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Introduction to cultures and religions for the study of AP Art History
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  2. Introduction to Islam
  3. The True Religion
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This page has been archived and is no longer updated. Find out more about page archiving. Islam at a glance Last updated A brief overview of Islam, a religion centred on God and revealed by the Prophet Muhammad. On this page Page options Print this page. Islam at a glance The word Islam means 'submission to the will of God'.

Muslims believe that Islam was revealed over years ago in Mecca, Arabia. Followers of Islam are called Muslims. Muslims believe that there is only One God. The Arabic word for God is Allah. According to Muslims, God sent a number of prophets to mankind to teach them how to live according to His law. Jesus, Moses and Abraham are respected as prophets of God. They believe that the final Prophet was Muhammad. Muslims believe that Islam has always existed, but for practical purposes, date their religion from the time of the migration of Muhammad.

Islam is often seen as having the simplest doctrines of the major religions. In Islam, God is beyond all comprehension and thus Muslims are not expected to anthropomorphise him. Muslims believe that the creation of everything in the universe was brought into being by God's sheer command, " Be, and it is " [55] and that the purpose of existence is to worship or to know God. Belief in angels is fundamental to Islam. Unlike their Hebrew counterpart, the term is exclusively used for heavenly spirits of the divine world, but not for human messengers. The Quran refers to both angelic and human messengers as "rasul" instead.

The Quran is the principal source for the Islamic concept of angels. In hadith literature, angels are often assigned to only one specific phenomena. In Islam, just like in Judaism and Christianity, angels are often represented in anthropomorphic forms combined with supernatural images, such as wings, being of great size or wearing heavenly articles. The Islamic holy books are the records which most Muslims believe were dictated by God to various prophets. Muslims believe that parts of the previously revealed scriptures, the Tawrat Torah and the Injil Gospel , had become distorted —either in interpretation, in text, or both.

The chronologically earlier suras, revealed at Mecca , are primarily concerned with ethical and spiritual topics. The later Medinan suras mostly discuss social and legal issues relevant to the Muslim community. The Quran is more concerned with moral guidance than legislation, and is considered the "sourcebook of Islamic principles and values". The science of Quranic commentary and exegesis is known as tafsir. Muslims usually view "the Quran" as the original scripture as revealed in Arabic and that any translations are necessarily deficient, which are regarded only as commentaries on the Quran.

According to the Quran, the prophets were instructed by God to bring the "will of God" to the peoples of the nations. Muslims believe that prophets are human and not divine, though some are able to perform miracles to prove their claim. Islamic theology says that all of God's messengers preached the message of Islam—submission to the will of God. The Quran mentions the names of numerous figures considered prophets in Islam , including Adam , Noah , Abraham , Moses and Jesus , among others. Muslims believe that God finally sent Muhammad as the last law-bearing prophet Seal of the prophets to convey the divine message to the whole world to sum up and to finalize the word of God.

In Islam, the "normative" example of Muhammad's life is called the sunnah literally "trodden path". Muslims are encouraged to emulate Muhammad's actions in their daily lives and the sunnah is seen as crucial to guiding interpretation of the Quran. Hadith Qudsi is a sub-category of hadith, regarded as verbatim words of God quoted by Muhammad but is not part of the Quran. A hadith involves two elements: a chain of narrators, called sanad , and the actual wording, called matn.

Muhammad al-Bukhari [82] collected over , hadith, but only included 2, distinct hadith that passed veracity tests that codified them as authentic into his book Sahih al-Bukhari , [82] which is considered by Sunnis to be the most authentic source after the Quran. The Quran emphasizes bodily resurrection , a break from the pre-Islamic Arabian understanding of death. Good deeds, such as charity, prayer and compassion towards animals, [89] [90] will be rewarded with entry to heaven.

Mystical traditions in Islam place these heavenly delights in the context of an ecstatic awareness of God. Everything, good and bad, is believed to have been decreed. There are five basic religious acts in Islam, collectively known as 'The Pillars of Islam' arkan al-Islam ; also arkan ad-din , "pillars of religion" , which are considered obligatory for all believers. The Quran presents them as a framework for worship and a sign of commitment to the faith. They are 1 the creed Shahada , 2 daily prayers Salah , 3 almsgiving Zakat , 4 fasting during Ramadan Sawm and 5 the pilgrimage to Mecca Hajj at least once in a lifetime.

Notable among them are charity Sadaqah and recitation of the Quran. This testament is a foundation for all other beliefs and practices in Islam. Muslims must repeat the shahadah in prayer, and non-Muslims wishing to convert to Islam are required to recite the creed. Salat is intended to focus the mind on God, and is seen as a personal communication with him that expresses gratitude and worship. Performing prayers five times a day is compulsory but flexibility in the timing specifics is allowed depending on circumstances. The prayers are recited in the Arabic language , and consist of verses from the Quran.

The act of supplicating is referred to as dua. A Mosque is a place of worship for Muslims, who often refer to it by its Arabic name masjid. Conservative estimates of annual zakat is estimated to be 15 times global humanitarian aid contributions. Sadaqah means optional charity which is practiced as religious duty and out of generosity. One of the early teachings of Muhammad was that God expects men to be generous with their wealth and not to be miserly Quran —7.

The fast is to encourage a feeling of nearness to God, and during it Muslims should express their gratitude for and dependence on him, atone for their past sins, develop self-control and restraint and think of the needy. Sawm is not obligatory for several groups for whom it would constitute an undue burden. For others, flexibility is allowed depending on circumstances, but missed fasts must be compensated for later. Every able-bodied Muslim who can afford it must make the pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in his or her lifetime.

Rituals of the Hajj include: spending a day and a night in the tents in the desert plain of Mina, then a day in the desert plain of Arafat praying and worshiping God, following the foot steps of Abraham; then spending a night out in the open, sleeping on the desert sand in the desert plain of Muzdalifah; then moving to Jamarat, symbolically stoning the Devil recounting Abraham's actions; [] [] [] then going to Mecca and walking seven times around the Kaaba which Muslims believe was built as a place of worship by Abraham; then walking seven times between Mount Safa and Mount Marwah recounting the steps of Abraham's wife, Hagar , while she was looking for water for her son Ishmael in the desert before Mecca developed into a settlement.

Muslims recite and memorize the whole or part of the Quran as acts of virtue. Reciting the Quran with elocution has been described as an excellent act of worship. Sharia is the religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition. Traditional theory of Islamic jurisprudence recognizes four sources of sharia : the Quran, sunnah Hadith and Sira , qiyas analogical reasoning , and ijma juridical consensus.

Historically, sharia was interpreted by independent jurists muftis. There are ongoing debates as to whether sharia is compatible with secular forms of government, human rights, freedom of thought , and women's rights. Islam, like Judaism, has no clergy in the sacerdotal sense, such as priests who mediate between God and people. However, there are many terms in Islam to refer to religiously sanctioned positions of Islam.

Someone who studies the science of hadith is called a muhaddith. A qadi is a judge in an Islamic court. Honorific titles given to scholars include sheikh , mullah and mawlawi. Each differ in their methodology, called Usul al-fiqh. The following of decisions by a religious expert without necessarily examining the decision's reasoning is called taqlid. The term ghair muqallid literally refers to those who do not use taqlid and by extension do not have a madhab.

To reduce the gap between the rich and the poor, Islamic economic jurisprudence encourages trade, [] discourages the hoarding of wealth and outlaws interest-bearing loans usury ; the term is riba in Arabic. Usury , which allows the rich to get richer without sharing in the risk, is forbidden in Islam.

Profit sharing and venture capital where the lender is also exposed to risk is acceptable. The taking of land belonging to others is also prohibited. The prohibition of usury has resulted in the development of Islamic banking. During the time of Muhammad, any money that went to the state, was immediately used to help the poor. Then in , Umar formally established the welfare state Bayt al-mal. The Bayt al-mal or the welfare state was for the Muslim and Non-Muslim poor, needy, elderly, orphans, widows, and the disabled.

The Bayt al-mal ran for hundreds of years under the Rashidun Caliphate in the 7th century and continued through the Umayyad period and well into the Abbasid era. Umar also introduced Child Benefit and Pensions for the children and the elderly. Jihad means "to strive or struggle" in the way of God. Jihad, in its broadest sense, is "exerting one's utmost power, efforts, endeavors, or ability in contending with an object of disapprobation ". Depending on the object being a visible enemy, the Devil , and aspects of one's own self such as sinful desires , different categories of jihad are defined.

Within Islamic jurisprudence , jihad is usually taken to mean military exertion against non-Muslim combatants. For the rest of the populace, this happens only in the case of a general mobilization. It is not a sect of Islam and its adherents belong to the various Muslim denominations. Classical Sufi scholars defined Tasawwuf as "a science whose objective is the reparation of the heart and turning it away from all else but God", by means of "intuitive and emotional faculties" that one must be trained to use.

Religiousity of early Sufi ascetics, such as Hasan al-Basri , emphazised fear to fail God's expectations of obedience, in contrast to later and more prominent Sufis, such as Mansur Al-Hallaj and Jalaluddin Rumi , whose religiousity is based on love towards God. For that reason, some academic scholars refuse to refer to the former as Sufis. Popular devotional practices such as veneration of Sufi saints have faced stiff opposition from followers of Wahhabism , who have sometimes physically attacked Sufis leading to deterioration in Sufi—Salafi relations.

Mystical interpretations of Islam have also been developed by Ismaili Shias, by the School of Illumination , as well as by the Isfahan school of philosophy. In a Muslim family, the birth of a child is attended with some religious ceremonies. Immediately after the birth, the words of Adhan is pronounced in the right ear of the child.

The groom is required to pay a bridal gift mahr to the bride, as stipulated in the contract. A man does not need approval of his first wife for a second marriage as there is no evidence in the Qur'an or hadith to suggest this. Generally in a Muslim family, a woman's sphere of operation is the home and a man's corresponding sphere is the outside world. However, in practice, this separation is not as rigid as it appears. Certain religious rites are performed during and after the death of a Muslim.

Those near a dying man encourage him to pronounce the Shahada as Muslims want their last word to be their profession of faith. After the death, the body is appropriately bathed by the members of the same gender and then enshrouded in a threefold white garment called kafan. Many practices fall in the category of adab , or Islamic etiquette. This includes greeting others with " as-salamu 'alaykum " "peace be unto you" , saying bismillah "in the name of God " before meals, and using only the right hand for eating and drinking.

Islamic hygienic practices mainly fall into the category of personal cleanliness and health. Circumcision of male offspring is also practiced in Islam. Islamic burial rituals include saying the Salat al-Janazah "funeral prayer" over the bathed and enshrouded dead body, and burying it in a grave. Muslims are restricted in their diet.

Prohibited foods include pork products, blood, carrion , and alcohol. All meat must come from a herbivorous animal slaughtered in the name of God by a Muslim, Jew, or Christian, with the exception of game that one has hunted or fished for oneself. Food permissible for Muslims is known as halal food. In a Muslim society, various social service activities are performed by the members of the community.

As these activities are instructed by Islamic canonical texts , a Muslim's religious life is seen incomplete if not attended by service to humanity. Respecting and obeying one's parents, and taking care of them especially in their old age have been made a religious obligation. Regardless of a neighbor's religious identity, Islam teaches Muslims to treat neighboring people in the best possible manner and not to cause them any difficulty. It also rebukes those who do not honor and feed orphaned children Quran — The Quran and the sunnah of Muhammad prescribe a comprehensive body of moral guidelines for Muslims to be followed in their personal, social, political, and religious life.

Proper moral conduct, good deeds, righteousness, and good character come within the sphere of the moral guidelines. To go one step further by offering a favor to the offender is regarded the highest excellence. Thus, a Muslim is expected to act only in good manners as bad manners and deeds earn vices.

As a religion, Islam emphasizes the idea of having a good character as Muhammad said: 'The best among you are those who have the best manners and character' Sahih al-Bukhari , In Islam, justice is not only a moral virtue but also an obligation to be fulfilled under all circumstances. As a virtue, forgiveness is much celebrated in Islam, and is regarded as an important Muslim practice. Mainstream Islamic law does not distinguish between "matters of church" and "matters of state"; the scholars function as both jurists and theologians.

Currently no government conforms to Islamic economic jurisprudence , but steps have been taken to implement some of its tenets. Muslim tradition views Muhammad c. Muhammad's companions memorized and recorded the content of these revelations, known as the Quran. During this time, Muhammad in Mecca preached to the people, imploring them to abandon polytheism and to worship one God. Although some converted to Islam, the leading Meccan authorities persecuted Muhammad and his followers.

Many early converts to Islam were the poor, foreigners and former slaves like Bilal ibn Rabah al-Habashi who was black. After 12 years of the persecution of Muslims by the Meccans and the Meccan boycott of the Hashemites , Muhammad's relatives, Muhammad and the Muslims performed the Hijra "emigration" to the city of Medina formerly known as Yathrib in There, with the Medinan converts Ansar and the Meccan migrants Muhajirun , Muhammad in Medina established his political and religious authority.

The Constitution of Medina was formulated, instituting a number of rights and responsibilities for the Muslim, Jewish, Christian and pagan communities of Medina, bringing them within the fold of one community—the Ummah. All the tribes signed the agreement to defend Medina from all external threats and to live in harmony amongst themselves.

Within a few years, two battles took place against the Meccan forces: first, the Battle of Badr in —a Muslim victory, and then a year later, when the Meccans returned to Medina, the Battle of Uhud , which ended inconclusively. The Arab tribes in the rest of Arabia then formed a confederation and during the Battle of the Trench March—April besieged Medina, intent on finishing off Islam.

In , the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah was signed between Mecca and the Muslims and was broken by Mecca two years later. After the signing of the Treaty of Hudaybiyyah many more people converted to Islam. At the same time, Meccan trade routes were cut off as Muhammad brought surrounding desert tribes under his control. The earliest three generations of Muslims are known as the Salaf , with the companions of Muhammad being known as the Sahaba. Many of them, such as the largest narrator of hadith Abu Hureyrah , recorded and compiled what would constitute the sunnah.

With Muhammad's death in , disagreement broke out over who would succeed him as leader of the Muslim community. Abu Bakr , a companion and close friend of Muhammad, was made the first caliph. When Umar was assassinated by Persians in , the election of Uthman as successor was met with increasing opposition. The standard copies of the Quran were also distributed throughout the Islamic State.

In , Uthman was also killed, and Ali assumed the position of caliph. This led to the first civil war the "First Fitna" over who should be caliph. Ali was assassinated by Kharijites in To avoid further fighting, the new caliph Hasan ibn Ali signed a peace treaty , abdicating to Mu'awiyah , beginning the Umayyad dynasty , in return that he not name his own successor.

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The majority accepted the legitimacy of the first four leaders and became known as Sunnis. A minority disagreed, and believed that only Ali and some of his descendants should rule; they became known as the Shia. Sunni Islam and Shia Islam thus differ in some respects. The descendants of Muhammad's uncle Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib rallied discontented non-Arab converts mawali , poor Arabs, and some Shi'a against the Umayyads and overthrew them, inaugurating the Abbasid dynasty in Al-Shafi'i codified a method to determine the reliability of hadith.

During its expansion through the Samanid Empire , Islam was shaped by the ethno-cultural and religious pluralism by the Sogdians , praving the way for a Persianized rather than Arabized understanding of Islam. Some Muslims began to question the piety of indulgence in a worldly life and emphasised poverty, humility and avoidance of sin based on renunciation of bodily desires. Ascetics such as Hasan al-Basri would inspire a movement that would evolve into Tasawwuf Sufism.

By the end of the 9th century, the Ismaili spread in Iran , whereupon the city Multan became target by activistic Sunni politics. Caliphs such as Mamun al Rashid and Al-Mu'tasim made the mutazilite philosophy an official creed and imposed it upon Muslims to follow. Mu'tazila was a Greek influenced school [ citation needed ] of Sunni scholastic theology called kalam , which refers to dialectic.

In inquisitions, ibn Hanbal refused to conform [ citation needed ] and was tortured and sent to an unlit Baghdad prison cell for nearly thirty months. With the expansion of the Abbaside Caliphate into the Sasanian Empire , Islam adapted many Hellenistic and Persian concepts, imported by thinkers of Iranian or Turkic origin. Amongst his contributions are the discovery of the contagious nature of infectious diseases, [] and the introduction of clinical pharmacology.

Rumi wrote some of the finest Persian poetry and is still one of the best selling poets in America. This era is sometimes called the " Islamic Golden Age ". An important pioneer in this, Ibn al-Haytham is regarded as the father of the modern scientific method and often referred to as the "world's first true scientist". While the Abbasid Caliphate suffered a decline since the reign of Al-Wathiq — and Al-Mu'tadid — , [] the Mongol Empire put an end to the Abbassid dynasty in The Ghaznavid dynasty was an Islamic dynasty established by Turkic slave-soldiers from another Islamic empire, the Samanid Empire.

Two Turkish tribes, the Karahanids and the Seljuks , converted to Islam during the 10th century, who are later subdued by the Ottomans , who share the same origin and language. It is important to note, that the following Islamic reign by the Ottomans was strongly influenced by a symbiosis between Ottoman rulers and Sufism since the beginning. According to Ottoman historiography, the legitimation of a ruler is attributed to Sheikh Edebali. Accordingly, he interpretated a dream of Osman Gazi as God's legitimation of his reign.

The Seljuk militar leader Alp Arslan financially supported sciences and literature and established the Nezamiyeh university in Baghdad. During this time, the Delhi Sultanate took over northern parts of the Indian subcontinent. Religious missions converted Volga Bulgaria to Islam. Many Muslims also went to China to trade, virtually dominating the import and export industry of the Song dynasty. The Turks incorporated elements of Turkish Shamanism into their new religion and became part of a new Islamic interpretation, [] although Shamanistic influences already occurred during the Battle of Talas Strikingly, Shamans were never mentioned by Muslim Heresiographers.

Unlike Arabic traditions, the Turkic traditions hold woman in higher regard in society. Further, the Turks must have found striking similarities between the Sufi rituals and Shaman practises. The majority and oldest group among Shia at that time, the Zaydis , named after the great grandson of Ali, the scholar Zayd ibn Ali , used the Hanafi jurisprudence, as did most Sunnis.

Ibn Taymiyya — worried about the integrity of Islam and tried to establish a theological doctrine to purify Islam from its alleged alterings. This not only including the invaders, but also the heretics among the Muslims, including Shias , Asharites and "philosophers", who were blamed by Ibn Taimiya for the deterioration of Islam. He was repeatedly accused of blasphemy by anthropomorphizing God and his disciple Ibn Kathir distanced himself from his mentor and negated the anthropomorphizations, [] but simultaneously adhered to anti-rationalistic and hadith oriented methodology of his former mentor.

The Muslim world was generally in political decline starting the s, especially relative to the non-Muslim European powers. This decline was evident culturally; while Taqi al-Din founded an observatory in Istanbul and the Jai Singh Observatory was built in the 18th century, there was not a single Muslim-majority country with a major observatory by the twentieth century. By the 19th century the British Empire had formally ended the Mughal dynasty in India. During the 18th century Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab founded a military movement opposing the Ottoman Sultanate as an illegitimate rule, advising his fellows to return to the principles of Islam based on the theology of Ahmad ibn Hanbal.

This revival movement allegedly seeks to uphold monotheism and purify Islam of what they see as later innovations. Their ideology led to the desecration of shrines around the world, including that of Muhammad and his companions in Mecca and Medina. Therefore, they rebelled against the Ottoman Sultanate, until the Ottoman Empire disintegrated after World War I and the Caliphate was abolished in At the end of the 19th century, Muslim luminaries such as Muhammad Abduh , Rashid Rida and Jamal al-Din al-Afghani sought to reconsile Islam with social and intellectuel ideas of the Age of Enlightenment by purging Islam from alleged alterings and adhering to the basic tenets during the Rashidun.

They rejected the Sunni schools of law and allowed Ijtihad. Ahle Sunnat movement or more popularly known as Barelwi movement emphasize the primacy of Islamic law over adherence to Sufi practices and personal devotion to the prophet Muhammad. The movement now has over million followers. Contact with industrialized nations brought Muslim populations to new areas through economic migration. Many Muslims migrated as indentured servants, from mostly India and Indonesia , to the Caribbean , forming the largest Muslim populations by percentage in the Americas.

There are more and more new Muslim intellectuals who increasingly separate perennial Islamic beliefs from archaic cultural traditions. Its supporters say that there are multiple ways to read Islam's sacred texts, and they stress the need to leave room for "independent thought on religious matters".

Introduction to Islam

Secular powers such as the Chinese Red Guards closed many mosques and destroyed Qurans, [] and Communist Albania became the first country to ban the practice of every religion. Jamal-al-Din al-Afghani , along with his acolyte Muhammad Abduh , have been credited as forerunners of the Islamic revival. In Turkey , the Islamist AK Party has democratically been in power for about a decade, while Islamist parties did well in elections following the Arab Spring.

Religiosity appears to be deepening worldwide. It is estimated that, by , the number of Muslims will nearly equal the number of Christians around the world, "driven primarily by differences in fertility rates and the size of youth populations among the world's major religions, as well as by people switching faiths. Sunnis believe that the first four caliphs were the rightful successors to Muhammad; since God did not specify any particular leaders to succeed him and those leaders were elected.

Further authorities regarding Sunnis believe that anyone who is righteous and just could be a caliph as long they act according to the teachings of Islam, the example of Muhammad. Alternatively, Sunnis commonly accept the companions of Muhammad as reliable for interpretating Islamic affairs. For legal matters derived from the Quran or the Hadith, many follow four sunni madh'habs schools of thought : Hanafi , Hanbali , Maliki and Shafi'i. All four accept the validity of the others and a Muslim may choose any one that he or she finds agreeable.

Traditionalist theology is characterized by its adherence to a literal understanding of the Quran and the Sunnah, the belief in the Quran to be uncreated and eternal, and opposes reason kalam in religious matters. Maturidism especially flourished in Central-Asia. Asharism holds, ethics can just derive from divine revelation, but not from human reason.

In the 18th century, Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab led a Salafi movement, referred by outsiders as Wahhabism , in modern-day Saudi Arabia. Originally shaped by Hanbalism , many modern followers departed from any of the established four schools of law Hanafi, Shafi, Maliki, and Hanbali. The Deobandi movement is a reformist movement originating in South Asia, influenced by the Wahhabi movement. Nurcu is a Sunni movement based on the writings of Said Nursi — founded at the beginning of the twentieth century.

On the other hand, sharia denotes the set of laws of nature , but both ultimately derive from one source, which is God. While the Sunnis believe that a Caliph should be elected by the community, Shia's believe that Muhammad appointed his son-in-law, Ali ibn Abi Talib , as his successor and only certain descendants of Ali could be Imams.

Other points of contention include certain practices viewed as innovating the religion, such as the mourning practice of tatbir , and the cursing of figures revered by Sunnis. Shia Islam has several branches, the most prominent being the Twelvers the largest branch , Zaidis and Ismailis. Different branches accept different descendants of Ali as Imams. The Zaydis consider Zayd ibn Ali , the uncle of Imam Jafar al-Sadiq , as their fifth Imam, and follow a different line of succession after him. Other smaller groups include the Bohra as well as the Alawites and Alevi. Non-denominational Muslims is an umbrella term that has been used for and by Muslims who do not belong to or do not self-identify with a specific Islamic denomination.

At least one in five Muslims in at least 22 countries self-identify in this way. Some movements, such as the Druze , Berghouata and Ha-Mim , either emerged from Islam or came to share certain beliefs with Islam and whether each is separate a religion or a sect of Islam is sometimes controversial.

The majority of Muslims live in Asia and Africa. Most estimates indicate that the China has approximately 20 to 30 million Muslims 1. According to the Pew Research Center , Islam is set to equal Christianity worldwide in number of adherents by the year Islam is set to grow faster than any other major world religion, reaching a total number of 2.

Causes of this trend involve high fertility rates as a factor, with Muslims having a rate of 3. Countries such as Nigeria and North Macedonia are expected to have Muslim majorities by In India, the Muslim population will be larger than any other country. The term " Islamic culture " could be used to mean aspects of culture that pertain to the religion, such as festivals and dress code. It is also controversially used to denote the cultural aspects of traditionally Muslim people. Perhaps the most important expression of Islamic architecture is that of the mosque.

For example, North African and Spanish Islamic architecture such as the Great Mosque of Kairouan contain marble and porphyry columns from Roman and Byzantine buildings, [] while mosques in Indonesia often have multi-tiered roofs from local Javanese styles. Great Mosque of Xi'an in Xi'an , China. Dome in Po-i-Kalyan , Bukhara , Uzbekistan. Interior of domes in the Alabaster Mosque in Cairo , Egypt. Islamic art encompasses the visual arts produced from the 7th century onwards by people not necessarily Muslim who lived within the territory that was inhabited by Muslim populations.

However this rule has been interpreted in different ways by different scholars and in different historical periods, and there are examples of paintings of both animals and humans in Mughal, Persian and Turkish art. The existence of this aversion to creating images of animate beings has been used to explain the prevalence of calligraphy, tessellation and pattern as key aspects of Islamic artistic culture.

Islamic calligraphy representing various planets.

The True Religion

Geometric arabesque tiling on the underside of the dome of Hafiz Shirazi's tomb in Shiraz , Iran. The formal beginning of the Muslim era was chosen, reportedly by Caliph Umar , to be the Hijra in CE, which was an important turning point in Muhammad's fortunes. It is a lunar calendar with days lasting from sunset to sunset. Criticism of Islam has existed since Islam's formative stages. Early criticism came from Christian authors, many of whom viewed Islam as a Christian heresy or a form of idolatry and often explained it in apocalyptic terms. Islam's sensual descriptions of paradise led many Christians to conclude that Islam was not a spiritual religion.

Although sensual pleasure was also present in early Christianity, as seen in the writings of Irenaeus , the doctrines of the former Manichaean Augustine of Hippo led to broad repudiation of bodily pleasure in both life and the afterlife. Ali ibn Sahl Rabban al-Tabari defended the Quranic description of paradise by asserting that the Bible also implies such ideas, such as drinking wine in Gospel of Matthew.

Defamatory images of Muhammad , derived from early 7th century depictions of Byzantine Church , [] appear in the 14th-century epic poem Divine Comedy by Dante Alighieri. Dante does not blame Islam as a whole, but accuses Muhammad of schism , by establishing another religion after Christianity. Since the events of September 11, , Islam has faced criticism over its scriptures and teachings being a significant source of terrorism and terrorist ideology.

Other criticisms focus on the question of human rights in modern Muslim-majority countries, and the treatment of women in Islamic law and practice. Despite the fact that they did not have a quantified theory of error they were well aware that an increased number of observations qualitatively reduces the uncertainty. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This article is about the religion. For the history of Islamic civilization, see History of Islam. For other uses, see Islam disambiguation. Monotheistic religion founded by Muhammad. Profession of faith Prayer Fasting Alms-giving Pilgrimage. Texts and sciences. Culture and society. Related topics. Main articles: Aqidah and Iman. Main articles: God in Islam and Allah. Main article: Angels in Islam. Main articles: Quran , Wahy , and Islamic holy books. See also: History of the Quran.

Main articles: Prophets and messengers in Islam , Sunnah , and Hadith. Main article: Islamic eschatology. Main article: Predestination in Islam. See also: Five Pillars of Islam. Main article: Shahadah. Main article: Salat. See also: Mosque and Jumu'ah. Main articles: Zakat and Sadaqah. Main article: Fasting in Islam. Further information: Fasting during Ramadan. Main articles: Hajj and Umrah. Main article: Quran. Shahada Salat Raka'ah Qibla Turbah. Sunnah salat Tahajjud Tarawih.

Marriage Contract Mahr. Riba Murabaha Takaful Sukuk. Dhabihah Alcohol Pork. Jihad Hudna Istijarah asylum Prisoners of war. Main articles: Sharia and Fiqh. Main article: Ulama. Main article: Madhhab. Main article: Islamic economics. Main articles: Jihad , Islamic military jurisprudence , and List of expeditions of Muhammad. Main article: Sufism. See also: Sufi—Salafi relations. Main articles: Adab Islam and Islamic dietary laws. Main article: Islam and humanity. Main article: Morality in Islam. Main articles: History of Islam and Spread of Islam.

Jews Christians. Durood Naat Mawlid. Mosque of the prophet Possessions Relics. Main articles: Muhammad and Muhammad in Islam. See also: Early social changes under Islam. See also: Islamic world contributions to Medieval Europe. Further information: Islamic revival.

Main article: Islamic schools and branches. See also: Shia—Sunni relations. Part of a series on Sunni Islam. Five Pillars.


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Rightly-Guided Caliphs. Sunni schools of law. Sunni schools of theology. Contemporary movements. Holy sites. Jerusalem Mecca Medina Damascus. Literature Kutub al-Sittah. Main article: Sunni Islam. Part of a series on Shia Islam. Beliefs and practices. Holy days. Ahl al-Kisa. Muhammad Ali Fatimah Hasan Husayn. Holy women. Main article: Shia Islam. See also: Safavid conversion of Iran to Shia Islam.

Main article: Non-denominational Muslim. Main articles: Muslim world and Ummah. See also: Islam by country. Main article: Islamic culture. Main article: Islamic architecture. Main article: Islamic art. Main article: Islamic music. Main article: Islamic poetry. Main article: Islamic calendar. Main article: Criticism of Islam. Main article: Outline of Islam. Such are the people of truth, the God fearing'. Esposito In John L.

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Esposito ed. The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Profession of Faith [ Peters Encyclopedia of Islam. Infobase Publishing. In Ibrahim Kalin ed. Islam: Empire of Faith. Retrieved Leiden [u. Retrieved 4 December Islam: The Straight Path 3rd ed. Oxford University Press. Islam: A Guide for Jews and Christians. Princeton University Press.

Islam and the Integration of Society. Psychology Press. In Sharifah Shifa Al-Attas ed. Archived from the original on 2 April Pew Research Center. October 7, Sunni Islam: Oxford Bibliographies Online Research Guide "Sunni Islam is the dominant division of the global Muslim community, and throughout history it has made up a substantial majority 85 to 90 percent of that community. Retrieved December 20, The World Factbook. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved December 5, South Asian Religions: Tradition and Today.

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The theme of origins and last things

The Future of the Global Muslim Population. Retrieved 22 December Archived from the original on 9 February Retrieved 18 April Islam is the youngest, the fastest growing, and in many ways the least complicated of the world's great monotheistic faiths. It is based on its own holy book, but it is also a direct descendant of Judaism and Christianity, incorporating some of the teachings of those religions—modifying some and rejecting others.

Islam: The Religion and The People. Wharton School Publishing. The Friday Journal. Archived from the original on Encyclopaedia of Islam Online. The Oxford History of Islam. The mosque: the heart of submission. Fordham University Press. BBC — Religions. By Fateh Ullah Khan p. Fateh Ullah Khan Gandapur. Islamic Unity and Happiness. TTQ, Inc. By Jamaal Zarabozo p. Retrieved 7 October Global Vision Publishing. William Carey Library. Gisela Webb.

Encyclopaedia of the Qur'an Online. Esposito , pp. Georg Olms, Hildesheim, pp. Asian Music Autumn — Winter : 3—4. There are two different theories about this term and its formation. Sahih Bukhari. Retrieved on The Canonization of Al-Bukh? Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia. USA: Routledge. Second Edition: By John L. Esposito p. Here it is used to mean that "God measures and orders his creation". Wallis Courier Dover Publications. Indiana University Press. And Allah is Knowing and Wise. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. Retrieved 3 June Contemporary Islam: Dynamic, Not Static.

Islamic Beliefs and Practices. Lambton; Bernard Lewis The Cambridge History of Islam. Cambridge University Press. Islam and the Glorious Ka'abah: none. Islam: Its History, Teaching, and Practices. Esposito, ed.

The Final Religion Trivia Episode! New Series Starting Soon! What Will It Be About?

The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. In Emad El-Din Shahin ed. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Islam and Politics. Women in Muslim Family Law. Syracuse University Press. Quote: "[