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- Das narrative Interview : ein Leitfaden zur rekonstruktiven Auswertung
- Qualitative Literary and Media Interaction Research · Publications
- Qualitative Research Methods & Methodology
- Analysis is more than coding
Berlin: Erich Schmidt Verlag, g, S. In: Deutschland morgen. Visionen unserer Zukunft. Lengerich : Pabst. Download Summary Download Report. Berlin: De Gruyter. Download english. Part 4 of q in monographic pub. In production: www. An International and Interdisciplinary Handbook. Manuscript Download. In: Psyche e , S.
City and Trauma. Frankfurt a. M: Brandes und Apsel, Download FAZ-Review , In: Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung , 7 2 , Art. English abstract: Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung. Psychotherapieforschung als qualitative Wissenschaft. Pabst Science Publishers, Lengerich In: Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung , 7 3 , Art.
April l , 35 paragraphs 20 pp. In: www. Man will es kaum wahrhaben: die Psychoanalyse hatte doch recht! Besprechungsessay zu Gerald Poscheschnik Hg. Von der Notwendigkeit und Schwierigkeit, die psychologische Narratologie als Grundlagenwissenschaft in eine handlungstheoretische Sozial- und Kulturforschung einzubeziehen. April e , 58 paragraphs 17 pp. Psychologische Literaturwissenschaft im inneren Exil.
Das narrative Interview : ein Leitfaden zur rekonstruktiven Auswertung
Literarische Werke psychologisch betrachtet. Stuttgart: Klett-Cotta, In: Narratology Beyond Literary Criticism. Narratologia 6 Hg. Berlin: De Gruyter a , S. In: Nonverbale Interaktion in der Psychotherapie.
Qualitative Literary and Media Interaction Research · Publications
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Back to top. Get to Know Us. Amazon Payment Products. English Choose a language for shopping. Length: 38 pages. Enhanced Typesetting: Enabled. Page Flip: Enabled. Language: German. Amazon Music Stream millions of songs. The focus may be on listening to a long narrative or on working towards mutual understanding and everything in between. Examples of various interviews forms that can be arranged on a continuum of the above mentioned dimensions are ethnographic interviews, narrative interviews, guided interviews, biographic interviews, problem-centered interviews, episodic interviews, in-depth interviews, semi-structured open ended interviews, group interview or focus groups.
In recent years, online interviews have also become a possibility. In order to conduct such interviews, you need to be comfortable with the technical requirements. You may only hear but not see the person. Thus, non-verbal signals are lost and important context information may be missing. Advantages are that it is easier to overcome space, location and time constraints. When you have a small budget, you cannot travel all over the place, but you may be able to reach the persons you want to talk with online. In sum, there are a large number of options to choose from. Your task is to make an informed decision and to be able to explain your choice in methodology chapter of your report.
You find a list of interview forms including references at the end of this chapter for further information. When considering observation as your mode of data collection, similar issues need to be considered. What is the best form of observation in relation to your research question? Do you want to be an external, a passive, a balanced, an active or a total participant? There are advantages and limitations for each of these observation types see for example Creswell, As mentioned above, writing field notes is also a skill that needs to be learned.
Other forms of data to be considered for a qualitative research project include printed documents, online documents, web pages, images, audio and video materials or geographic data. This also needs to be taken into account when designing your research project. If so, a number of selecting strategies are available. You can go for maximal variation in your data or look at a homogeneous group. Another option is to focus on specific cases like typical, extreme, deviant, positive or negative cases.
Based on previous research, you may find suggestions in the literature as well. I call this theory based sampling. This needs to be distinguished from the idea of theoretical sampling as propagated by grounded theory. Theoretical sampling is not something you can determine up front before you begin to collect data. It rather refers to the dialectic process of data collection and data analysis.
Qualitative Research Methods & Methodology
Or you formulate some hypotheses based on your data, and need some more data material to test these hypotheses. Then it is also time for collecting some more data. Theoretical sampling thus is not suggested by existing literature or theory but by your own data. You may also select your participants based on criteria, e. If it is only important that the person knows something about the question you want to study, then convenience sampling or snow balling may be sufficient. For a convenience sample you just talk to everyone that comes your way and can tell you something about the issues you are interested in.
When using snow balling, you start with only a few people that you select yourself and then ask them whether they know of someone that might be interested in taking part in the research, i. In summary, here is a list of the various sampling strategies. A combination of two of them like combining typical and deviant cases is also possible. References are provided at the end of this chapter.
Analysis is more than coding
Very often, data collecting takes place in a defined time period and analysis is viewed as a next step in the research process after all data have been collected and transcribed. Researchers forego many opportunities and miss out on some of the great advantages of qualitative research - flexibility and adaptation - when they handle their project like this. But when you are free to plan your project and your time frame is sufficient; then I recommend the grounded theory method of data collection.
This does not mean that you conduct a grounded theory study; you just take advantage of one of the general procedures of research that they and others before them have described see for example Blumer, Strauss writes about the triad of the research process: data collection followed by coding and memo writing. Both, codes and memos guide the search for new data and can lead to more coding and more memo writing.
In later phases of the research project, it is not unusual that the researcher goes back to already analyzed data, revises coding and refines memos. Coding and memo writing continues until the end. When the researcher has the feeling that the achieved level of data integration is not sufficient and there are gaps in the data, new data may even be collected in the process of report writing.
Transcribing and analyzing data early has the advantage of being able to adjust interview questions, asking about new and different aspects that first have come up in the interviews; questions that are truly grounded in the field and not based on your desktop research.
Especially novices learn a lot when first transcribing data. They get a better picture of themselves as interviewer and can also improve their own interview skills. Taking it a step further beginning with coding, discovering first preliminary linkages in the data adds further information that supports and helps you in the continuing data collection process.
Above I mentioned the time frame. When you only have three months to complete your research project from start to finish, it may be difficult to implement the dialectic process of data collection and analysis. But you could at least try to fit in the transcription during the phase of data collection. Analysis begins while you transcribe and this is at least something you can take as input with you into the next interview. A few words about technology: Digital recorders are wonderful and the quality of the recording is much better than in the earlier days when we only had analogue recorders.
But still you need to figure out how to handle them. Test the batteries and just in case take along a new set of batteries. Pay attention to the kinds of buttons you press on your recorder. The recorded interview is a data file and if you press the wrong button, it is deleted in less than a second. As soon as you are at home, transfer the file s to your computer and create a backup copy. It may also be a good idea to change the name of the files. The file name that the recorder produces is something like this: WS This is not very useful for analytical purposes.
After the interview: Plan for having a bit of time after each interview session for writing notes. Then the interview is still fresh in your mind and you can write down your first impressions. It is also a good time for checking your recording. If something went wrong for whatever reason, you can write down what you remember from the interview. This is not as good as having the original wording, but the best you can do when the recording failed. You can still use the interview in your analysis, but need to indicate this in your method section. In most cases, it is possible to clarify some issue that you do not remember correctly via email or by calling the person you interviewed.
The notes on the interview - also referred to as interview protocol or postscript Helfferich, ; Cicourel, ; Witzel, - may cover the following issues:. It is best to prepare an outline beforehand that fill in after conducting each interview so that you can later compare the notes across all interviewees see example below. Figure 1: Example Interview Protocol. Another issue you need to take into consideration is research ethics. Depending on which country you live in, you research proposal must pass a human subject board. In other countries this is not necessary; nonetheless, there probably are data protection laws to observe.
When you conduct interviews, it is mandatory that there is informed consent between you and your interviewee. This can be an oral agreement or in form of a signed document. You need to explain the purpose of your research, what you intent do with the data, who has access to the data and how long the data will be stored, and in which form the results are used and presented.
A common procedure is to anonymize the data, i. In preparing a written consent form, pay attention to the respective data protection laws and include the legal regulation and consequences in the formulation of your text. You find examples of such forms online and also in some method books e. My best guess is that all qualitative method teachers have experienced the following situation: A student comes to you and tells you that now all 12 interviews have been conducted, maybe they have been transcribed already and asks you: What should I do next?
The method of analysis decided on — or at least considered — will then direct the preparation of the interview guide, the interview process, and the transcription of the interviews. Here I only want to point out that there are different ways of transcribing your data and you need to be aware them to make a choice. You can opt to transcribe verbatim, word by word as it was spoken including all repetitions, half sentences, erm, mmh, pauses, etc. When you first transcribe data, you will find out that we you included do not talk printed language. At first it feels awful.
Is it really me, you may think, that asks the questions in such a way? Do I really talk like that? A verbatim transcript has the advantage of best capturing the original interview situation.
Often when we speak, we think about what we want to say next - while we talk. We need breaks to reflect on questions. Sometimes we have no answer yet and need to clarify our thoughts - even as we talk. The results are sentences that remain unfinished, sentences that flow into each other or overlap. This is important data and helps the analyst to interpret the content of what was said. When you however are only interested in facts and information, transferring spoken language into grammatically correct sentences may be an appropriate option as well. You need to take this decision in the context of your research question.
Whether you need to transcribe all mmhs and aahs also depends on the intent of your research. There are very fine grained transcription systems like GAT see below ; you may also derive your own transcription notation from existing systems. What is important is that you do not just transcribe your data, but have thought about what level of detail is necessary for the type of analysis you want to carry out.
Below you I provide a number of examples how data can be transcribed:. Indicates that the enclosed speech was delivered more rapidly than usual for the speaker.
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The choice is yours, but you need to make one and this should also be explained in the methodology chapter of your research report. The same applies to the selection of the analysis procedures. It would go beyond the scope of this book to even briefly describe the various analysis choices you have. To get some ideas about the options available, take a look at Bernard and Ryan They describe a broad range of approaches like cultural domain analysis, KWIC analysis, semantic network analysis, discourse analysis, narrative analysis, grounded theory, content analysis, schema analysis, analytic induction, qualitative comparative analysis, and ethnographic decision models.
The point I want to make here is that you need to think about transcription and analysis — thus, about what you want to do with your data - early on in the research process and not after all data are collected. It is always difficult to keep to a predefined time table, but you need to be aware that a qualitative analysis phase takes up or should take up a large proportion of the project time. My students often think that the majority of the work is done when the interviews are conducted and transcribed. I do provide them with a time table and strongly advise them to keep to it and explain why.
I do tell them that they need to reserve sufficient time for data analysis and that proportionally the tasks in a qualitative project are differently distributed than in survey research. But experience is often the better teacher. They do realize in the end that two weeks for analyzing the data and finishing up writing the research report is a bit too short. I do grant them an extension when they come to me and tell me about their dilemma as I prefer reading good rather than half-finished and botched reports.
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My aim for them is to learn qualitative methods and that is best achieved by doing it. I could tell them a lot about formulating research questions, about accessing the field, about coding, we can run a few exercises, I could show them ATLAS. This will not stay in their minds. They need to do it and probably learn most from mistakes like the issue of timing or neglecting the importance of literature or my words about data management in ATLAS. Thus, also your first project is not likely to be perfect nor does it have to be.
You probably need to come to appreciate the issues you read about in qualitative research method books by gaining your own experiences. Every new project will add a bit more to your understanding. The second time around you probably have a much better feeling on how to code and on how to set-up your coding system in order to best utilize it later when asking questions about the data.
But as with all things, we need to start somewhere. Chalmers, Alan F. What is thing think called science.