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Campa, son collaborateur Paris: Ledoyen, Notice historique sur la vie et les travaux de Ricardo. Edited by J. Tome second. Paris: Paulin et Lechevalier, , pp. Garnier, Joseph. Guillaumin and Joseph Garnier, eds. Guillaumin, Joseph Garnier, Mce Block. Marrast, Proudhon, Blanc, Louis. Bastiat, de Parieu, et une introduction et des notes par M. Joseph Garnier Paris : Guillaumin, Hindley, membre du Parlement, etc. Charles Gide, Principles of Political Economy. Translated by Edward Percy Jacobsen. XXV, no. Alphonse de Lamartine, Discours de M.
Paris: Tournachon-Molin et Seguin, —20, London : Verso, Marx and Engels, Manifest der Kommunistischen Partei. Gustave de Molinari, Histoire du tarif Paris: Guillaumin et cie, Gustave de Molinari, The Production of Security. Huston McCulloch. New York: Center for Libertarian Studies, Edited and with an Introduction by David M. Hart Liberty Fund, forthcoming. Victor Hugo, Cobden, Henry Vincent, etc. Septembre et Octobre , pp. See p. Decq, Lacroix, Van Meenen, Molinari, Gustave de.
Reinwald, Modeste et P. Paillottet Paris: Guillaumin, Brocard, Proudhon and Bastiat. Discussion entre M. Bastiat et M. Proudhon Paris: Guillaumin, And Paris: Dentu et Ledoyen, Jean Baptiste Say, A treatise on political economy; or, The production, distribution, and consumption of wealth. Translated from the fourth edition of the French by C. Translated from the 4th ed.
To which is added, a translation of the introduction and additional notes, by Clement C. Biddle Boston: Wells and Lilly, Say, Catechism of political economy: or, Familiar conversations on the manner in which wealth is produced, distributed, and consumed in society, trans. Say, Jean-Baptiste. Brussels ed. Philippe Steiner Paris, Flammarion, Joseph Chailley.
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Paschoud, , 2 vols. Stendhal, Le Rouge et le Noir. Translated as Scarlet and Black. A Chronicle of the Nineteenth Century. Translated and with an introduction by Margaret R. Shaw Harmondsworth: Penguin, Chartier et el. Paris: Flammarion, Pluchart et cie. Avec des notes explicatives et critiques par J. Say Paris: J. Aillaud, Thierry, Augustin. Translated from the French, by the Rev.
Francis B. Wells London: T. Bosworth, Wolowski, Louis. Wolowski, Louis and Alcide Fonteyraud, No. Marques, Second Edition. Edited by Steven N. Durlauf and Lawrence E. Blume Houndmills, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, Breton, Yves. Augello and Marco E. London: Routledge, , pp.
Yves Breton et Michel Lutfalla eds. Two vols. Paris: J. Rothschild, Pierre Garello ed. Editor-in-Chief: Garello, Pierre. Special issue devoted to papers given at the Bastiat bicentennial conference. Raf Geneens and Helena Rosenblatt eds. Lacoste, Hamowy, ed. The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism, ed. Ronald Hamowy Los Angeles: Sage, A Project of the Cato Institute. September, Unpublished manuscript. Hart et al. Long Palgrave Macmillan, Robert Leroux and David M.
Hart, eds. Robert Leroux et David M. French Liberalism in the 19th Century: An Anthology. Edited by Robert Leroux and David M. Hart London: Routledge, Leonard P. Liggio, Dunoyer and the Bourbon Restoration of — Liggio, Leonard P.
La révolution permanente de Blanqui on Apple Books
Jean-Baptiste Say — Nataf, Philippe. Philippe Nemo et Jean Petitot ed. Murray N. Joseph T. Alan Ryan Oxford University Press, Smithson, Rulon Nephi, Augustin Thierry. Martin S. Liberty in a Levelled Society? Cambridge, Canbridge University Press, Pitts, Jennifer, A Turn to Empire.
We have used the lists drawn up by Michel List with some modifications. His lists are on pp. Leter lists a total of 13 people in this generation of which I have selected five of the most important to discuss in the article in bold. They are in order of date of birth :. Leter lists 26 people in this generation of which I have selected five of the most important to discuss here.
Michel Leter was interested in describing the activities of the Paris School across the entire 19th century and so includes 23 individuals in total as comprising this generation. Only nine of these were old enough to have been active during the late July Monarchy and Second Republic. The full list in chronological order by birth is:. Leter also provides a useful list of those members of the Paris School who held positions in the French government. These were the following:. See an earlier attemtp to depict the World of the French Political Economy in the late s. Boisguilbert was a magistrate and president of the Civil Court in Rouen.
His books were banned by the state so he went into exile in the Auvergne. His writings would have an significant impact on Quesany and the other Physiocrats later in the 18th century. Richard Cantillon was an Irish-French banker and merchant who was also an early economic theorist writing an Essay on the Nature of Trade in General in about His personal experiences in banking and international finance lead him to have interesting things to say about money, foreign exchange, banking, and risk, but his most important contribution was the development of a theory of the entrepreneur well before Jean-Baptiste Say.
His Essay was not published until but it did have an influence on Quesnay in France and Smith in Scotland. His major works were republished by the Guillaumin firm as vol. Condillac was an advocate of the ideas of John Locke and a friend of the encyclopedist Denis Diderot. Turgot was an economist of the physiocratic school, a politician, a reformist bureaucrat, and a writer. During the mid s Turgot came into contact with the physiocrats, such as Quesnay, Dupont de Nemours, and Vincent de Gournay who was the free-market intendant for commerce.
Turgot had two opportunities to put free-market reforms into practice: when he was appointed Intendant of Limoges in —74; and when Louis XVI made him minister of finance between and , at which time Turgot issued his six edicts to reduce regulations and taxation. His works were republished by the Guillaumin firm as vols. In his writings on Montesquieu, Tracy defended the institutions of the American Republic, and in his writings on political economy he defended laissez-faire.
During the French Revolution he joined the third estate and renounced his aristocratic title. During the Terror he was arrested and nearly executed. Benjamin Constant — was a novelist, politician, and political theorist during the Napoleonic and Restoration periods. He was a supporter of the Directory and a member of the Tribunat but came to oppose the loss of political liberty under Napoleon.
Constant became a deputy in and continued to defend constitutional freedoms until his death. Jean-Baptiste Say — was the leading French political economist in the first third of the nineteenth century. Before becoming an academic political economist quite late in life, Say apprenticed in a commercial office, working for a life insurance company; he also worked as a journalist, soldier, politician, cotton manufacturer, and writer.
In he was asked by the government to travel to England on a fact-finding mission to discover the secret of English economic growth and to report on the impact of the revolutionary wars on the British economy. Joseph Droz — was a moral philosopher, economist, literary critic, and father-in-law of Michel Chevalier.
Charles Comte — was a lawyer, a critic of the repressive policies of Napoleon and then the restored monarchy, and the son-in-law of the economist Jean-Baptiste Say. After the government passed new censorship laws in , it closed closed down the magazine and convicted and sentenced Comte to two years in prison. He went into exile in Switzerland, living in Geneva for 15 months, before accepting a position in Lausanne teaching law. Comte believed that the Ultra conservatives in France would put pressure on other countries like Switzerland who gave shelter to liberal exiles and critics of the government.
Therefore, he resigned his teaching position after two years in Lausanne and went to England in where he spent another two years and became acquainted with Jeremy Bentham and other English liberals, including James and John Stuart Mill. After the revolution he was also elected a deputy representing La Sarthe. He died while writing a critique of the authoritarian Second Empire; the work was completed and published by his son Anatole in He was elected to represent Seine-et-Marne in and supported the liberal opposition to Charles X.
Under the July Monarchy he was appointed ambassador to Madrid, was active in the reform of secondary education, and was a supporter of free trade. Because of his speeches on behalf of free trade in the Chamber and because of his social and political contacts he was appointed president of the Free Trade Association when it was founded in During the Second Republic he was appointed ambassador to Rome by Lamartine. He was a professor of law and political economy, wrote poetry, and ended his days as a diplomat for the French government.
In he was appointed ambassador of France to the Vatican but was assassinated on 15 November in Rome.
Archives par mot-clé : Auguste Blanqui
He and his uncle started a shipping business in Bordeaux in before he became interested in liberal politics. He edited the journal La Tribune before founding the Indicateur de Bordeaux and the Courrier de Bordeaux in which he promoted his ideas. He published several books on constitutional government and in the Guillaumin firm published a collection of his writings on free trade.
Alphonse de Lamartine — was a poet and statesman and as an immensely popular romantic poet, he used his talent to promote liberal ideas. During the campaign for free trade organised by the French Free Trade Association between and Lamartine often spoke at their large public meetings and was a big draw card. He was a member of the Provisional Government in February offering Bastiat a position in the government, which he declined and Minister of Foreign Affairs in June Passy was elected as a deputy from , serving as minister of finance in , —40, and — He criticized the colonization of Algeria and was an advocate of free trade.
Augustin-Charles Renouard — was a lawyer with an interest in elementary school education. He was secretary general of the minister of justice and an elected deputy representing the Somme — The Say family played a very important role in liberal political economy circles in France for nearly years. Horace Say was the son of Jean-Baptiste Say. Say was a businessman and traveled in to the United States and Brazil.
He became president of the Chamber of Commerce of Paris in , became a councillor of state —51 , and headed an important inquiry into the state of industry in the Paris region — Jacques-Nicolas Augustin Thierry — was a pioneering historian who is famous for his classical liberal class analysis of history and his extensive use of archival records in researching and writing this history. It was here that he learned to analyze history using the social and economic theories developed by Comte and Dunoyer via the work of Jean-Baptiste Say.
Thierry became interested in the ruling elites which governed nations, how they came to power often through conquest as the Normans did of Saxon England , and the gradual emergence of free institutions such as the medieval communes and the Third Estate. He was elected to the Cantonal Legislature in and then to the Constituent Assembly in He returned to academic life in Switzerland five years later. He was a founding member of the Political Economy Society.
Reybaud was a businessman, journalist, novelist, fervent anti-socialist, politician, and writer on economic and social issues. Blanqui was a liberal economist; brother of the revolutionary socialist Auguste Blanqui. He was elected deputy representing the Gironde from to Hippolyte Dussard — was a journalist, a businessman involved in the Paris-Rouen railway, and an economist.
Swiss by birth, he came to France to work as a land surveyor and soon moved to Paris to work as a translator of German texts. Guillaumin — was a mid—19th century French classical liberal publisher who founded a publishing dynasty which lasted from to around and became the focal point for the classical liberal movement in France. Guillaumin was orphaned at the age of five and was brought up by his uncle. He came to Paris in and worked in a bookstore before eventually founding his own publishing firm in He became active in liberal politics during the revolution and made contact with the economists Adolphe Blanqui and Joseph Garnier.
He became a publisher in in order to popularize and promote classical liberal economic ideas, and the firm of Guillaumin eventually became the major publishing house for liberal ideas in the mid nineteenth century. Their catalog listed separate book titles, not counting journals and other periodicals.
Part I , Economic Sophisms. Part II When revolution broke out in February Bastiat was elected twice to the Chamber of Deputies where he served on the powerful Finance Committee where he struggled to bring government expenditure under control. He confounded his political opponents with his consistent libertarianism: on the one hand he denounced the socialists for their economic policies, but took to the streets to prevent the military from shooting them during the riots which broke out in June In the meantime he was suffering from a debilitating throat condition possibly throat cancer which severely weakened him and led to his early death on Christmas Eve in Knowing he was dying, Bastiat attempted to complete his magnum opus on economic theory, his Economic Harmonies In this work he showed the very great depth of his economic thinking and made advances which heralded the Austrian school of economics which emerged later in the century.
In his final months he wrote two of his greatest essays, The Law June which is a critique of socialism and a defense of natural law and limited government, and What is Seen and What is Not Seen July which was a collection of essays in which he explored one of his best known and most penetrating economic insights. Bastiat to the end was an indefatigable foe of political privilege, unaccountable monarchical power, the newly emergent socialist movement, and above all, the vested interests who benefited from economic protectionism.
He was a giant of 19th century classical liberalism.
Ten Lessons from the Yellow Vests
Charles Coquelin — was one of the leading figures in the Political Economy movement in Paris before his untimely death. He also wrote dozens of articles for the Dictionnaire. Coquelin was born in Dunkirk and went to Paris in order to study law but he spent considerable time reading the classic works of political economy, developing a keen interest in business cycles after the depression of — In he began a journal, Les Annales du Commerce —28 in which he wrote on banking matters. In the early s he turned to banking policy in the United States, especially in New England where there were liberal laws governing the creation of banks.
Financial concerns in forced him to seek employment in the textile industry on which he wrote a number of works. In the early s he wrote a series of articles for La Revue des Deux-Mondes on banking in which he toyed with the idea of the competitive issue of currencies by banks competing for business in the market. He, along with Bastiat, Fonteyraud, Garnier, and Molinari, started a small revolutionary magazine written to appeal to ordinary people, Jacques Bonhomme , which lasted only a few weeks in June before it too was forced to close.
Coquelin wrote on transport, the linen industry, the law governing corporations, money, credit, and banking especially free banking of which he was probably the first serious advocate. He wrote on prison reform, gold and silver currency, socialism, and taxation. Dupuit was an engineer and a political economist who wrote on the economics of public works.
He wrote a number of books on the cost of maintaining roads, the role of tolls in financing roads, the railway monopoly, and the measurement of public utility. Dupuit also wrote several articles in the DEP, vol. Initially a Saint-Simonist, he was imprisoned for two years — His dismissal from his teaching post during the Revolution was strongly resisted by the Political Economy Society which was able to eventually get him reinstated a few months later.
He was an ardent free trader and was an admirer of Bastiat and Cobden and played a decisive role in the free trade treaty signed between France and England in Chevalier was the signatory for France, while Cobden was the signatory for England. Casimir was active in liberal circles in Paris, helping to fund their activities and running an important salon, headed by Hortense, from their Paris home.
Like Hortense, Anne Say ran a liberal salon. Thus the two women and the Cheuvreux-Say families played an important role in liberal circles in Paris during the s. Louis Wolowski —76 was a lawyer, politician, and economist of Polish origin. His interests lay in industrial and labor economics, free trade, and bimetallism.
His political career started in , when he represented La Seine in the Constituent and Legislative Assemblies. During the Revolution he was an ardent opponent of the socialist Louis Blanc and his plans for labor organization. Wolowski continued his career as a politician in the Third Republic, where he served as a member of the Assembly and took an interest in budgetary matters. Joseph Garnier —81 was a professor, journalist, politician, and activist for free trade and peace.
He came to Paris in and came under the influence of Adolphe Blanqui, who introduced him to economics and eventually became his father-in-law. Garnier played a central role in the burgeoning free-market school of thought in the s in Paris and was one of the leading exponents of Malthusian population theory. In was was elected to the Academy of Moral and Political Sciences. His scholarly interests included banking and credit, numerous works on economic theory, a constitutional investigation of the impact of the French Revolution, and the translation into French of works by J.
He moved to France in the mid—s in order to take up a position as a statistician in the Ministry of Agriculture, Commerce, and Public Works — and then in the General Statistical Service — Block wrote mainly on agriculture, finance, and public administration during the s and s, before turning to the criticism of socialism in the s. For the latter, Block wrote a huge number of biographies and bibliographical articles revealing his extraordinarily broad learning in political and economic matters across a number of languages.
Gustave de Molinari — was born in Belgium but spent most of his working life in Paris, becoming the leading representative of the laissez-faire school of classical liberalism in France in the second half of the nineteenth century. His liberalism was based upon the theory of natural rights especially the right to property and individual liberty , and he advocated complete laissez-faire in economic policy and the ultra-minimal state in politics.
The journal was monthly and lasted 7 months before closing in His scholarly interests ranged broadly over the history of economic thought, the relationship between economics and moral philosophy, educational issues, and the history and economics of French agriculture. He was elected twice to the Chamber of Deputies , where he opposed the colonial policies of Jules Ferry, the death penalty, and the legal discrimination against women.
Because of his knowledge of English he went to England in to study at first hand the progress of the Anti—Corn Law League. Sadly, he died very young during the cholera epidemic of August Garnier During the period we are interested in — - 16 years the firm published titles at an average rate of Some of the more important and innovative of those texts are listed below. They include texts which were in fact published as well as those which must have been in production during that time and appeared very shortly afterwards. Who decided what titles to commission and publish and what criteria they used to choose them are not known.
One can only infer that Gilbert Guillaumin as owner and founder of the firm had a strong say in this editorial policy. He included a total of 62 individual authors, politicians, and activists in his lists. Two recent surveys of nineteenth century French liberal thought have noted the important contributions made by the Paris School: Robert Leroux and David Hart eds.
Say, de Malthus, de Ricardo et de Rossi. The speeches are discussed in David M. Leter lists a total of 13 people in this generation of which I have selected five of the most important to discuss here. Tracy, Treatise on Political Economy , Chap. Tracy, Treatise on Political Economy , p. See also vol. The first edition of the Traite appeared in , and a further 4 editions appeared in his lifetime: 2nd revised edition , 3rd ed. A translation of the 4th edition by Princep appeared in in London and in Boston, with the latter having additional material and notes by Clement Biddle.
A variorum French edition comparing all the changes Say made did not appear until edited by Claude Mouchot for Economica. It is striking how much effort Say put into making economic ideas more approachable to the average reader. On the theory of industrialism, see David M. Stendhal was interested in the industrialist theory of history and used some its ideas about the different ways in which ambitious young men can enrich themselves in his novels.
Saint-Chamans was a deputy —27 and a Councillor of State. He advocated protectionism and a mercantilist theory of the balance of trade. Seconde Partie. Chapitre IX. Du commerce des grains. Of these, I have selected three of the most important to discuss here. Ronald Hamowy , pp. It is instructive to compare developments in teaching political economy in France with what was happening in England.
McCulloch was the first professor of political economy at the newly founded University College London in He was elevated to the French Peerage by Guizot in and eventually appointed Ambassador to the Vatican in , where he was assassinated in It was an important precursor to JDE but failed because it lacked the financial backing Guillaumin would be able to provide later. Minart, Gustave de Molinari , p.
Quote comes from p. In the last years of the July Monarchy — it published books and pamphlets at a rate of 14 p. Its peak year was , the year of Revolution, during which it published 67 titles. It was inspired by the success of J. It contained a combination of theoretical articles, analysis of current economic policy, book reviews, reports of debates in the Chamber of Deputies, and minutes of meetings of the Political Economy Society.
The Annuaire appeared for 56 years until it ended in Fonteyraud edited the volume on Ricardo, translating some of his work for the first time into French and writing a very detailed introduction and notes. Molinari did the two last volumes in the series on Hume, Franklin, Bentham, and other 18th century authors.
Say but it also applies equally well to Bastiat. Rothbard, Classical Economics, p. The first issue appeared on 29 November and it closed on 16 April after 72 issues, when the economists decided to focus their attention on fighting the rise of socialism. The Congress was also attended by Karl Marx but it is not known if he met any of the French political economists.
Attendee list pp. For the historic al background of the struggle over tariffs, see David Todd, Free Trade and its Enemies in France, — Gustave de Molinari, Histoire du tarif See for example, Alphonse de Lamartine, Discours de M. See the collection by Malbranque and Hart: Bastiat and Molinari. Bastiat was an eyewitness to some of the bloody events on the streets of Paris and reported what he saw in letters to his friends. See He was listed on the program as a speaker but according to the editors of the Marx Engels Collected Works , his session was cancelled by the organisers after the speaker before Marx, Georg Weerth also a socialist , had offended them.
Joseph Garnier In both the conversations are limited to the trade in grain. Proudhon, Banque du peuple The minutes of these meetings have been translated and will appear in CW4 forthcoming. Fontenay, EH2, pp. Carey originally accused Bastiat of plagiarising his work but later withdrew the charge when he realised they had been working independently of each other. See, EH, Chap. Long before me, bourgeois historians had described the historical development of this struggle between the classes, as had bourgeois economists their economic anatomy.
Quoted on title page of Hart et al. His definition of the state is on p. I believe it applies even more to the members of the Paris School of political economists discussed here. Also, Leonard P. Special issue devoted to papers given at the Bastiat bicentennial conference; Nataf, Philippe. See for example, Yves Breton et Michel Lutfalla eds. Jean-Baptiste Say: Nouveau regards sur son oeuvre In general we are governed too much … but how do we go about reducing the size of a complicated administrative machine where private interests have gained ground over the public interest, like a gangrene which advances in a human body if it is not rejected by the life force which tends to protect it?
To cure this disease we have to observe how the administrative gangrene is spread. Every person who is employed by the state tends to exaggerate the importance of his functions, whether this is to prove his zeal which will get him promoted, or to make his job seem more necessary and thus get paid more, or to exercise more power and thus increase the number of people who are obliged to come to him to sollicite his goodwill. The cure has to follow an opposite path and has to tend towards reducing the number of their duties.
IV, p. What the Paris School believed in and what they opposed In spite of differences between individual members of the Paris School there were some things they all by in large agreed upon. Of these effects only the first is immediate; it is revealed simultaneously with its cause; it is seen. The others merely occur successively; they are not seen ; we are lucky if we foresee them.
The entire difference between a bad and a good Economist is apparent here. A bad one relies on the visible effect, while the good one takes account both of the effect one can see and of those one must foresee. The Guiilaumin firm was located at no. Free Trade and Protectionism The reason the economists were so hostile to tariffs and other subsidies to industry can be reduced to three main points. The Rise of Socialism During the s the Paris School had to contend with the rise of an organised socialist movement which challenged their core beliefs about the right to own property, charge interest on loans, charge rent for agricultural land, make a profit from their business, or employ workers at market wage rates.
The Three Innovators: Coquelin, Bastiat, Molinari One of the threads running through the three generations of the Paris School under discussion is the strong, radical liberal, and anti-statist thread which links J. Coquelin and Free Banking Coquelin was a pioneer theorist of free banking, that is the idea that the issuing of money was not a public good which only a state bank or a state-authorized private monopoly should provide. Rent A second area where Bastiat stood alone from his colleagues was the question of land rent. Subjective Value Theory and Human Action Late 20th century Austrian economists have been drawn to Bastiat because he developed a number of ideas which would be explored in more detail by theorists like Carl Menger in the s, such as subjective value theory, and Ludwig von Mises in the s, such as the logic of human action.
The Classical Liberal Theory of Class and the State A final theme which runs through the Paris School from beginning to end is a theory of class based upon who has access to the power of the state to gain privileges at the expense of others. Conclusion to Part II. Now, since revolutions do not pass the test of double entry book keeping, since revolutions are the great devourers and the frenzied spendthrifts who wolf down in a few days the accumulated savings of centuries, since they most often have to give to the people, in exchange for their savings and the lives of their children, only some rousing words and some unwholesome utopias, the economists, who are the book keepers of public policy, have raised a hue and cry against revolutions and have declared a war to the death against revolutionaries.
Bastiat, Economic Sophisms 1 , no. Bastiat, Economic Sophisms 2, no. Jean-Baptiste Say. Paris: Chamerot, Ducollet, Marcel Gauchet Paris, Gallimard, Daire III et IV. V et VI. Recherches sur la nature et les causes de la richesse des nations, par Adam Smith. Voir aussi G. Dyos et M. Pooley et C. Woods et J. Burton, Green Bag Travellers, op. Birch, The economic history of the British iron and steel industry , , London, , p. Voir aussi W. Stafford, Socialism, op. Keyder, Economic growth in Britain and France, Two paths to the twentieth century , Londres, Romani, National character and public spirit in Britain and France , Cambridge, Charles, W.
Blanning et P. Palmer, R. Mosca, Relazione su alcuni lavori pubblici , L. Guardamagna et L. Henderson, J. Henderson, Britain and industrial Europe, op. Coste et A. Schinkel, The English journeys. Hulme et T. Schinkel, English journeys, op. Badia et J. Garneau, Voyage en Angleterre , Paris, , p. Beltrami, Pilgrimage, op. Blanqui, dans R. Palmer, French Travellers, op. Fisk, travels, op. Palmer, French Travellers in England, op. Kohl, Travels in England and Wales , Bristol, , p.
Trench, Travellers in Britain, op. Blanqui, Lettres, op. Walton, France at the Crystal Palace , op. Walton, France at the Crystal Palace, op. Wilson, Strange island , passim. I, Bruxelles, , pp. Keyder, Economic growth, op. Winch et P. Beltrami, A pilgrimage in Europe and America leading to the discovery of the sources of Mississippi and Bloody River , Londres, , p.
Voth, Time and work in England , Oxford, , pp. Discorsi, Milano, , p. Say, England, op. Simon, Observations recueillies en Angleterre, en , Bruxelles, , pp. Voir aussi E. Wilson, Strange island, op. Mignet, Londres, , p. Rubichon, Of England , Londres, , pp. Simon, Observations, op. Fisk, Travels, p. Citation extraite de H. Voir aussi J. Ballam and R. Kohl, Travels, op. Elsner et J. He has written on early modern textiles, dress and fashion in Europe and Asia.
He and has spent his career writing books and articles in European and latterly global economic history.