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- A review of knowledge management about theoretical conception and designing approaches
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Fostering implementation of health services research findings into practice: a consolidated framework for advancing implementation science. Ferlie E, Shortell SM. Improving the quality of health care in the United Kingdom and the United States: a framework for change. Milbank Q. Development of a framework for knowledge translation: understanding user context. J Health Serv Res Policy. Handbook of Implementation Science for Psychology in Education.
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Lectures | Nemo
A guide to using the Behaviour Change Wheel. London: Silverback Publishing; Implementation Research: A Synthesis of the Literature. Systems Thinking in Dissemination and Implementation Research. Barriers and facilitators to implementing shared decision-making in clinical practice. Patient Educ Couns.
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A review of knowledge management about theoretical conception and designing approaches
Barriers and facilitators to implementation of an occupational health guideline aimed at preventing weight gain among employees in the Netherlands. J Occup Environ Med. A qualitative study of anticipated barriers and facilitators to the implementation of nurse-delivered alcohol screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment for hospitalized patients in a Veterans Affairs medical centre.
Addiction Sci Clin Pract. Dopson S, Fitzgerald L. The Active Role of Context. In: Dopson S, Fitzgerald L, editors. Knowledge to Action? Evidence-Based Health Care in Context.
Oxford: Oxford University Press; A quasi-experimental test of an intervention to increase the use of thiazide-based treatment regimens for people with hypertension. Zardo P, Collie A. Predicting research use in a public health policy environment: results of a logistic regression analysis. Gabbay J, Le May A. Ethnographic study of knowledge management in primary care. Br Med J. Fishbein M, Ajzen I. Belief, Attitude, Intention, and Behaviour.
New York: John Wiley; Bandura A. Self-efficacy: towards a unifying theory of behavioural change. Psychol Rev. Triandis HC. Nebraska Symposium on Motivation; Beliefs, Attitude, and values: Values, Attitudes, and Interpersonal Behaviour; pp. Ajzen I. Attitudes, Personality and Behavior. Milton Keynes: Open University Press; Creatures of habit: accounting for the role of habit in implementation research on clinical behaviour change.
Hammond KR. Principles of Organization in Intuitive and Analytical Cognition. Benner P. Epstein S. Integration of the cognitive and the psychodynamic unconscious. Am Psychol. Ouelette JA, Wood W. Habit and intention in everyday life: the multiple processes by which past behaviour predicts future behaviour.
Psychol Bull. Verplanken B, Aarts H. Habit, attitude, and planned behaviour: is habit an empty construct or an interesting case of goal-directed automaticity? Eur Rev Soc Psychol. Understanding the implementation of evidence-based care: a structural network approach. Health professional networks as a vector for improving healthcare quality and safety: a systematic review. BMJ Qual Saf. Mascia D, Cicchetti A. Physician social capital and the reported adoption of evidence-based medicine: exploring the role of structural holes.
Soc Sci Med. Understanding work contextual factors: a short-cut to evidence-based practice? Worldviews Evid Based Nurs. Assessing the relationship between contextual factors and research utilization in nursing: systematic literature review. J Adv Nurs. Organizational interventions to implement improvements in patient care: a structured review of reviews.
Yano EM. What can management theories offer evidence-based practice? A comparative analysis of measurement tools for organizational context. The effectiveness of strategies to change organisational culture to improve healthcare performance: a systematic review. Measuring factors affecting implementation of health innovations: a systematic review of structural, organizational, provider, patient, and innovation level measures.
Orlikowski W. Improvising organizational transformation over time: a situated change perspective. Inform Syst Res. The New Institutionalism and Organizational Analysis. Scott WR. Institutions and Organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage; Plsek PE, Greenhalgh T. The challenge of complexity in health care. Waldrop MM. London: Viking; Rogers EM. Diffusion of Innovations. Aubert BA, Hamel G. Adoption of smart cards in the medical sector: the Canadian experience. J Environ Psychol. Attributes of clinical recommendations that influence change in practice following audit and feedback.
No magic bullets: a systematic review of trials of interventions to improve professional practice. Systematic reviews of effectiveness of quality improvement strategies and programmes. Developing a taxonomy of interventions used to increase the impact of research. Andrews: University of St Andrews; Developing a theory-based taxonomy of methods for implementing change in practice. The intellectual structure and substance of the knowledge utilization field: a longitudinal author co-citation analysis, to The challenge of innovation implementation.
Acad Manage Rev. Zahra AS, George G. Absorptive capacity: a review, reconceptualization and extension. Weiner BJ. A theory of organizational readiness for change. The behaviour change wheel: a new method for characterising and designing behaviour change interventions. May C, Finch T.
Implementing, embedding and integrating practices: an outline of Normalization Process Theory. Understanding the implementation of complex interventions in health care: the normalization process model. Improving the normalization of complex interventions: measure development based on normalization process theory NoMAD : study protocol. Normalisation process theory: a framework for developing, evaluating and implementing complex interventions.
BMC Med. Am J Public Health. New York: McGraw-Hill; Outcomes for implementation research: conceptual distinctions, measurement challenges, and research agenda. Admin Policy Mental Health. Experiences of using Theoretical Domains Framework across diverse clinical environments: a qualitative study. J Multidiscip Healthc. Antibiotic prescribing in long-term care facilities: a qualitative, multidisciplinary investigation. BMJ Open. A qualitative systematic review of studies using the normalization process theory to research implementation processes.
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Specify types also known as classes or domains of determinants and individual determinants, which act as barriers and enablers independent variables that influence implementation outcomes dependent variables. Theories that originate from fields external to implementation science, e. Theory of Diffusion [ ], social cognitive theories, theories concerning cognitive processes and decision making, social networks theories, social capital theories, communities of practice, professional theories, organizational theories.
Specify aspects of implementation that could be evaluated to determine implementation success. Characteristics of the clinical experience addressed as an aspect of the evidence element. Characteristics of the patient experience addressed as an aspect of the evidence element. Characteristics of the context comprising culture, leadership and evaluation.
But how the employees get self —motivated? One of the key aspects of the supportive model has been studies conducted at the Hawthorne Plant of Electric in the s and s. The study was led by Elton Mayo and F. J Roethlisberger to implore on the human behavior at work by implementing and placing keen insight on the sociological, psychological perspective in the industrial setup.
They came up to a conclusion that a single organization is a social system and a worker is an important component in the system. They found that worker is not a tool that can be used in any way but has its own behavior and personality and needs to be understood. They suggested that understanding of group dynamism including the application of supportive supervision is imperative to make workers contribute and be supportive. Through the leadership organizations give the space and climate for the employees to develop, form their own thinking and take an initiative. They would take responsibility and improve themselves.
Managers are oriented towards supporting the employees to give performances and not just support them through employee benefits as done in custodial approach. The supportive model is being widely accepted chiefly in the developed nations where the needs of the employees are different as it fulfills many of the employees emerging needs. This approach is less successful in the developing nations where the social and economic need of the working class is different. In this scheme, the structure of an organization is developed in a way that there is no boss nor subordinates, but all are colleagues who have to work as a team.
Each one of the employees has to participate and work in coordination with each other to achieve the target rate. No one is worried about his status or a job title. The team requires adopting new approaches, research and development and new technologies to better their performance. We can also say Collegial model is an extension of the supportive model.
This makes the employees feel important and needed. They also feel that managers are not just mere supervisors but are also giving their equal contribution to the team. To make the collegial model success many organizations have abolished the use of bosses and subordinates during working, as these terms create the distance between the managers and subordinates. While some of the organizations have abolished the system of allotting reserved space for executives.
Now any employee can park their vehicle in the common parking space, which increases their convenience and makes them more comfortable. The manager is oriented towards the team performance while each employee is responsible for his task and towards each other. They are more disciplined and work as per the standards set by the team. In this setup employees feel fulfilled as their contribution is accepted and well received. This model emerged from the rigorous research to attain the higher level of meaning at work.
To add to it, they need the work that is ethical, respectful, integrated with trust and integrity and gives a space to develop a community feeling among the co-workers. In the system model, the expectations of the managers are much more than getting the work done by the employees. The managers have to show their emotional side, be more compassionate and caring towards their team and they must be sensitive towards the needs of the diverse workforce. They have to devote their attention to creating the feeling of optimism, hope, trustworthiness, courage, self-determination, and through this, they try to develop the positive work culture where the employees feel more at ease and work as if they are working for their family.
This ultimately results in the long time commitment and loyalty of the employees and the success of the company. Arisha and Ragab provided a literature review and categorized the analysis of the rapidly growing number of KM publications, and they offered a comprehensive reference for newcomers embarking on research in the field.
Matayong and Mahmood reviewed the current literature of KM systems studies in organizations. Chiliban et al. Tzortzaki and Mihiotis studied how the theory revolving around KM has developed over the years. Omotayo reviewed the literature in the area of KM to bring out the importance of KM in an organization. Asrar-ul-Haq and Anwar reviewed the attempts to provide the evidence base concerning knowledge sharing and KM in organizational settings.
Based on the above-described scenario, in this research, we aim to provide a systemic overview of KM. At last, our main contributions can be related to the Streams A and B as follows: A we summarize and analyze some major theoretical conceptions about KM and B we give a comprehensive review about the approaches for designing the KM system. The remainder of this paper is organized as follows. In Section 2, we review the major conception of KM. Section 3 shows and analyzes the approaches to design KM system.
Finally, conclusions are presented in Section 4. There are a number of approaches to the conception about knowledge, as it is both a complex and abstract term. Actually, the definition of knowledge is a matter of ongoing debate among philosophers in the field of epistemology. One of the most accepted definitions about knowledge is that knowledge is a dynamic human resource of justification of the personal beliefs to obtain the truth Nonaka, It can then be stated that knowledge is an invisible or intangible asset, in which its acquisition involves complex cognitive processes of perception, learning, communication, association and reasoning Epetimehin and Ekundayo, Knowledge is the concept, skill, experience and vision that provides a framework for creating, evaluating and using the information Soltani and Navimipour, Generally, knowledge can be divided into two types, tacit and explicit Hubert, Tacit knowledge is the personal and context-specific knowledge of a person that resides in the human mind, behavior and perception Duffy, Koenig suggested that explicit knowledge means information or knowledge that is set out in tangible form.
Also there are many definitions and descriptions about KM written by different scholars from various fields. To have a deep understanding of KM, we should re-visit some fundamentals of KM, such as the theoretical understanding of the concept of knowledge despite the abundance of theoretical and conceptual work. We have reviewed some major conceptions of KM and summarized them in Table I. When reviewing the definitions about KM, there are some terms that seem more central and fundamental than others, such as organization and information.
In summary, despite the various versions of the definition and descriptions about KM, their essence is to help individuals improve learning efficiency and integrate different information resources to improve competitiveness advantages. And KM is capable of providing the individual with the tools and techniques they need to surmount the overwhelming information they encounter and to enable them to improve learning efficacy and increase competitive advantage.
KM is viewed as a process, where many related activities are formed to carry out key elements of strategy and operations for KM. During the past two decades, a vast number of KM processes have been introduced by researchers from different perspectives. And we reviewed and summarized some major descriptions about KM process. Table II shows this result. Although there are various descriptions about KM process, some words seem more central and fundamental than others, such as creation, storage, transfer and application.
Knowledge creation refers to how new knowledge is created. This stage involves the developing of new content or the replacing of existing content within the tacit and explicit knowledge Ajmal and Koskinen, Knowledge storage refers to the process of recording knowledge and storing it in the repositories such as archives, databases and filing systems.
And it aims to transfer the knowledge to the individual, groups or units that need to apply it Johannsen, Knowledge transfer is an important process of KM and refers to the transfer of knowledge to locations where it is needed and can be used Pirkkalainen and Pawlowski, This phase is critical for the success of the KM process, as the transfer must produce changes in the knowledge base Argote and Ingram, Knowledge application refers to the actualizing of knowledge.
This process can be used to adjust strategic direction, solve new problems, improve efficiency and reduce costs Newell et al. And this stage is used to make good use of the created knowledge such as implementing a best practice. Knowledge representation and organization is a technique that increasing efficiency of an explaining associations of knowledge bodies with the purpose of managing knowledge by creating similar content associations. SLN is a network that represents semantic relations between concepts.
And it is always used as a form of knowledge representation. It consists of vertices, which represent concepts, and edges, which represent semantic relations between concepts Hai, Kravchenko et al. They developed the genetic algorithm for semantic similarity estimation in accordance with the knowledge graph model. Xiao et al. Che Cob et al. Cob et al. Liu et al. Ontology was taken from philosophy, where it means a systematic explanation of being.
An ontology is a catalog of existing concepts in a field, which contains predicates, semantics of concepts and terms and how they relate to one another Natalya et al. Ontology has wide application potential in the classification of information, the construction of information and knowledge database, as well as the research and development of intelligent search engine.
As shown in Table III , the applications of ontology to the field of KM have aroused the concern of many researchers during the past decade. One of the major challenges in KM is how to promote to share knowledge with others. In fact, effective KM relies on successful knowledge sharing Swacha, Knowledge sharing and knowledge transfer are sometimes used synonymously or are considered to have overlapping content Dan and Sunesson, Following the bulk of literature, we shall consider knowledge sharing to be semantically the same as knowledge transfer Paulin and Suneson, The success of knowledge sharing relied on the degree to which the knowledge is recreated in the recipient.
Swacha defined a system of appropriate gamification rules which makes use of a number of purposely selected gamification components, and aimed at motivating individuals for various activities related to knowledge sharing. Ma and Yuen proposed an online knowledge-sharing model and tested among undergraduate students using an online learning environment.
And this model introduces two new constructs — perceived online attachment motivation and perceived online relationship commitment. Hung et al. Results of their experiment showed that the KM system with built-in reputation feedback is crucial to support successful knowledge sharing. Tohidinia and Mosakhani evaluated the influence of a series of potential factors on knowledge-sharing behavior and suggested a systematic effort to improve knowledge-sharing behavior in organizations, an effort in which relevant factors from different perspectives are considered.
Performance measurement is a crucial part in KM Wang et al. By this process of measure, we can assess the effectiveness of KM practices and judge whether the current knowledge process can meet the our learning needs and whether it can provide feedback of information on KM to carry out continuous improvement on KM. KM performance evaluation includes the design of KM performance evaluation criteria and the selection of the evaluation methods Wang and Zheng, This process consists of qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis. The common qualitative approaches for KM evaluation include open-ended questionnaires Changchit et al.
While, the quantitative analysis is always used to measure the explicit knowledge with a series of indicators which include both financial and non-financial Chen and Chen, Wang et al. Zhang applied the Balanced Scorecard into the performance assessment of KM on the basis of the analysis of the Balanced Scorecard and KM and carried out the detailed analysis to measure the performance of KM tools from four aspects — financial, customer, internal processes and learning and growth.
Wang and Zheng proposed a KM performance evaluation method that includes knowledge system, structure capital, human capital, mental capital and market capital. Wu et al.