate in order to save Lincoln's administration from embarrassment. On December 25, , at Lincoln's invitation, Sumner read to Lincoln's Cabinet letters he received from prominent British political figures, including Cobden , Bright , Gladstone , and the Duke of Argyll.
The letters provided critical information on political sentiment in Britain and supported the envoys' return to the British. After the Trent Affair, Sen. Sumner's reputation improved among conservative Northerners. Haiti had sought recognition since winning independence in , but faced opposition from Southern Senators.
In their absence, the U. Osofsky argues that Sumner and like minded Yankees saw the war as a "death struggle" between "two mutually contradictory civilizations. It was to be conquered and then forcibly molded into a society defined in northern terms. In February , there was considerable debate over authorizing the creation of a memorial to United States Chief Justice Roger Taney. Sumner was a longtime enemy of Taney and attacked his decision in the Dred Scott v.
Sandford case. Speaking on the Senate floor, in an argument with Sen. Lyman Trumbull , Sen. Sumner, who objected to the memorial's creation, stated: . I speak what cannot be denied when I declare that the opinion of the Chief Justice in the case of Dred Scott was more thoroughly abominable than anything of the kind in the history of courts. Judicial baseness reached its lowest point on that occasion. You have not forgotten that terrible decision where a most unrighteous judgment was sustained by a falsification of history.
Of course, the Constitution of the United States and every principle of Liberty was falsified, but historical truth was falsified also Throughout the war, Sumner had been the special champion of blacks, being the most vigorous advocate of emancipation, of enlisting blacks in the Union Army, and of the establishment of the Freedmen's Bureau. As one of the Radical Republican leaders in the post-war Senate, Sumner fought to provide equal civil and voting rights for the freedmen on the grounds that "consent of the governed" was a basic principle of American republicanism and in order to keep ex-Confederates from gaining political offices and undoing the North's victory in the Civil War.
The Reconstruction Era of the United States after the American Civil War was in the nineteenth and early twentieth century usually viewed as an era of Southern exploitation and corruption by Northern politicians and harsh federal policies, led by the Radical Republicans. According to historian Eric Foner, during the s, revisionist historians have reinterpreted Reconstruction "in the light of changed attitudes toward the place of blacks within American society.
Senator Sumner, however, in late favored impartial suffrage for African Americans, desiring to put in a literacy requirement on all southerners in order to vote. When Congress did open the vote to all loyal adult males in the South the following year, Sumner was strongly supportive.
Sumner's radical theory of Reconstruction proposed that nothing beyond the confines of the Constitution restricted the Congress in determining how to treat the eleven defeated states, but that even that document had to be read in light of the Declaration of Independence, which he saw as an essential part of fundamental law. Not going as far as Thaddeus Stevens in seeing the seceded states as "conquered provinces," he nonetheless argued that by declaring secession , they had committed felo de se state suicide and could now be turned into territories that should be prepared for statehood, under conditions set by the national government.
He objected to Lincoln's and later Andrew Johnson 's more lenient Reconstruction policies as ungenerous to the former slaves, inadequate in their guarantees of equal rights, and an encroachment upon the powers of Congress. When Andrew Johnson was impeached, Sumner voted for conviction. He was only sorry that he had to vote on each article of impeachment, for as he said, he would have rather voted, "Guilty of all, and infinitely more. He was one of the most prominent advocates for suffrage for blacks, along with free homesteads and free public schools.
His uncompromising attitude did not endear him to moderates and his arrogance and inflexibility often inhibited his effectiveness as a legislator. He was largely excluded from work on the Thirteenth Amendment , in part because he did not get along with Illinois Senator Lyman Trumbull , who chaired the Senate Judiciary Committee and did much of the work on it.
Sumner introduced an alternative amendment that combined the Thirteenth Amendment with elements of the Fourteenth Amendment. It would have abolished slavery and declared that "all people are equal before the law. He viewed segregation and slavery as two sides of the same coin. Sumner repeatedly tried to remove the word "white" from naturalization laws. He introduced bills to that effect in and , but neither came to a vote.
On July 2, , Sumner moved to amend a pending bill in a way that would strike the word "white" wherever in all Congressional acts pertaining to naturalization of immigrants. On July 4, , he said: "Senators undertake to disturb us If the Chinese come here, they will come for citizenship or merely for labor. If they come for citizenship, then in this desire do they give a pledge of loyalty to our institutions; and where is the peril in such vows?
They are peaceful and industrious; how can their citizenship be the occasion of solicitude?
National African American Historic Landmarks by State
The bill was passed a year after his death by Congress in February and signed into law by President Ulysses S. Grant on March 1, It was the last civil rights legislation for 82 years until the passage of the Civil Rights Act of The Supreme Court ruled it unconstitutional in when it decided a group of cases known as the Civil Rights Cases. Throughout March , Sec. William H. In a 3-hour speech, Sumner spoke in favor of the treaty on the Senate floor, describing in detail Alaska's imperial history, natural resources, population, and climate. Sumner wanted to block British expansion from Canada, arguing that Alaska was geographically and financially strategic, especially for the Pacific Coast States.
He said Alaska would increase America's borders, spread republican institutions, and represent an act of friendship with Russia. The treaty won its needed two-thirds majority by one vote. The treaty neither formally recognized, categorized, nor compensated any native Alaskan Eskimos or Indians; only referring to them as "uncivilized tribes" under the control of Congress. However, citizenship was available to Russian residents.
Creoles , persons of Russian and Indian descent, were considered Russian. Sumner was well regarded in the United Kingdom, but after the war he sacrificed his reputation in the U. The U. Sumner held that since Britain had accorded the rights of belligerents to the Confederacy, it was responsible for extending the duration of the war and consequent losses. In , he asserted that Britain should pay damages for not merely the raiders, but also "that other damage, immense and infinite, caused by the prolongation of the war.
Sumner did not expect that Britain ever would or could pay this immense sum, but he suggested that Britain turn over Canada as payment. At the Geneva arbitration conference which settled U. Sumner had some influence over J. Lothrop Motley , the U. This offended President Grant, but while it would be given as the official reason for Motley's removal, was not really so pressing: the dismissal took place a year after Motley's alleged misbehavior, and the real reason was an act of spite by the president against Sumner.
In , President Grant, in an expansionist plan, looked into the annexation of a Caribbean island country, the Dominican Republic , then known as Santo Domingo. Grant believed that the mineral resources on the island would be valuable to the United States, and that African Americans repressed in the South would have a safe haven to which to migrate. A labor shortage in the South would force Southerners to be tolerant towards African Americans. The initial treaty by Babcock had not been authorized by the State Department.
Charles Sumner - Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core
Navy to keep the Dominican Republic free from invasion and civil war while the treaty negotiations took place. This military action was controversial since the naval protection was unauthorized by the U. Sumner's Washington home and mistakenly believed that Sumner had given consent for the treaty. Sumner stated that he had only promised to give the treaty friendly consideration. This meeting would later lead to bitter contention between Sumner and Grant.
Sumner, opposed to American imperialism in the Caribbean and fearful that annexation would lead to the conquest of the neighboring black republic of Haiti, became convinced that corruption lay behind the treaty, and that men close to the president shared in the corruption. As chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Sumner initially withheld his opinion on the treaty on January 18, Sumner's committee voted against annexation and at Sumner's suggestion and quite possibly to save the party from an ugly fight or the president from embarrassment, the Senate held its debate of the treaty behind closed doors in executive session.
Grant persisted and sent messages to Congress in favor of annexation on March 14, , and May 31, Sumner stated that Grant's use of the U. Navy as a protectorate was a violation of International law and unconstitutional. The following day, Grant, feeling betrayed by Sumner, retaliated by ordering the dismissal of Sumner's close friend John Lothrop Motley , Ambassador to Britain. The two men, friends until then, cooled into bitter enemies.
In December , still fearful that Grant meant to acquire Santo Domingo somehow, Sumner gave a fiercely critical speech accusing the president of usurpation and Babcock of unethical conduct. Already Grant, supported by Fish, had initiated a campaign to depose Sumner from the chairmanship of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee. Although Sumner stated he was an "Administration man," in addition to having stopped Grant's Dominican Republic treaty attempt, Sumner had defeated Grant's full repeal of the Tenure of Office Act , blocked Grant's nomination of Alexander Stewart as U.
Secretary of Treasury, and been a constant harassing force pushing Reconstruction policies faster than Grant had been willing to go. Grant resented Sumner's superiority of manner, as well. Told once that Sumner did not believe in the Bible, the president is supposed to have said that he was not surprised: "He didn't write it. When the 42nd U. Sumner now turned against Grant. Like many other reformers, he decried the corruption in Grant's administration. Sumner believed that the civil rights program he championed could not be carried through by a corrupt government.
In , he joined the Liberal Republican Party which had been started by reformist Republicans such as Horace Greeley. The Liberal Republicans supported black suffrage, the three Reconstruction amendments, and the basic civil rights already protected by law, but they also called for amnesty for ex-Confederates and decried the Republican governments in the South elected with the help of black votes, belittled the terrorism of the Ku-Klux Klan, and argued that the time had come to restore "home rule" in the South, which in practical terms meant white Democratic rule.
For Sumner's civil rights bill they gave no support at all, but Sumner joined them because he convinced himself that the time had come for reconciliation, and that Democrats were sincere in declaring that they would abide by the Reconstruction settlement. Sumner never saw his support for civil rights as hostile to the South.
On the contrary, he had always contended that a guarantee for equality was the one condition essential for true reconciliation. Unlike some other Radical Republicans, he had strongly opposed any hanging or imprisonment of Confederate leaders. In December , he introduced a Senate resolution providing that Civil War battle names should not appear as "battle honors" on the regimental flags of the U. The proposal was not new: Sumner had offered a similar resolution on May 8, , and in he had proposed that no painting hanging in the Capitol portray scenes from the Civil War, because, as he saw it, keeping alive the memories of a war between a people was barbarous.
His proposal did not affect the vast majority of battle-flags, as nearly all the regiments that fought had been state regiments, and these were not covered. But Sumner's idea was that any United States regiment, that would in the future enlist southerners as well as northerners, should not carry on its ensigns any insult to those who joined it.
His resolution had no chance of passing, but its presentation offended Union army veterans. The Massachusetts legislature censured Sumner for giving "an insult to the loyal soldiery of the nation" and as "meeting the unqualified condemnation of the people of the Commonwealth. He succeeded early in with the help of abolitionist Joshua Bowen Smith , who happened to be serving in the legislature that year. He died the following afternoon. On October 30, , the Virginius, a munitions and troop transportation ship supporting the Cuban Rebellion and flying the U.
Long ailing, Charles Sumner died of a heart attack at his home in Washington, D. He lay in state at the United States Capitol rotunda ,  the second senator so honored Henry Clay being the first, in Contemporaries and historians have explored Sumner's personality at length. Sumner's friend Senator Carl Schurz praised Sumner's integrity, his "moral courage," the "sincerity of his convictions," and the "disinterestedness of his motives. What's more, concludes Donald, Sumner was a coward who avoided confrontations with his many enemies, whom he routinely insulted in prepared speeches.
Charles Sumner Centenary: Historical Address : The American Negro Academy. Occasional Papers No. 14
Biographers have varied in their appraisal of Sumner. The Pulitzer Prize went to biographer David Donald whose two-volume biography points up Sumner's troubles in dealing with his colleagues: . Distrusted by friends and allies, and reciprocating their distrust, a man of "ostentatious culture", "unvarnished egotism", and "'a specimen of prolonged and morbid juvenility,'" Sumner combined a passionate conviction in his own moral purity with a command of 19th-century "rhetorical flourishes" and a "remarkable talent for rationalization".
Stumbling "into politics largely by accident", elevated to the United States Senate largely by chance, willing to indulge in "Jacksonian demagoguery" for the sake of political expediency, Sumner became a bitter and potent agitator of sectional conflict. Carving out a reputation as the South's most hated foe and the Negro's bravest friend, he inflamed sectional differences, advanced his personal fortunes, and helped bring about national tragedy. Moorfield Storey , Sumner's private secretary for two years and subsequent biographer, seeing some of the same qualities, interprets them more charitably:.
Charles Sumner was a great man in his absolute fidelity to principle, his clear perception of what his country needed, his unflinching courage, his perfect sincerity, his persistent devotion to duty, his indifference to selfish considerations, his high scorn of anything petty or mean. He was essentially simple to the end, brave, kind, and pure Originally modest and not self-confident, the result of his long contest was to make him egotistical and dogmatic. There are few successful men who escape these penalties of success, the common accompaniment of increasing years Sumner's naively simple nature, his confidence in his fellows, and his lack of humor combined to prevent his concealing what many feel but are better able to hide.
From the time he entered public life till he died he was a strong force constantly working for righteousness To Sumner more than to any single man, except possibly Lincoln, the colored race owes its emancipation and such measure of equal rights as it now enjoys. Sumner's reputation among historians in the first half of the 20th century was largely negative—he was blamed especially for the excesses of Radical Reconstruction, which, in the prevailing scholarship, included letting blacks vote and hold office.
However, in recent years scholars have emphasized his role as a foremost champion of black rights before, during and after the Civil War; one historian says he was "perhaps the least racist man in America in his day. Anne-Marie Taylor's biography of Sumner up to provided a much more sympathetic assessment of a young man, widely respected, conscientious, cultured, courageous, and driven into political prominence by his own sense of duty. Sumner's previously critical biographer David Herbert Donald, in the second volume of his biography, Charles Sumner and the Rights of Man , was much more favorable to Sumner, and though critical, recognized his large contribution to the positive accomplishments of Reconstruction.
It has been noted that events in the Civil Rights Movement between , when Donald's first volume was published, and , when the second volume was published, likely swayed Donald somewhat further towards Sumner. Ralph Waldo Emerson wrote of Sumner:. Sumner's position is exceptional in its honor In Congress, he did not rush into party position. He sat long silent and studious. His friends, I remember, were told that they would find Sumner a man of the world like the rest; "it is quite impossible to be at Washington and not bend; he will bend as the rest have done.
He took his position and kept it Let him hear that every man of worth in New England loves his virtues. Sumner was a bachelor for most of his life. Their marriage was unhappy. Sumner could not respond to his wife's humor, and Alice had a ferocious temper. That winter, Alice began going out to public events with Prussian diplomat Friedrich von Holstein. This caused gossip in Washington, but Alice refused to stop seeing Holstein.
When Holstein was recalled to Prussia in the spring of , Alice accused Sumner of engineering the action, which Sumner always denied. They separated the following September. During Reconstruction, he fought to minimize the power of the ex-Confederates and guarantee equal rights to the freedmen. Sumner changed his political party several times as anti-slavery coalitions rose and fell in the s and s before coalescing in the s as the Republican Party, the affiliation with which he became best known.
He devoted his enormous energies to the destruction of what Republicans c. The beating nearly killed Sumner and it drew a sharply polarized response from the American public on the subject of the expansion of slavery in the United States. It has been considered symbolic of the "Breakdown of reasoned discourse" that eventually led to the American Civil War.
Charles Sumner Tainter April 25, — April 20, was an American scientific instrument maker, engineer and inventor, best known for his collaborations with Alexander Graham Bell, Chichester Bell, Alexander's father-in-law Gardiner Hubbard, and for his significant improvements to Thomas Edison's phonograph, resulting in the Graphophone, one version of which was the first Dictaphone. His education was modest, acquiring his knowledge mostly through self-education. In , he took a job with the Alvan Clark and Sons Company producing telescopes in Cambridge, Massachusetts, which then came under contract with the U.
Navy to conduct observations of the tra.
He was the first Chairman of the Federal Reserve, serving from to His mother was born in England to Irish parents, while his father, a coal dealer, was from Massachusetts. He twice ran unsuccessfully for Governor of Massachusetts, in and On August 10, , he was appointed the first Chairman of the Federal Reserve and served in that capacity until August 10, He lectured at Harvard on government in and ; In was vice president of the Woodrow Wilson College Men's League and president of the Woodrow Wilson League of Massachusetts; and he published, besides pamphlets on statistical and financial subjects, an Index Digest of Interstate C.
Charles Sumner Woolworth August 1, — January 7, , was an American entrepreneur who went by the nickname of "Sum", opened and managed the world's first five-and-dime store in Scranton, Pennsylvania, and was founder of the "C. Sum's brother, Frank Winfield Woolworth was first to venture into the retail business with his own store, and soon after, he asked Sum to join him.
Frank founded "F. Woolworth Company. After the death of his brother, Sum became the longest serving Chairman of the F. When Fred bought out Sum's share, that store grew to become a "friendly rival" affiliate store, in close alliance with the two Woolworth brothers. In , Sum and Frank Woolworth were affiliated. Named for the prominent abolitionist and United States Senator Charles Sumner, the school became the first teachers' college for black citizens in the city and the headquarters of its segregated school system for African American students.
It currently houses a small museum, a research room, art exhibits, and the archives of the District of Columbia Public Schools. Construction and naming The Charles Sumner School was built on land that had previously been used as a school site by the Freedmen's Bureau, created after the Civil War to provide support for freed slaves. Charles Sumner — was American politician and statesman from Massachusetts. Sumner — , U. Representative from California Charles K.
Sumner — , American architect Charles Sumner birth name of Howard Hall actor — , American actor and writer Charlie Sumner — , American football player. From to he was curate of Highclere, Hampshire. In , George IV wished to appoint him as a canon of Windsor, but the prime minister, Robert Jenkinson, 2nd Earl of Liverpool, objected; Sumner received instead a royal chaplaincy and librarianship. Look up civis romanus sum in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Paul the Apostle In the New Testament book of Acts, Paul the Apostle, when imprisoned and on trial, claimed his right as a Roman citizen to be tried before Caesar, and the judicial process had to be suspended until he was taken to Rome: "22 Up to this word they listened to him.
Then they raised their voices and said, "Away with such a fellow from the earth! For he should not be allowed to live. House of Representatives from South Carolina, serving from until his resignation in July and again from August until his death. Brooks, a Democrat, was a strong advocate of slavery and states' rights. He is most remembered for his May 22, , attack upon abolitionist and Republican Senator Charles Sumner, whom he beat nearly to death; Brooks beat Sumner with a cane on the floor of the United States Senate in retaliation for an anti-slavery speech in which Sumner verbally attacked Brooks's second cousin, South Carolina Senator Andrew Butler.
Brooks's action received "widespread adoration in South Carolina and other Southern states"—the city of Brooksville, Florida named itself for him immediately afterwards—and abhorrence in the North. He resigned h. Greene and Greene was an architectural firm established by brothers Charles Sumner Greene — and Henry Mather Greene — , influential early 20th Century American architects. Active primarily in California, their houses and larger-scale ultimate bungalows are prime exemplars of the American Arts and Crafts Movement.
They grew up primarily in St. Louis, Missouri, and on their mother's family farm in West Virginia while their father attended medical school. Louis, where they studied metal- and woodworking and graduated in Their father, a practicing homeopathic physician by this time, was very concerned with the need for sunlight and circulating fresh air; the importance of these elements was to become one of the signatures of the brothers' work.