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  2. 60 Top Christian Photos Free Pictures, Photos and Images - Getty Images
  3. Summary Bibliography: Tim White
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  5. Schattenjahre in Potulitz 1945 : Schicksal in polnischen Internierungslagern : eine Dokumentation

In , Hoover received the thanks of three of the highest officials in Soviet Russia for his relief work. In a letter from the Kremlin dated 10 July , L. Gorbunov and L. Fotieva, also members, wrote: Unselfishly, the ARA [American Relief Administration] came to the aid of the people and organized on a broad scale the supply and distribution of food products and other articles of prime necessity. Due to the enormous and entirely disinterested efforts of the ARA, millions of people of all ages were saved from death, and entire districts and even cities were saved from the horrible catastrophe which threatened them.

Now when the famine is over and the colossal work of the ARA comes to a close, the Soviet of People's 13 Crimes and Mercies Commissars, in the name of the millions of people saved and in the name of all the working people of Soviet Russia and the Federated Republics, count it a duty to express before the whole world its deepest thanks to this organization, to its leader, Herbert Hoover, to its representative in Russia, Colonel Haskell, and to all its workers, and to declare that the people inhabiting the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics will never forget the help given them by the American people, through the ARA, seeing in it a pledge of the future friendship of the two nations.

Seventy years on, they are still in need of food, and we in the West have joined with the Americans in sending it to them. Now, in the late s, we understand that Hoover in spoke the truth when others were dumb. In those days so long ago and so different from now, he was an accurate prophet. Yet he was simply carrying out one of the basic Christian precepts of Western society, to forgive your enemy, and do good to those who hurt you. One could say there was no prescience at all.

The ideas of Hoover, as Gandhi said of his own ideas, are as old as the hills and so endure. In , Hoover was in Brussels to attend a conference to present to the Germans a formula he had devised for solving the blockade problem. He saw Hoover in the hotel lobby one day, and said brusquely, 'Young man, I don't see why you Americans want to feed these Germans. He was still struggling against his nemesis, Winston 14 A Piratical State Churchill, who energetically advocated continuation of the blockade in the House of Commons: 'Germany is very near starvation,' Hoover believed, '.

Now is therefore the time to settle. Hoover let him have it, in 'a torrent that he ought to remember even in his grave', slamming the British and French officials who were obstructing his relief work. He told Lloyd George that hundreds of thousands of tons of food were lying on the docks at Rotterdam waiting to go up-river to Germany, while Germans starved. He pointed out that the British navy was even preventing the German fishing boats from going out to catch fish.

To the Prime Minister's face, Hoover denounced the 'grasp-, ing attitude of your trickster minions'. As Hoover dryly noted after, Lloyd George was an over-worked but a reasonable man. For Britain, the most important aim of diplomacy in the s had been to maintain in Europe a balance of power so that no nation would be strong enough to threaten her interests.

In , Britain hoped to achieve this partly by threatening Germany with war if Germany attacked Poland. Germany was seen as the only threat, and Poland was the place to end her aggressions. Six years later, Poland was free of Germans, but the USSR was still in ugly possession of eastern Poland and other territories it had first taken with the help of Hitler.

The British guarantee to Poland had not been fulfilled. And the Soviet threat to Europe in was great. A decision was made in that shaped modern history. The last battle of the Second World War was not to be fought. Russian communism has won the day. Now the victorious British of were meekly collaborating in the Soviet takeover of all eastern Europe.

The answer begins with one of the dominant international facts of the twentieth century, the strength of Germany. The Axis alliance in seemed so strong that our leaders believed that it was imperative to ally ourselves wholeheartedly with the dictator Stalin against the dictator Hitler. This was one of the more astonishing reversals in history, for the British, French, Canadians and Americans had all been deadly enemies of communism since the first days of the Russian revolution.


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They had failed to suppress communism in Russia, but their old enemy Germany had secretly begun to co- operate with Soviet Russia to re-arm in the s. The Germans under the Weimar Republic had begun to rebuild their air force and army, which was illegal under the Treaty of Versailles. In Kazan, German tank units under General Heinz Guderian were secretly trained, and helped to train Red Army units; at Lipetsk airbase nearby, the Germans tested 'a whole new generation of German fighters and heavy bombers'.

Assured of a speedy victory in Poland, Hitler courted the risk that Britain and France would declare war on Germany. Thus started the Second World War. Hitler continued the war against the British and French with the help of the Soviets, who delivered oil, rubber, wheat and strategic metals in return for some machinery and for Hitler's compliance in their takeover of the Baltic states. Thus for almost two years, the UK and British Commonwealth - with a little help from France - fought against German armies fuelled and fed in part by the Soviets. It was clearly ludicrous to pretend that the Soviets were helping the democracies, but the Western Allies did it anyway, manufacturing public opinion through their control of press, film and radio.

The major thrust of this propaganda was to demonize Germany and later Japan, while praising the Russians for their heroic struggle to defend their homeland. On the June day in that marked the beginning of Hitler's assault on Russia, Churchill said with a smile, 'If Hitler invaded Hell, I would at least make a favourable reference to the Devil in the House of Commons. Instead, having determined their policy in secret, they deceived the public. They suppressed the brutal truth, that they believed the West was so weak that they had to support one criminal regime in order to beat another.

So the Western leaders pretended that the greatest mass-murderer of all time, Joseph Stalin, was a wise and heroic leader resolutely defending Mother Russia against the fascist hordes. And it was the democracies' duty to help defend him. Soon after Hitler declared war on the USA in December , the American government, with the willing co-operation of the press, created a vast propaganda machine to dupe their people about the Soviets. This was necessary for several reasons, one being that the American public, even nine months after the Japanese sneak attack at Pearl Harbor, was still confused as to why they were in the war at all.

According to a Gallup Poll in September , almost 40 per cent of Americans had no idea 'what this war was all about'. The pollsters concluded that 'this large minority of the population has not been adequately sold on the war'. As the war progressed, the Allies gradually extended their military co-operation with the Soviets, championing their cause against all kinds of critics.

The mass killer Stalin was pictured in the Western press with a benign smile over the caption 'Uncle Joe'. Life magazine stated unequivocally in that the Russians 'look like Americans, dress like Americans and think like Americans'. Then Roosevelt and Churchill took the next step: they began to cover up Soviet war crimes against their allies, the Poles.

And finally, after the war, they helped the Soviets commit new crimes, against the democratic leaders of Poland, and against former allies of the West. These were White Russians who had fought first with Western troops against the communists in the Russian Civil War, then later sided with Hitler against Stalin. Victory over Germany justified for some people in the West the totalitarian means that had gained the end, so these people were sent by force to Stalin, although they had never been Soviet citizens.

Finally, the Western democracies co-operated in the bloody Soviet-Polish expulsions from eastern Germany, maintained camps where about one million German prisoners of war died of starvation, exposure or disease, and countenanced or contributed to the starvation of millions of German civilians from to The influential American columnist Dorothy Thompson clearly saw and eloquently warned against the danger that Western democratic leaders would continue to adapt some totalitarian methods to their own use after the war.

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Herbert Hoover condemned the whole process in '1 felt deeply that We see the consequences today. The democ- racies were also indifferent to the Soviets' totalitarian cruelties. They were co-operating with the Soviets in hiding atrocities in the east, and in the murderous expulsions from the seized terri- tories of Germany. But their refusal to fight the Soviets was more fundamental. A fascinating change had begun that is still going on in the English-speaking democracies: the peacemakers were beginning to win their struggle with the militarists.

In most crises in the Anglo-Saxon nations before , the victors had usually been the militarists. And with good reason, for Anglo-Saxon military power was by far the most successful that the world has ever known. Neither England nor the United States had ever lost a war against non-Anglo-Saxons in over five centuries of struggles with the greatest military powers on every continent, in the air, on the sea, under the sea, on land, under every kind of regime. After the United States, Britain in was probably the most powerful nation on the face of the devastated earth, with the biggest empire in the history of the world.

The Soviets had to remember that in any confrontation with Britain, huge resources might be available to Britain from Canada and the USA, who were able to pour billions of dollars in food, munitions, and advanced equipment into her ports. The Royal Navy was the strongest on earth, after the American fleet; the Royal Air Force enormous and highly skilled; the armies numbering millions of men, well-equipped and flush with victory.

There was recent and powerful precedent for the British to resist Russian influence in Europe. Britain had actually sent 20 The Beginning of Wisdom? To assist them in a land battle, the British could call on more than two million German captives in their possession in the summer of The warlike spirit was still strong in the land. Churchill in May was keeping many German prisoners ready for battle, in their original formations, with all their guns and other equipment intact. To fulfil it by driving out Russia would have been a stern duty. But the Empire's power depended largely on the willingness of the Canadians and Americans to go on subsidizing the British.

Billions of Canadian dollars had already been sent, billions more were on their way to shore up the British economy. How long would it last? Mackenzie King, the grandson of William Lyon Mackenzie, who had been arrested and jailed for leading a Canadian rebel- lion against the British in , was opposed to an Empire dominated by the British. On a visit to Downing Street in September 1 to receive British petitions for food and money, he wrote: 'It is strange that Mackenzie [his grandfather] should have gone to Downing Street to try and get self- government, Canada's grievances remedied and that Downing Street today should be asking me to come to help Britain with her difficult problems.

But his objections went deeper than that. All on this one theme, seeking to have the organization of Empire such that it will hold together by its several supports rather than all fall asunder Crimes and Mercies through the efforts of Tory imperialists to create a vaster Empire than has been, thereby sowing the seeds of another world war.

Most of the imperial grandeur was swept overboard like cannon from the deck of a listing ship. The guarantee to Poland was ignored by all but the Poles. The Americans had made no guarantee to Poland, but they felt strong sympathy for her people, and the politicians were keenly aware of the large Polish vote in the USA.

Herbert Hoover had toured the US raising millions of dollars for relief to Poland in both the wars. By March , even Roosevelt, invincibly credulous about Stalin, was beginning to wonder if the Soviets had any intention of accepting Anglo-Saxon ideas for sharing world power, or of making the United Nations work. By September , when the Japanese war was over and the atomic cloud had spread around the world, no one could doubt that the Soviets were already breaking all their promises about Poland.

60 Top Christian Photos Free Pictures, Photos and Images - Getty Images

The Western sympathizers in Poland were being arrested and murdered, the communist Lublin Poles controlled Poland in the interests of the Soviets. The Americans now had a strong complaint against the Soviets, and a strong ally in Britain. They would gain much in other parts of the world by bringing the Soviets to heel. The Soviets threatened the growing American oil interests in the Middle East; they were helping Mao Tse-tung in China against the pro-American Chiang Kai-shek, and communist spies were caught stealing secrets from the highly advanced Canadian atomic development programme.

If the British and Americans had issued a joint ultimatum to the Soviets over Poland, one choice for Stalin would have been war against the most powerful nations in the world, whose aid was now essential to the Soviets just to keep the nation from starving. Their soldiers marched into battle in fifteen million pairs of North American boots.

Over 21, of their planes, half a mil- lion trucks, 12, tanks, and one-third of their merchant shipping fleet, were made in Great Britain, Canada or the United States. Not only that, but there were revolts, insurrections and guerrilla movements in several places in the ramshackle Soviet confederation. There was guerrilla warfare in Poland and the Baltic countries; an uprising in the Ukraine; and low-grade protests in the army, in industry and in the Gulag, the Soviet administrative department responsible for maintaining prisons and labour camps.

Not only did the allies know the full extent of the supplies the Soviets needed, they also had a statistical picture of the destruction that the country had suffered. The summary showed that the Allies judged that the Soviets had lost 25 per cent of their stock of fixed capital i. The losses in inventory stocks of food, clothing, etc. In all, the Soviets had lost close to one -third of inventory and equipment, plus millions of young men. The British and American armies nearly matched the Soviets in numbers, and they were 23 Crimes and Mercies far better supplied and more mobile.

A lot of the Soviet transport was still drawn by horses, but the armies of the West were the first in the history of the world to be propelled entirely by engines. And the Westerners had the most powerful weapon ever known - the atomic bomb. Why, with the danger of the Soviets plain to see in every sphere, did these two victorious powers not stand firm while they were so superior?

For the British, Poland was a matter of honour; for both British and Americans, Poland was a useful pretext to deliver an annihilating lesson to the Soviets. Why did they not do it? First, there was the fear that Germany might rise from the wreckage and challenge the democracies again. This fear soon diminished as the Allies took over in Germany, then finally dis- appeared into the antagonism between communism and democracy.

But even more important was the desire in the democracies to find a better way than war to settle the hostilities of the world. They had tried once before with the League of Nations, they would try once again with the UN.

Summary Bibliography: Tim White

To bring the Soviets into the world community of nations - to create that sense of community in the first place - the democracies sacrificed Eastern Europe, and Poland, East Germany, and placed their honour and their power in the balance. Their policy was partly in Churchill's plan to share power with the Soviets in Europe, 14 partly a determination to crush Germany under an occupation so heavy that it could never again threaten the supremacy of the West. It was in the remnants of Wilson's 14 Points; it was partly in Mackenzie King's 'law of peace, work and health'; and it was partly in the determination of Roosevelt and other American leaders to 'get along with' the Soviets.

But there were people in the West who believed that the Second World War was only the crusade against Hitler. After the war, these few powerful people kept the war going in the form of camouflaged vengeance. On the Western side, this vengeance was named the Morgenthau Plan after one of its progenitors, Roosevelt's friend Henry C. Morgenthau, who was also Secretary of the US Treasury. Morgenthau said it was necessary to reduce the military-industrial strength of Germans forever, so that never again could they threaten the peace. In fact, their plan was a serious threat to the safety of Europe because it distracted the Allies from the resistance they might have made to the Soviets.

It caused quarrels among the Western Allies because they feared the communists would 'exploit' the misery the Morgenthau Plan would create in Germany. The reconstruction of Europe, which would avert that threat, was seriously delayed by the destruction of the German economy carried out under the Morgenthau Plan after May And the moral issues raised by the vengeance set people against each other throughout the West. Western planning for vengeance against Germans and for the destruction of Germany began in England in August 1 , with its chief architects Morgenthau and Dwight D.

Actually, it was General Dwight D. Eisenhower who launched the project. The subject first came up at lunch in General Eisenhower's mess tent. White and 1 were there. White spoke of Germany, which was now certain to be defeated. White said, 'What 1 think is that we should give the entire German economy an opportunity to settle 25 Crimes and Mercies down before we do anything about it. He pointed out that talk of letting Germany off easy after taking care of the top people came from those who feared Russia and wanted to strengthen Germany as a potential bulwark against any desires Russia might someday have.

The General declared he saw no purpose in treating a 'paranoid' gently, and the 'whole German population is a synthetic paranoid. All their life the people have been taught to be paranoid in their actions and thoughts, and they have to be snapped out of it. The only way to do that is to be good and hard on them. I certainly see no point in bolstering their economy or taking any other steps to help them. He said: '1 will tell the President myself, if necessary. Although the American 26 The Beginning of Wisdom?

The German economy would be reduced to a level 'not quite' completely agrarian, he said. The plan went 'pretty far' in de-industrializing the Ruhr and eliminating many of Germany's basic industries. Now it has shrunk from sight in the West. The basic idea of the plan was to wreck or confiscate all important German industry, converting the country into a huge farm, while at the same time destroying the fertilizer plants on which German agriculture depended.

It would also cut Germany into pieces, and allot a huge piece of territory to the Poles and Soviets. After all, you and I have publicly said quite the opposite. His vengeful views were the opposite of Hull's views on Germany. It was a tragedy for the United States and all Europe that Hull had no influence at Quebec, or at the major summit conference at Yalta four months later. He said after Quebec that, 'This whole devel- opment at Quebec I believe angered me as much as anything that had happened during my career as Secretary of State.

Stimson, 27 Crimes and Mercies that the Morgenthau Plan would mean the deaths of some twenty million Germans by starvation and exposure. If the plan were leaked, it would give Hitler's propaganda minister, Joseph Goebbels, strong arguments for a bitter, futile resistance by the Germans. The plan was leaked, Goebbels soon obliged, and the Germans resisted to the bitter end. The Germans' fear of Allied vengeance was so powerful that William Donovan, Director of the OSS Office of Strategic Services , wrote to the Joint Chiefs of Staff on 27 November 1 that, 'The horrible prospects of exile to Siberia, eternal slavery, de-industrialization, break-up of Germany and even sterilization, have been carefully portrayed to the Germans by their Nazi leaders.

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It is considered that the German spirit of resistance has been bolstered greatly by fear of the consequence of unconditional surrender. Stimson, Roosevelt and the Morgenthau planners were also deliberately shutting out from government the opinions they represented. In the nation these were clearly in the majority. The majority of the press also opposed the Plan. In , he won the Nobel Peace Prize. Churchill told Stalin a few weeks after Quebec that the public reaction to the Morgenthau Plan had displeased Roosevelt and him. They were 'not very happy about its reception'.

But he added, 'Great Britain would not agree to mass execution of Germans, because one day British public opinion would cry out. A Yet development of the Morgenthau Plan went ahead in secret. Eisenhower began to carry it out on his own initiative in 28 The Beginning of Wisdom?

The first to suffer were the German prisoners. American prison camps under Eisenhower's command in France were kept far below the standards set by the Geneva Convention. Henry W. Allard, who was in charge of the US camps in France in 'The standards of PW [prisoner of war] camps in the ComZ [the US Army's rear zone] in Europe compare as only slightly better or even with the living conditions of the Japanese PW camps our men tell us about, and unfavourably with the Germans. They shot Japanese General Masaharu Homma in for maintaining camps in approximately the conditions described by Allard.

After the German surrender on 8 May , the American camps grew steadily worse. The total occupation of Germany, and the destruction of Germany's armed forces, national government, political parties, coupled with the trials of the war criminals, was the beginning of the Allies' post-war policy. At the surrender in May , schools and universities were closed, as well as radio stations, newspapers, the national Red Cross and mail service. Germany was also stripped of much coal, her eastern territories, industrial patents, lumber, gold reserves, and most of her labour force.

Allied teams also looted and destroyed Germany's factories, offices, laboratories and workshops. In the US, some ex- prisoners allege, starvation set in. These were described by some writers in the West 29 Crimes and Mercies as 'orderly and humane population transfers', while others reported the lethal conditions as they were. German industrial production in the winter of , which even under the Allied bombings was per cent of pre-war levels, was reduced under the Morgenthau Plan to 25 per cent of pre-war levels by autumn, Then it became part of the Potsdam Agreement, a solemn declaration of policy and undertaking for action As Senator William Langer of North Dakota stated in the United States Senate: 'History already records that a savage minority of bloody bitter-enders within this government forced the acceptance of the brutal Morgenthau Plan upon the present administration.

Recent developments have merely confirmed scores of earlier charges that this addlepated and vicious Morgenthau Plan had torn Europe in two and left half of Germany incorporated in the ever- expanding sphere of influence of an oriental totalitarian conspiracy. By continuing a policy which keeps 30 The Beginning of Wisdom? Germany divided against itself, we are dividing the world against itself and turning loose across the face of Europe a power and an enslaving and degrading cruelty surpassing that of Hitler's. His speech was warmly applauded. The Senate voted in approval of a resolution that stated in part, 'Whereas.

In pre- senting the motion, Wherry said, 'Much has been said and little done relative to opening the mails to Germany and providing sufficient food to prevent mass starvation in Germany, Austria, Italy and other countries of Europe. Terrifying reports are filtering through the British, French and American occupied zones, and even more gruesome reports from the Russian occupied zone, revealing a horrifying picture of deliberate and wholesale starvation.

This was not true. Time and again,' the Senator continued, 'the administration has advanced the excuse that transportation facilities were lacking, but for months scores of ships have been lying idle in both eastern and European ports. So it is not a question of the lack of ships. Furthermore, hundreds of thousands of GIs in Europe are apparently sentenced to enforced idleness for want of something to do. Millions of dollars' worth of surplus trucks and jeeps are falling apart in their open-air garages in Europe.

Russell, Jr. The government had said that the policy had been established in agreement with the Allies not to feed ex-enemies, but Russell said that the Allies were feeding Italians, who had also been the enemy during the war, and he demanded to know why they received food while the Germans starved. M Well over sixty million people were deliberately pushed to the edge of death by starvation. In Hamburg in , in the British zone of occupation, one touring British writer said that about , people were in the last stages of starvation with hunger oedema.

In Dbsseldorf and many other cities, people lived 32 The Beginning of Wisdom? The English philanthropist and publisher Victor Gollancz witnessed these conditions during his visit to Germany in He wrote: 1 made a more extensive tour of Dtsseldorf dwelling-places towards the end of the week. Down a long dark staircase and then along a black tunnel was a man of 79, alone in a hole which he had made habitable - according to the ruling standards - 'all by himself. His wife was out on the search for bread. In another part of the same cellar was a mother with three children - [aged] 6, 10 and AH four of them slept in the only bed, two side by side in the ordinary way and the other two side by side at the foot of it.

The mother came back while we were there: it was and she had been queuing for bread since early morning and had returned empty-handed - 'bread nowhere'. One of the children was still in bed; none had yet had anything to eat, as the last bread had gone yesterday. The father was a prisoner of war in Russia. Two of the children had TB. There was a tiny stove, but no coal or gas, only a little wood, which they 'fetched'.

For excretion they used a pail, which they emptied every morning into a hole they had dug in the courtyard above. They had twice been bombed out. On one wall was a small faded photograph of the mother and father at their wedding and on another some prince or king with the legend 'Lerne leiden ohne zu klagen: learn to suffer without complaining. One dwelling place he visited with them was 'down two long flights of stairs to an awful couple of rooms below'. There were no windows, no fresh air entering at all except by the nn Crimes and Mercies door.

This cellar had been flooded steadily for four weeks. In it were living two women and five children, from two different families. One of the women was pregnant; a child was covered with sores. The smell was so bad that Gollancz had to cover his nose and eat a lozenge on the way out. He visited cellar after cellar like this. A few were decorated with crucifixes, pho- tographs. In some he found people were who nevertheless cheerful.

The latest news was that in the British zone the starvation ration of a nominal 1, calories per day cpd would now be reduced to l,cpd for about six months. Hilldring, who said that the Germans were being treated too lavishly. Deaths in two years at pre-war rates would be around , The food ration did not improve in the following eighteen months, but grew slightly worse. In September he said, 'No child born in Germany this year will survive the coming winter. Only half the children aged less than three years will survive. In the summer of in Berlin, nearly every baby was born dead, or died within a few days.

Albrecht was also predicting that 34 The Beginning of Wisdom?

Schattenjahre in Potulitz 1945 : Schicksal in polnischen Internierungslagern : eine Dokumentation

Among the infants alone, the toll would be well over one million, perhaps as high as a million and a half dead. Grbber wrote on 12 October , 'In the forest around Berlin, countless dead are hanging from the trees. One becomes indifferent to death. Mothers see their children die and bury them by the wayside, apparently with none of that pain which usually tears a mother's heart apart If this misery cannot be checked, it is no exaggeration to reckon on a figure of 20,, dead this winter.

Johnson knew horror, for he had witnessed it in Hitler's con- centration camps just weeks before. A German Red Cross official had predicted to him an infant mortality rate of per cent for winter , amid scenes of desolation hard to believe in modern times. A huge number of soldiers, bureaucrats and their families was imposed on the small zone. In , the French billetted 18 persons per 10, Germans, whereas the British billetted ten and the Americans only three. The French took all their housing and most of their food from the locals, with the result that the local rations were always lower than the meagre rations decreed in the other zones.

But the French did not feel that the enormous scale of 35 Crimes and Mercies their exactions and the suffering of the Germans were justified, for they camouflaged what they were doing, according to Price, Waterhouse and Company. The big American accounting firm reported that the 'defective nature of the accounts' kept by the French 'made it impossible to produce an accountant's report on the foreign trade of the zone'. No German accounting of the foreign exports was permitted by the French, who took the goods, at prices they set themselves, and paid not in the precious dollars received, but in marks, thus depriving the Germans of the one way they had to buy foreign food.

Roy Willis. The death rate for the town of Landau in the Rheinland-Pfalz was The former Chief Rabbi of Berlin, Dr Baeck, was reported in an influential US magazine to have 'horrified the hate cult in this country by calling on his Jewish colleagues to join with him in demanding relief feeding for Germany. Franklin Delano Roosevelt's death in April The ailing Hull, like his successor Edward Stettinius, was ignored, and Henry Morgenthau, a great favourite of Roosevelt's, in effect became Secretary of State for the most important decision of all about Germany.

Harry Hopkins, who had never been elected, carried out the most important missions for the President. In the spring of , Truman was a minor figure whose great service had been to run on the FDR ticket in He was not well prepared to deal with the disasters now impending around the world. He had sufficient wit to call on Herbert Hoover in May 1 for advice on the world food problem, but not enough to accept the advice. Hoover warned Truman of the disasters that were about to occur, but Truman ignored him, to his cost. As the sit- uation grew worse, with rumours of French mistreatment of prisoners emerging in the press and predictions of disaster emerging from authoritative people in Germany, Truman was cornered.

He was caught between the consequences of the Morgenthau Plan and the widespread opposition in the admin- istration to revising any part of American policy in Germany. Truman had never approved the Morgenthau Plan and only discovered that it was being implemented when he had to deal with its disastrous consequences. Within a couple of months of taking office, Truman rid him- self of Secretary Morgenthau. This was probably not because of the plan, but because he had found Morgenthau over-reaching himself in other ways. Soon after, Truman was sending missions to Europe to look into conditions in refugee camps.

The circumstances of that call are interesting. As the situation Ti Germany had grown worse and worse, various senators visiting the American zone discussed the situation with army officers. Soon they were informed, and dis- gusted. It was decided to call on the President himself.

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This they did on 8 January They made a personal appeal to him to take immediate steps to permit the American people to relieve the suffering directly. They particularly requested that the United States raise the ration allowed to Germans and restore mail and package services to the American zone. The sort of language Truman heard was also audible in the Senate a few days later, in the voice of Senator Wherry: 'The American people should know once and for all that as a result of this government's official policy they are being made the unwilling accomplices in the crime of mass starvation.

Germany is the only nation subjected to a deliberate starvation policy of 1, calories per day. Berroth, Erika , Heinrich von Kleist. Geschlecht—Erkenntnis—Wirklichkeit Eleanor E. Fischer, Bernd , ed. Frederiksen, Elke P. Hohendahl, Peter Uwe , ed. Hundt, Irina , Hrsg. Frauen der Heineziet Helen G. Irrlitz, Gerd , Kant-Handbuch. Leben und Werk Heiner F. Jahraus, Oliver , Literatur als Medium.

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