Manual Lirresistibile richiamo della natura (Italian Edition)

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  1. DT Italy No. 6, 12222
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Sistema Implantare M. Risposta del tessuto osseo agli innesti di osso suino cortico-spongioso preidratato e collagenato: uno studio su difetti mascellari nel coniglio. Si possono rifinire e lucidare a specchio i compositi in sole 2 mosse? Caso esemplare di trattamento con supporto laser di perimplantite su un impianto dentale individuale. Edition International.

DT Italy No. 6, 12222

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Understanding Dante. A volume like Understanding Dante could only have been written by an astoundingly courageous, indefatigably idealistic, consummate dantista, one who has spent over fifty years of studying Dante and forty of teaching and writing about the poet in leading universities in the United States, Canada, England, and Australia xv. This book synthesizes close to years of scholarship on Dante Alighieris opera omnia, endeavoring to bridge a gap that often exists between Dante studies in English-speaking countries and the great tradition of Dante scholarship in the poets homeland xv.

And it does so admirably. It is not surprising that a single, accessible volume of this kind has not existed until now. One might have wagered a few years ago that a full-scale replica of Dantes Purgatory would sooner be erected smack in the middle of the Southern Atlantic Ocean than a book would be available in English that would provide close readings of Dantes Vita nuova, De vulgari eloquentia, Convivio, De monarchia, Rime, Divina commedia, Questio de aqua et terra, letters, and eclogues, along with the most authoritative critical interpretations of textual, biographical, poetic, philosophical, theological, political, linguistic, and historical dimensions, and useful chronology, tables, bibliography, list of electronic resources, and poetic glossary.

No matter the quibbles that some reviewers might express with necessary trade-offs between breadth and depth or critical views that were included or excluded; only the ungenerous of spirit would not be able to acknowledge the impressiveness of the mere attempt of what Scott has successfully completed. The body of the volume consists of twelve chapters, dedicated to each of Dantes socalled minor works chapters and 12 , to important aspects of his Comedy perhaps his best chapters, on prolegomena, moral order, topography and demography, classical antiquity, and poetry , as well as to Dantes place in his contemporary world chapter No topics prove too unwieldy or too minute.

Readers of Understanding Dante learn who should be considered the first known Italian dialectologist 42 , why scholars use the term allegory of the theologians when Dante never referred to the phrase , why the critical wrangling over the dating of the De Monarchia is so important , why the clich that Dante wrote his encyclopedic poem for everyman should not be repeated, how to distinguish rime piane from sdrucciole, tronche, identiche, equivoche, ricche, and rimas caras , and why one should resist turning Dante into a proto-Protestant , among many other issues easily referenced in the index.

While Scott states that his Ideal Reader was Martin Friedman xvi , I predict that his legacy will rest with grateful legions of graduate students preparing for comprehensive exams on Dante. On the one hand, the density of Scotts scholarship and the whopping pages of footnotes, works cited, and index will not readily attract casual readers or undergraduate students of Dante.

On the other hand, the pedagogical premise of Understanding Dante may not entice those experienced dantisti who relish the implicatio and complicatio of Dantes work perhaps as much or more than its basic explicatio. But for his graduate audience, the balance of intellectual breadth, verifiable substance, critical acumen, and synthesized economy cannot be beaten. Only rarely does Scott seem to stumble while carrying his enormous project. At times he appears to be too drawn to puzzling tangents.

In his discussion of Beatrices. Dantes actual drawing skills do not seem verifiable from this passage, nor should this particular skill become the focus of a too-brief discussion of Dantes fascinating record of false starts in his attempt to compose a poem commemorating the one-year anniversary of Beatrices passing from life to new life.

At other times, Scott appears almost too eager to dismiss some of the scholar giants on whose shoulders his own enterprise admittedly rests xvii.

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After all, what English-speaking Dante scholar does not perceive that anxiety of influence that Charles S. Singletons contributions continue to prompt? So this reader cannot help but wince slightly at Scotts summary dismissal of him: As Mastrobuono , has demonstrated, Singleton failed to understand the theology of grace Even if all secondary studies eventually become fodder for new scholarly harvests, the next generation of graduate students should not be left to wonder how Singleton was such a long-standing and influential Dante scholar.

In fact, the welcome attention to appropriate theological language that Scott prizes in Mastrobuonos work makes Scotts own use of contrappasso to describe appropriate penance in Purgatorio all the more surprising. But these are precisely the quibbles that Scotts valuable volume does not deserve. Understanding Dante will soon merit a revised edition, if for no other reason than to keep current its references to critical contributions. Scott refers largely to contributions from the s up to the s, with only a few nods to many of the groundbreaking studies already coming out in the twenty-first century.

Clearly Scotts volume is destined to become an indispensable reference in Dante studies. Sherry Roush, Penn State University. Lucia Battaglia Ricci, ed. Leggere Dante. Questo volume raccoglie i contributi di due seminari tenutisi presso lUniversit di Pisa nel e nel ; il primo gestito da specialisti di varie discipline, il secondo gestito direttamente dai dottorandi. Il volume diviso in due parti: nella prima le relazioni sono raggruppate in sezioni quali Il contributo dellanalisi formale e Il contributo dei lettori alle quali fanno da pendant nella corrispondente sezione della seconda parte degli esercizi di lettura.

Di questi ultimi, tutti molto perspicaci e ben articolati, si pu dare per ragioni di spazio solamente lelenco: Lapertura e la chiusura dei canti: connessioni di tipo metrico-retorico Maria Clotilde Camboni ; La chiosa di Boccaccio a Inf. Qualche appunto di carattere linguistico Veronica Mele. Il volume corredato di quattro utilissimi indici e da illustrazioni allarticolo Una biblioteca visiva di Lucia Battaglia Ricci in cui la studiosa attira lattenzione su unaltra componente della cultura dantesca, quella figurativa, convinta che luniverso culturale e fantastico cui attinge lautore della Commedia, la sua biblioteca mentale, non si componga solo di libri, e che la tradizione figurativa tanto vivace e ricca per i secoli che qui interessano sia stata fonte generosa di suggestioni per la Commedia ; onde lanalisi di scene tratte da Bibbie illustrate quali quella di Rochester o dalle opere di artisti conosciute da Dante come, per esempio, quelle di Giotto.

Questo rapporto interdiscorsivo tra il testo figurativo e quello letterario permette alla studiosa di soffermarsi su dei dettagli pittorici quali le nuvole che si osservano sulle pareti della Cappella Arena o le figurine contenute nei capilettera di libri illustrati e ipotizzare che da queste Dante abbia tratto con la sua fantasia creatrice motivo per la descrizione di episodi della Commedia. Il volume si apre con le Esperienze di un editore critico della Commedia di Federico Sanguineti a cui si deve il monumentale lavoro per ledizione critica della Commedia pubblicato nel Segue il contributo di Luigi Blasucci che si interessa al canto come unit testuale e al suo rapporto con la fictio narrativa 25 ; con dovizia di esempi dalle tre cantiche lo studioso esamina varie modalit: tra queste il carattere demarcativo implicito negli esordi senza rilevanti figure retoriche, i canti con prologo e quelli in cui avviene un trapasso dal finale di un canto al susseguente.

Bruno Porcelli offre una ricca rassegna di Pluralit di tipologie onomastiche nella Commedia concludendo che le varie strategie onomastiche non funzionano in maniera indifferenziata: esse non solo rispondono a precise esigenze del testo [], ma sono anche per lo pi rapportabili a codici letterari individuati Lintervento di Simone Marchesi prende il via dalla lettura di alcuni passi dai canti di Stazio in rapporto a Purgatorio 22 con lesplicita intenzione di trarre da questa analisi della pratica ermeneutica dantesca messa en abme nella Commedia, qualche indicazione sulla teoria ermeneutica che viene proposta nel poema Partendo dallepitaffio di Giovanni del Virgilio, Saverio Bellomo passa in rassegna le valutazioni fatte dai primi lettori, tra cui anche quella del figlio Pietro, mostrando quanto questi siano concordi nel sottolineare lo scibile del poeta.

Molto precisa e puntata sulle forme avverbiali di adesso nella Commedia il contributo di Fabrizio Franceschini che riscontra, citando le parole di Nencioni, quanto i commentatori antichi della Commedia siano stati attentissimi ai fatti lessicali, non solo per il significato ma anche per la qualit e la provenienza Claudia Villa rilegge lepisodio di Ugolino alla luce del Tieste di Seneca constatando come linvenzione della pena di Ugolino rappresenti un evidente aumento della pena di Tantalo Furio Brugnolo ritorna su Purgatorio 24, per mettere in luce i riferimenti intertestuali rapportabili a Cino da Pistoia e Onesto da Bologna, arrivando alla seguente conclusione: Che Dante avesse cos profondamente memorizzato tale sonetto, al punto da evocarne sia pure alla lontana le immagini e le idee, e soprattutto la concezione.

Selene Sarteschi illustra il debito di Dante, gi dai tempi della Vita nuova, alla Rettorica di Brunetto Latini che offre al poeta fiorentino non solo un esempio di discorso ma anche un modello di libro; il libro di Brunetto che filtrava la sapienza e larte di Cicerone viene a rappresentare un punto di riferimento, di studio, di riflessione pertinenti a una determinata materia, mentre lo nsegnamento di rettorica si schiudeva a pi vasti orizzonti e apprendimenti Da notare, secondo la Sarteschi, anche un altro modello offerto da Brunetto, in questo caso nel Tesoretto: quello di un narratore che nello stesso tempo anche personaggio della vicenda, proprio come avviene nella Commedia.

Chiude la prima parte dei contributi il saggio di Mirko Tavoni sulla lettura di Inf. Robin Kirkpatrick. Landmarks of World Literature. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, This second edition of Robin Kirkpatricks student guide to Dantes Divine Comedy is very little changed from its first edition released in , and the modern audience will find Kirkpatricks work to have maintained its vibrancy and efficacy. Presented in an energetic and concise language, this introduction is both practical and stimulating, and will inspire its users to seek out Dantes other major works if they are not already familiar with them.

Rather than piloting his readers through each finished canto, Kirkpatrick immerses them into the creative and intellectual genius of the artist. In this way, the student may independently unlock the psychology of the poem. Structured to this objective, this guide comprehensively explores in the first two chapters how Dante initiated the project of the Comedy through what he read and what he wrote, while the third chapter analyzes the poem in a more linear manner. The first chapter is prefaced by a chronology of Dantes life and works, coupled with important historical events in a timeline fashion; but that is the extent of historical setting offered here, and there is even less political, cultural, and theological grounding.

There are no footnotes and relatively few references to sources outside the Dantean body of works; these would only distract from Kirkpatricks navigation of Dantes own evolving theories, particularly those concerning narrative style, the poetic process, and their effect upon the engaged reader. In the first chapter, titled Approaches to The Divine Comedy, Kirkpatrick examines how Dante began to shape the Comedy, the progression of his attitudes as he conceived its form and function, and how certain qualities might produce a poem that could occupy his reader in a life-changing experience.

Inspiring a critical eye for fact is one of those qualities; and while the Comedy is not purely a work of fiction, neither is it a. Dante saw himself as a functional element of history; and if the simultaneous journey of pilgrim and poet is bound at every moment to locate and express truth, what Kirkpatrick finds is that it also becomes a painstaking, but worthwhile, lesson for the reader.

Kirkpatrick considers Dantes reading of the Aeneid as the approach that brought him most directly to the oeuvres message of moral purpose. Dante shapes the presence of Virgil not simply as a representation of Reason, but as an evolving contribution to exemplify the many ways in which one can be reasonable To support this claim, Kirkpatrick re-examines the Comedy for allegory, which should not be misused in a simplistic activity of interpretative classification.

Rather, in cultivating allegory, Dante is interested not merely in conclusions but in the power of the mind, morally and intellectually, to convert itself and the objects on which it is trained to another plane Change, Vision, and Language: The Early Works and Inferno Canto Two is the title of the second chapter, and what is most accomplished here is the delineation of how Dante came to know philosophy as an agent that might ultimately bring his reader to a conversion, as it did for himself. This is a point Kirkpatrick develops by revisiting Dantes earlier works as preparatory phases to his writing of the Comedy, most especially the Vita nuova and the Convivio.

In literary terms, it is in the Vita nuova that the poet cultivates the language that describes his unfolding love for Beatrice, yet writing the scientific prose of the Convivio honed Dantes control of fact and argument. Further, it is by way of the De vulgari eloquentia that Dante realized larger linguistic objectives in tangible terms. Lastly, in this chapter, Kirkpatrick looks to Inferno 1 and 2 to explain Dantes design of the Comedy and how specific poetic components namely, the vehicle of the comedy, the narrative unit of the canto, and the terzina lend flexibility and logic to the organic whole.

The third chapter, named simply The Divine Comedy, is dedicated to a sequential description of the poem. Each canticle is introduced, and the cantos are grouped by theme or narrative thread. Kirkpatrick treats the units comprehensively, relating the most important aspects of each unit to Dantes other works and to other moments in the Comedy. For example, the complex Inferno treats the sins of violence, broadening the discussion to also demonstrate the spiritual failure 68 of the figures of Farinata, Pier della Vigna, and Brunetto Latini.

The chapter opens eloquently: The Comedy explores the relationship that Dante believed to exist between God as Creator of the Universe and the human being as a creature of God 55 , and Kirkpatrick faithfully sustains this humanistic theme in his analysis. The last chapter, After Dante, talks briefly about authors and artists who have looked to the Comedy as a guide in their own works.

Following this chapter is a guide to further reading, and here one will find helpful indications to translations, commentaries, and studies of particular aspects of the Comedy. Also, the listing of recent critical works has been updated from the first edition. First-time students of Dante may find this guide somewhat advanced, but the more experienced students will value its selective approach. Teachers of the Comedy will appreciate the groupings of the cantos as they provide capsules for lessons and discussion. In addition, this guide addresses some of the most often recurring questions that arise in a course on The Divine Comedy, such as, Is this a true story?

In response to these curiosities, all. This strategy is essential to the guides main purpose, which is to demonstrate that to read the Comedy is to act 14 , and in this respect Kirkpatrick and Dante share the same objective. Tonia Bernardi Triggiano, Dominican University. Giuliana Carugati. Il ragionare della carne. Dallanima mundi a Beatrice. San Cesario di Lecce: Manni, Beatrice non lanima mundi, cos come non il divino nous.

Non la Sapienza biblica, la Filosofia di Boezio, la Natura di Bernardo, la theologia di Alano, la Raison di Jean de Meun, dichiara Carugati in conclusione al suo bel libro sul ragionare della carne. Beatrice non tutto questo, e ancor meno tutto ci di cui questo libro non si occupa: rivelazione, grazia, fede e via dicendo, cio la sequela di tutte le di lei pi canoniche allegorizzazioni.

In questa affermazione che nega Beatrice non contenuto lintero percorso che i nove certo non casualmente tali capitoli di questo libro delineano. La via a Beatrice cos come la via del ritorno al trascendente di Dante, e insieme a lui di ogni essere umano che tale rotta percorra , secondo Carugati, la via di un pensiero e di una scrittura figurali, cio a dire carnali, o meglio, incarnati: un pensiero e una scrittura animati da eros, che hanno come fine circoscrivere limpensabile, e perci indicibile, trascendente, ma perci continuamente corrono il rischio di smarrirsi nellimmanente, nella selva di quelle immagini di ben in ultima analisi false come solo in parte vera si sarebbe rivelata la sequela delle ipostasi in cui Dante aveva via via creduto di ritrovare il volto della sua perduta beatrice ma necessarie, affinch lerranza dellesperienza carnale possa divenire quel trionfante ritorno a Beatrice che della trascorsa alienazione canceller financo la memoria Via dunque negativa allinavvicinabile nucleo irradiante dal quale si dipartono i centrifughi raggi della vita incarnata, dellanima mundi nelle sue ipostasi terrene, perch le parole che di tale esperienza intendono render conto sono da leggersi come si legge il negativo di un fotogramma: nella speranza, cio, che quellinverso di immagine memoriale che nella camera oscura dellesistenza ci appare enigmatico, emerger infine, come da un processo di sviluppo fotografico, in tutto il suo splendore nel positivo del post mortem.

Lordine dei capitoli quello, cronologico, che percorre questa via negativa a Beatrice: dalle origini platoniche e plotiniane delleros, cio di una carne pervasa dal logos che pensiero, parola, ragione di un ordine ineluttabile 23; cap. I , alle rinascite filosofico-poetiche di tale Weltanschauung occorse nellopera di autori che a Dante segnarono la rotta fintanto che il suo legno apprese a cantando varca[re]: Guglielmo di Conches, Bernardo Silvestre cap.

II , Alano di Lilla cap. III e pi in generale tutti quei filosofi-teologi del XII secolo che delleros in quanto amore [salvifico] che viene alla carne, da altro 47 si fecero via via neoplatonici cantori; per approdare allormai scialba personificazione di tutti i nomi che dicevano la trascendenza delluomo a se stesso 88 , cio a quella Raison a carattere scolastico-allegorico che Jean de Meun pone dinanzi al suo Amante in alternativa a Nature, e di cui lAmante-Durante del Fiore intravede la consustanzialit sapienziale con Amore cap. Se la Beatrice della Vita nuova la prima risposta provvisoria alla questione dellorigine della conoscenza 95, cap.

V , effetto e causa dellintelligenza damore che, sola, salva luomo-poeta , ecco allora che lamata del Convivio non affatto lantitesi di quella prima beatrice, bens la di lei susseguente ipostasi, ulteriore tappa in una cerca che permane unitaria anche nel suo temporaneo deviare cap. E ancora ecco, argomenta Carugati, che il discorso sulla nobilt del IV trattato altro non che una riflessione su eros nella sua forma adulta, eros che trapassa in altro, in ammaestramento, in scrittura , ponendo lAmante di fronte alle sue responsabilit di essere pensante carnalmente iscritto nel linguaggio e nella storia cap.

A fronte delle condanne agostiniane prima, tomiste poi, delleros come inammissibile delectatio dellanima, Dante inscena, nella Commedia, il grandioso viaggio verso quella assoluta delectatio erotica che la salvifica felicit della visio Dei operantesi attraverso il ritorno dellio a Beatrice, un ritorno destinato a condurre allabbandono anche di questultima ipostasi, affinch trionfi lassoluta, perfetta gratuit [dell] eros divino e dellinestinguibile desiderio che lo canta capp. Questo il nodo, di desiderio e scrittura, che stringe Dante alla sua beatrice, theologia ma non nellaccezione correntemente data al termine: sgg.

In questo senso, [Beatrice] tutte le donne e nessuna donna Siamo in presenza di un notevole contributo di cogenti riflessioni che Carugati offre alla comunit dei dantisti; e di riflessioni, com ovvio, tuttaltro che allineate alla esegesi pi convenzionale di Beatrice.

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Lautrice finisce per ammetterlo in conclusione: [ E forse proprio questo laspetto di questo libro che lascia affascinati e perplessi insieme: affascinati, perch con grande maestria, grazie anche a una scrittura sempre consapevole e misurata, Carugati riesce a condurci ai confini di zone del pensiero dove alcuni, o forse molti, rifuggirebbero dalladdentrarsi; ma anche perplessi, perch tutto accade come se lesplorazione di questa tradizione [] segreta, sotterranea e sovversiva avvenisse qui per la prima volta come se, cio, le battaglie filosofiche sulla identit di Beatrice condotte in passato penso ai suoi pi autorevoli promotori: a un Perez, un Marigo, un Valli, tutti assenti dalla eterogenea e diseguale bibliografia, non rispecchiantesi nelle minimalistiche note ai capitoli non fossero mai state combattute e quasi sempre perdute sullimpervio terreno della dantistica novecentesca.

Questa pare essere una scelta di silenzio consapevole anche se mai in alcun modo argomentata da parte dellautrice; una scelta che sembra volersi pacificatoria intesa cio a riaprire il dibattito senza per questo renderlo fin da subito diatriba. Ed in questo stesso spirito raccomando vivamente ai lettori di formarsi in prima persona un articolato giudizio di questo rimarchevole contributo di Giuliana Carugati. Daniela Boccassini, University of British Columbia.

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Nick Havely. Dante and the Franciscans: Poverty and the Papacy in the Commedia. The frontispiece is a most apt illustration to this book: Dante and Virgil are confronting Guido da Montefeltro, clearly recognizable, through the flames enveloping him, as a cordigliero with arms devotionally crossed; beyond him is Pope Boniface VIII, enthroned, stern, with a gesture that both threatens and absolves. As is stated in the Introduction, three main concerns of the poem are drawn together in this book: Franciscanism, papal power and the vernacular poets voice 3.

Dante consistently condemns cupiditas, the she-wolf that destroys justitia, and is rampant not just among the sheep but, more seriously, among the pastors; renewal of the latter can be only through an espousal of that Lady Poverty supremely celebrated in Paradiso. Havelys research documents that Dantes determined plea to the clergy for renunciation of temporal power and property through a return to apostolic principles, through going, literally and metaphorically, discalced, is expressed through language that converges many a time in what is found in the writings of the Spiritual Franciscans.

This work is textually based; all arguments are exemplified by Dantes writings and by a wide range of documents, with careful, accurate, and sensitive interpretation of language and images therein. Chronologically it looks before, during, and after Dantes time, and the result is a scholarly feat. The author is much to be complimented Dante and Francis are due campioni and he has covered much contemporary parallel material, modern exegesis, and literary interpretation; the amount and diversity would have daunted a lesser scholar. Chapter 1 serves the reader well in providing clearly and economically a richly referenced background.

Havely looks at Tuscan writing on wealth and poverty, against which he places the possibly Dantean Fiore, some canzoni, Convivio, the Sacrum Commercium with more on this in Appendix I , biblical and patristic sources. Other sections illustrate contentious debate about Franciscan poverty, and how the linking of poverty with spiritual renewal generated polemical but also poetic texts Jacopone. Further pieces in this marquetry are the studium in Santa Croce, Servasanto da Faenza, the Liber de virtutibus et vitiis it touches on the ethics of finance and usury in the light of which Havely looks at Olivi and Ubertino both were in Florence in the late s , and reminds us of their identification of the monsters of the Apocalypse with corrupt ecclesiastical authority in Ubertinos case even with specific popes.

The final tassello is on the Franciscans and the papacy, including Pier da Morrone. The next three chapters look closely at each of the three cantiche. Chapter 2, Avarice and Authority, is on Inferno, where Dante never uses the word povert. Havelys systematic examination gives us innumerable references that enrich our reading of the poetic text.

Most interesting are the pages on the choice of Nicholas III, whose somewhat pro-Franciscan and anti-French position Dante might have viewed with favour, but whose nepotism with the image of the she-bear and her cubs was known and condemned in the pseudo-Joachimist Vaticinia, a text useful also for Clement V Indeed, abundant wealth is to be reaped in the analysis of canto 19, where several key words pietra, frate, borsa, folle are enriched by their connection to religious texts, a technique that works well also for corda and capestro in canto In the section on The Franciscans and the Papal Inquiry of the convergences between Dantes texts including Bonaventura in Paradiso 12 and, mainly, Ubertinos crucial.

The chapter draws to a close with the decline in Avignon and Assisi. The Franciscan features of ascent are highlighted in chapter 3, Purgatorio: Poverty in Spirit. Some affinities between the Sacrum commercium and Purgatorio, both stories of an ascent, have been noted by earlier scholars, as copiously documented here, but Havely is gifted in synthesizing and taking the argument further, in this particular instance with the archetype of the mountain as a place of trial and purgation.

The vestimento of the angel-gatekeeper is fascinatingly linked to discussion of Franciscan writing on the colour and cloth of the habit, and the tradition and imagery that emerge unlock some new interpretations of pride and brotherhood frate in Purgatorio Discussion of Dantes presentation of the poverty of Mary in the style of a Franciscan lauda is part of the section on Poverty and the Poets, and chapter 3 ends with further evidence of links between ascent and vision in Dantes text, and the culture and literature of Franciscan poverty to be found in much of the detail in cantos , including rewarding discussion of the meretrix magna.

The pilgrim Dante, addressed as frate brother by fellow poets, by a pope Adriano, expiating avarice and by Beatrice, finally appears both as a member of a community and as a privileged prophetic and even apostolic voice Chapter 4, entitled Paradiso: Poverty and Authority, is the most exciting as we reach the exaltation of evangelical poverty, and Havelys writing assumes some of the resonance of his texts.

Piccarda, Romeo, and Folchetto are read as thematic forerunners of Francis, the reviver of apostolic ideals principally poverty. Here we read wonderfully illuminating pages on Dantes portrayal of the saint in relation to both literary Celano and Bonaventura and visual traditions the Bardi Dossal, also in Appendix II. The section on Monarchia III brings deftly together the many strands in this study. The following one, on Paradiso 18 and 27, illustrates first, how Dante seems to be using against John XXII the kind of rhetoric that he [the pope] was using to denounce the Spirituals , and second, how Peter in his invective deploys some of the discourse of the Spiritual dissidents , with the beguins and Bernardo Gui featuring prominently.

Dantes voice, first raised against the avari in Doglia mi reca strikes hard at the highest peaks. Finally, the Epilogue documents, albeit briefly but most interestingly, how convergence of discourse between Dante and the Spiritual Franciscans goes on beyond his lifetime. Poverty, of an ungenerous kind, seems to have affected the publishers, and the lack of colour in the valuable illustrations is much to be regretted. The Cambridge Companion to Giotto. Anne Derbes and Mark Sandona.

The editors of this volume provide the perfect introduction to a number of articles which complement one another and present a very comprehensive view of Giotto as one of the most important masters of early Italian art. Besides the historic contextualisation, the introductory essay broaches one of the main aspects of Giottos production: the body of work attributed to him and the chronology of such works. The fact that Giotto received. The first essay by Hayden Maginnis addresses the historical evidence contained in Trecento and Quattrocento sources commenting on Giottos standing: though Boccaccio but also Dante and Villani had alluded to Giottos ability to draw inspiration from the classics, we have to turn to Vasari for an evaluation of the painter which will influence later scholarship.

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With the naturalistic parameter in mind, Maginnis analyses the human figures in the Arena Chapel and, after a brief excursus on the Bardi and Perruzzi chapels, he concludes that it is unlikely that Giotto himself authored the Infancy cycle in the Lower Church at Assisi.

He then discusses the panels, among which the only certain attribution to Giotto is the Ognissanti Madonna. The Assisi problem is thus delegated to the author of the second essay, Bruno Zanardi, whose seminal work on the fresco cycle is based on the calculations of the giornate that is, the duration of executing the St. Francis cycle, which Zanardi puts at days after taking into consideration the way the layers of plaster are prepared, the proportional uniformity of the figures the Patroni , the modes of depicting flesh.

This examination explains the process undergone in the making of the cycle but does not put beyond any doubt the question of authorship. William Tronzo sees his essay as conjoining two separate trains of thought: one historical, the other historiographic On one hand, it revisits the Vasari debate of Giottos new approach to nature or naturalism; on the other, he investigates, in the light of modern scholarship, Giottos innovation and departure from convention.

In the fifth essay, Gary Radke takes up Giottos engagement in architecture and demonstrates, by reading the spatial text of the Arena Chapel which is sometimes thought to be designed by Giotto and its organisational scheme, how Giotto was fascinated by architectural representation.

The next four essays examine the religious and civic contexts in which Giotto worked, and issues of patronage and reception. Joanna Cannon surveys early art made for the Franciscan friars in relation to Giottos activities in their churches, and examines the history of mendicant orders and the innovative ways in which Giotto contributed, with his paintings, to illustrate the salient moments of St.

Franciss life. William Cook retraces in his essay the tradition of Franciscan painting prior to Giotto through Brother Thomas of Celanos life of the saint in order to highlight Giottos panel for the church of S. Croce in Florence. Cook concludes by underlining Giottos research prior to the painting and states that he also knew of alternative traditions, especially that of Siena, and incorporated details from it into his work. Either directly or indirectly, Giotto made use of written tradition, in particular Bonaventures Legenda maior Trinita Madonna, painted thirty years earlier.

In the Ognissanti Madonna Giotto appears to have developed a synthesis of the orders aspirations: [] the concepts of exaltation through humility and the virtue of charity These elements differ substantially from the motivations which led lay patrons in particular, the Scrovegni, the Bardi, and the Peruzzi , who commissioned works by Giotto which would depict scenes of biblical and Christian history that attested to the power and redemption of the patrons. Thus, the iconography of these chapels represents the interstices of the interest of patron, painter, and public in a novel situation This is the conclusion reached by Benjamin Kohl in his essay, in which more space is devoted to Enrico Scrovegnis commission of the Arena Chapel, to which the editors of this volume turn in the tenth chapter.

Derbes and Sandona single out the chancel arch of the chapel as the focal point of their multiple reading of the frescoes and question the positioning of two frescoes: the Pact of Judas and the Visitation. The two authors convincingly argue that since the Chapel was primarily constructed by Enrico in order to atone for the heinous practice of usury, the theme of money and how it is generated link Judas, symbol of sterility and usury, with the Virgin Mary, its opposite, since she conceives and gives birth to Jesus.

The natural is, therefore, juxtaposed to the unnatural, and the recurring images of conception and birth in the chapel thus imply an allegory of spiritual rebirth, a tale which was presumably resonant in Enrico Scrovegnis life Furthermore, the prominence of the Visitation and the association of the Virgin with charity take on added significance because the chancel arch served as the frame to Enricos burial place. The two editors suggest that the arch serves as a cue to any visitor to pray for his soul.

The last essay of this collection looks at Giottos reported wit, of which there is evidence in the Decameron VI, 5 but also in short stories by Sacchetti and Vasari. Besides the elements drawn from the artists life, Andrew Ladis also isolates playful and humorous touches in some of the figures of the frescoes in the Arena Chapel sinners in Hell, Stultitia, the steward in the Wedding Feast at Cana thus bringing to a full circle the discussion of Giottos most famous single work.

All the articles refer to the many illustrations 46 plates and 49 figures , which provide visual stimulus and instant verification for the points discussed. Each essay is accompanied by a very exhaustive set of notes placed at the end of the volume, just before a well organised bibliography and a very helpful index of names. Guido Cavalcanti laico e le origini della poesia europea nel 7 centenario della morte. Poesia, filosofia, scienza e ricezione. Atti del Convegno internazionale, Barcellona, ottobre A cura di Rossend Arqus.

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Alessandria: Edizioni dellOrso, A prolific poet, Guido Cavalcanti engaged in some sort of philosophical speculation, too. It is quite impossible to forget his portrayal by Dante; in Inferno X there is, at least, the suggestion that he was an Averroist, or a potentially atheistic Aristotelian. It is not surprising, then, that the title of this collection of the Atti del Convegno internazionale held in Barcelona in reads: Cavalcanti laico.

From the outset there is an immediate characterization of Cavalcanti as supposedly a free, lay spirit, perhaps an atheist, representing a tradition different from Dantes, and his peculiar trait would consist in the fact that he possesses an attitude of disbelief. A similar. The Other Middle Ages , in which the author has argued that Guido sought answers to human dilemmas not in theology but in natural sciences biology, medicine, philosophy of nature, optics, logic a method that clearly distinguishes him from Dante, who seemed to think that human difficulties could be solved by resorting to theology and faith.

Maria Corti, to whom the present volume is dedicated, opened a series of interpretative paths let us recall, for example, Dualismo e immaginazione visiva in Guido Cavalcanti and La felicit mentale by putting Cavalcanti in the frame of a free, lay culture, rather detached from theology. According to Corti, Dante himself belonged to that cultural environment, but rather as a bridge between the scholarship produced in universities and monasteries, and the new generation of urban intellectuals, like Cavalcanti.

The new intellectuals, who had a particular idea of freedom of thought, mainly used the volgare, and were enthusiastic supporters of the new philosophy from the Arab world. Michelangelo Picone argues that Cavalcanti indicated the way that Dante would follow, steering him towards the polo semantico e ideologico rappresentato dalla poesia guinizzelliana, distogliendolo da quello della poesia guittoniana 9 , while Raffaele Pinto claims that Cavalcantis poetry shows that alienation and illness are closely related to desire.

Donna me prega in particular would be the attempt to confute Dante on philosophical ground, scegliendo una linea argomentativa diametralmente opposta al teologismo di Dante, e che, puntando sulla dicotomia intelletto-sensibilit, coincide con laverroismo estremo Pinto, whose paper is very much dependent on Alain de Liberas studies on Aquinas and Averroism, seems fond of oversimplified dualisms.

He maintains that we could agevolmente riconoscere nellaverroismo estremo il fondamento teorico del soggettivismo di Guido e nel teologismo di tipo tomista il fondamento teorico del realismo di Dante Besides, I find his usage of the word teologismo when he refers to Thomistic theology, for example, but also to Dantes poetry 46 quite objectionable. The word has some rather negative connotations, and unless Pinto explains in some length his thinking, I would suggest and prefer teologia di tipo tomista 33 , and prospettiva teologico-dottrinale di Dante Also, at least once there re-emerges the old clich according to which Dante, in a sense, translated Aquinass theology into poetry: [] nella linea della antropologia di Tommaso che Dante ha fatto sua fin dalla Vita Nuova traducendola in poesia attraverso il lutto Some explanation was then needed for philosophically charged concepts, such as modello noetico 31 , impotenza gnoseologica dellio 31 , inibizione analogica 32 , ontologizzare 36 , chosen among many, because in this context they sometimes appear anachronistic, given the precise, technical meaning that those concepts have in modern and contemporary philosophy.

Isabel Gonzles writes about suffering in Cavalcanti, and argues that el placer es slo una ilusin, un engao para hacer que el poeta se enamore, y conducirlo luego, irremisiblemente, al dolor 49 , and concentrates on the signa amoris, such as tears, shaking and sighs, while Natascia Tonelli who has six packed pages of bibliography for a forty-eight page article!

According to Enrico Fenzi, Cavalcantis representation of love does not have any ethic or civic connotation, and we are, alas, left with the poesia di un aristocratico. There is an ideological distance between Cavalcanti and Dante because of the intera operazione morale e politica che attraverso lesperienza e il linguaggio damore apriva un varco nel vecchio mondo borghese e trasformava la nobilt di sangue in nobilt danimo Antonio Gagliardi whose list of works cited consists of five items, four of which written by Gagliardi himself argues that Cavalcanti has followed the Averroist path of the species intellegibilis, while Dante would be on the side of the Christian itinerary in order to obtain the visio beatifica.

Roberto Antonelli writes about a common ideological point that Dante and Cavalcanti share: both represent the assoluto interiore, la poesia, abolendo la diegesi esterna, la dialogicit cortese e guittoniana ormai rituale e quindi staccata dal dettato interiore assoluto Corrado Calenda, on the other hand, offers an essay titled Tra blocco della teoria e frantumazione dellesperienza, by far the most cryptic one rather, confused in the entire collection.

Mario Mancinis essay is on Cavalcanti and Ezra Pound, while Maria Corti makes a diagnosis of Cavalcantis representation of love as a concezione amorosa di tipo averroista o radicale Carlos Lpez Cortezos article is about the strutture triangolari significanti in Inferno X, while Marcello Ciccuto reflects upon lo sdegno di Guido e lumilt di Dante. Diego Fasolini, Tulane University. Simone Marchesi. Stratigrafie decameroniane. Firenze: Olschki, Nel suo denso saggio Stratigrafie decameroniane Simone Marchesi inizia dalla nozione di ars combinatoria introdotta nella critica boccacciana da Giuseppe Velli in un famoso articolo apparso su Italia medievale e umanistica nel Secondo Velli, questarte soggiace ai meccanismi che regolano il rapporto tra le opere di Boccaccio e le loro fonti: Velli paragona i frammenti di autori classici e medievali che entrano a far parte delle opere del Certaldese a tessere di un mosaico, in cui la bravura dellartista risiede soprattutto nella sutura di tali tessere, ovvero nellaccostamento e nella ricomposizione creativa dei propri frammenti e di quelli altrui.

Lobiettivo quello di produrre un insieme testuale completamente rinnovato ed originale. Con tale modello di riferimento, Marchesi vuole introdurre una nuova e terza dimensione: la profondit. Questa si esplicita tramite una serie di stratigrafie, per cui dentro ad una sola tessera del mosaico non si rinviene pi unicamente una sola fonte, ma molteplici, stratificate appunto diacronicamente una sullaltra.

Secondo lAutore, tale puntualizzazione aiuta soprattutto a far luce sulla ricezione del Decameron, poich lascia aperte le ambiguit del testo le piccole incongruenze nei ragionamenti, le ellissi che il lettore non pu colmare, le impropriet di linguaggio, le ridondanze , rifiutando una significazione univoca a favore di una pi aperta polisemia semantica: Il dialogo vivo che la pagina del Decameron instaura con i modelli culturali del passato, un dialogo che il lettore invitato a riconoscere e ricostruire, uno strumento attraverso il quale lopera invita i lettori ad esercitare il loro diritto-dovere di interpreti XIV.

Il primo esempio di stratificazione delle fonti quello dellorrido cominciamento del Decameron, il quale riposerebbe su due distinti antecedenti filologici che si rivolgerebbero simultaneamente a due distinti pubblici.

Courbet e la Natura a Ferrara (Italy) Music by David Hilowitz

Marchesi accosta al notorio testo di riferimento medievale, rilevato da Vittore Branca, dellHistoria langobardorum II. Secondo lo studioso, Boccaccio recupera due diversi antecedenti storici e riusa due diversi contesti storiografici riattivando due diversi sistemi di valori perch si rivolge a due strati di pubblico diversi XVII. Pertanto, una prima fascia di pubblico individuer nel richiamo a Paolo Diacono il luogo di intersezione tra testo e storia, tra esperienza e fictio, e riconoscer nella pestilenza il necessario ingrediente per il dipanamento di una comeda, con un inizio orribile ed un esito felice.

Una seconda fascia, molto pi ristretta nel quattordicesimo secolo, sar in grado di percepire la risonanza liviana, intesa come la conferma della produttivit retorica del testo classico la capacit di essere ri-usato [] come serbatoio di esempi in nuovi enunciati. Nelle intenzioni di Boccaccio, secondo Marchesi, non esiste tuttavia la volont di creare un pubblico gerarchizzato, capace di andare pi o meno a fondo del senso letterale del testo. Il Decameron dovrebbe essere un composto instabile, che lascerebbe aperta una pluralit di opzioni di lettura, anche nella loro potenziale contraddittoriet.

In sintesi, il Certaldese avrebbe costruito un testo in cui la capacit autoriale di dare un significato definito viene quasi a mancare, in favore dellattivit interpretativa dei lettori. In tal modo, le cento novelle si aprono ad una sorta di ambiguit congenita e voluta dallautore. Lo studio Stratigrafie decameroniane intende studiare dettagliatamente, anche se a campione, gli esiti ambigui dellincontro tra lintenzione dellautore e quella del lettore, provocate dalle molteplici allusioni che si annidano nei medesimi loci testuali.

I primi due capitoli sono dedicati ai punti in cui si fa sentire la voce autoriale nel Decameron. Di particolare interesse linedito primo capitolo in cui si accostano intimamente i termini di novella ed exemplum, grazie ad unallusione alla Rhetorica aristotelica. Vi sono inoltre ridiscussi lIntroduzione, il Proemio al mezzo e la Conclusione dellopera trecentesca, alla luce di una nuova fonte, ovvero le Institutiones oratoriae di Quintiliano.

Il secondo capitolo analizza la novella delle papere nei suoi strati pi e meno superficiali, con riferimenti al Dante della Commedia, alla Satira 1. Il terzo capitolo associa brillantemente la cartaginese Didone e leroina della quinta novella della quarta giornata del Decameron, Lisabetta da Messina, facendone risaltare la verit storica e la verit narrativa che avvolgono le diverse leggende della mitica regina. Lultimo e quarto capitolo si concentra sul ciclo di Calandrino, particolarmente sulle novelle 8.

Qui lAutore analizza i sottili segnali metaletterari che si addensano intorno a questo protagonista decameroniano, segnali derivati da un precedente classico, uno biblico e due complementari interpretazioni patristiche, rispettivamente: il mito ovidiano di Deucalione e Pirra, lEcclesiaste III 5, con i relativi commenti a questultimo di Gerolamo ed Agostino. Anche se alcuni nuclei filologici del testo preso qui in considerazione erano gi stati pubblicati dallAutore su prestigiose riviste, essi trovano in questo volume non solo un maggiore approfondimento ed ampliamento ma, soprattutto, un inquadramento teorico.

Lo studio sulle Stratigrafie, proposte da Marchesi, risulta essere un ottimo punto di riferimento per lanalisi dei rapporti intertestuali tra le fonti della compagine decameroniana: ripercorrerne i percorsi si trasforma in un affascinante esercizio ermeneutico. Marilyn Migiel, A Rhetoric of the Decameron. Toronto: U of Toronto Press, Written in accessible and inviting prose, Migiels book is a compelling analysis of what she convincingly argues is a key factor in the communicative strategy of the Decameron; namely, its construction of a complex and gendered social and cultural discourse of which women are at once the objects, the alleged addressees, and the speakers, in the cornice as well as in the novellas.

The books contention is that the Decameron may be read as a laboratory in which a discourse about women is constructed and tested through the dialogue of sexed narrators what Migiel labels the sexed thought that pervades the work. If the premise is apparently optimistic, and the brigata appears at first to engage in a seemingly equalitarian dialogue even one that should favor, numerically, a female perspective about women Migiel shows how the patriarchal, dominating social code that frames the work is only marginally challenged by the sequential unfolding of the narrative.

What might initially be imagined as a leveled field of tensions between opposing rhetorical strategies is, in fact, progressively revealed to be another instrument through which the hegemonic patriarchal discourse is reinforced. As the work moves toward its conclusion, Migiel argues, the rhetoric of the Decameron increasingly limits and eventually closes off the possibility of women articulating an alternative discourse that may challenge the one elaborated by their male counterparts.

The rhetoric of the Decameron that Migiel isolates in her analysis has little to do with the traditional study of the classical discipline and its division into what speakers choose to talk about inventio , how they use to arrange their information and arguments dispositio , what rhetorical and stylistic features they use in order to render their message most effective elocutio As she defines it, the rhetoric of a literary work is the strategy by which it produces meaning through the interaction of the grammar of its statements their semantic value, as determined by the cultural context for which they were produced and within which they resonate and their syntax the meaning that each utterance assumes thanks to its position in the temporal unfolding of the text.

The rhetorical analysis of the Decameron that Migiel rigorously conducts redefines Boccaccios text as the locus of an essential ambiguity. While her close readings help to identify several areas that may appear semantically philogynist, they also demonstrate that the syntax of the text works toward keeping these areas under strict control by delimiting, isolating, and eventually obliterating them. The six dense chapters make several specific contributions to the interpretation of both the individual stories and particular textual loci. Chapter One focuses on the role of women as marginalized, inessential, and silenced witnesses to the patriarchal order, as it appears both in the account of the effects of the plague on the social body of Florence a.

The introductory discussion of the outermost cornice sets the stage well for the discussion Migiel develops in Chapter 2 by scrutinizing the emergence of an intradiegetic discourse on woman in the novellas of Days 1 and 2. For reasons of space I will provide here only one example of the inner movement of her arguments, which progress nondialectically through a series of gendered oppositional readings of the text, and I will then briefly survey the remaining chapters.

By focusing on the verbal interaction direct and through mutually responding narratives between Fiammetta and Dioneo and the narrators who will in turn side with either of them , Migiel points out that the first female character introduced in the Decameron in 1. The charged dynamics of the look she detects in the novella help Migiel to formulate two general guiding questions, to which the rest of the chapter will provide a documented and detailed answer through a contrastive reading of 1.

And when stories of the Decameron grant women subjectivity, will they construct it on a male model? Migiel sees the peak of Fiammettas counterpoint to Dioneos discoursive strategy in the next tale: the Marchioness of Monferrato 1. The tit-for-tat structure of the exchange between the narrators, however, does not end in a draw. Even if the Marchioness is able to deflect the Kings desire, she does so by encoding her message in a non-verbal language that confirms the deeper patriarchal structure in which she is forced to operate.

The dinner she has organized, in fact, ends up associating women with food and animals, a move that confirms the larger cultural gendering of body and matter as feminine, in polar opposition to their male counterparts, mind and spirit. Yet, in a final twist, Migiel rescues Fiammettas story by arguing that her response to the portrayal of woman advanced by Dioneo has the advantage of making visible the tensions around gender ideologies and politics Unlike Dioneo, who strives to present the issue of womens sexuality as the natural point of entry into any discourse about women, Fiammetta moves toward naming the problem: that is, she encourages readers to hold specific subjects in the story and in the cornice accountable for the positions they take in the debate.

A similar dynamics of exchange, which progressively draw the modern reader of the Decameron into the interpretation of the text, govern the second half of the chapter. Migiels analysis of texts from Day 2 centers on the notion that even when the stories present a reversal of looks, by having women see men as in 2. Even when they become the bearers of the look, women seem to exercise it only to conform to and encourage male desire. In telling her story of Andreuccio da Perugia 2. In a continuation of the dialogue between the two master narrators that began in Day 1, it is again Dioneo who will respond to Fiammetta, from the.

For Migiel, the semantic confrontation between the two narratives is resolved only syntactically. Dioneos story is not only a reworking of and a response to Fiammettas. As Migiel notes in the final section of the chapter, the rhetoric of the Decameron also privileges the statements that incorporate his point of view: Dioneo has the first and last word in this fundamental debate; his stories are more vital and consequential than Fiammettas; and, finally, Dioneo is allowed a coherent ideological position However, in the coherence of Dioneos advocacy of moral freedom and sexual liberty as opposed to Fiammettas anti-ideological attitude, which leads her to assume apparently contradictory moral positions through her storytelling Migiel seems to locate the tilting-point in favor of Fiammetta.

Her implicit call at the end of the chapter is for the contemporary audience to move beyond the ideological reading that traverses the opacity of the characters position and learn to appreciate the complexity of their rhetoric; in particular, its eventual resistance to final interpretation. I have concentrated at length on the first analytical chapter in order to highlight what will become a recurrent structure of argument in the following chapters.

Chapter 3 dwells at some length on the distinction the Decameron draws between the male and female narrators when they choose the content and language for their tales. Surveying the stories women tell on Days 2, 3, and 7, Migiel argues that at the end of Day 2 female narrators distance themselves from the mens view of women as highly sexualized beings [] portray womens sexuality as directed toward the creation and maintenance of long-term relationships [] seem aware, as the men do not, of the connection between sexuality and reproduction [] acknowledge that women are not always truthful, but they investigate womens legitimate reasons for deception