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Beginning in the late s, social network analysis experienced work by sociologists, political scientists, physicists such as Duncan J. Christakis , James H. Fowler , others and applying new models and methods to emerging data available about online social networks, as well as "digital traces" regarding face-to-face networks. Anthony Giddens Anthony Giddens , Baron Giddens is a British sociologist , known for his theory of structuration and his holistic view of modern societies.
He is considered to be one of the most prominent modern sociologists, the author of at least 34 books, published in at least 29 languages, issuing on average more than one book every year. In , Giddens was listed as the fifth most-referenced author of books in the humanities. Four notable stages can be identified in his academic life; the first one involved outlining a new vision of what sociology is, presenting a theoretical and methodological understanding of that field, based on a critical reinterpretation of the classics.
In the second stage Giddens developed the theory of structuration, an analysis of agency and structure, in which primacy is granted to neither, his works of that period, such as New Rules of Sociological Method, Central Problems in Social Theory and The Constitution of Society, brought him international fame on the sociological arena. The third stage of Giddens's academic work was concerned with modernity and politics the impact of modernity on social and personal life. Giddens' ambition was both to recast social theory and to re-examine our understanding of the development and trajectory of modernity.
In the most recent stage, Giddens has turned his attention to a more concrete range of problems relevant to the evolution of world society — environmental issues, focussing upon debates about climate change, analysed in successive editions of his book, The Politics of Climate Change. Giddens was born and raised in Edmonton and grew up in a lower-middle-class family, son of a clerk with London Transport. He was the first member of his family to go to university.
Giddens received his undergraduate academic degree at the University of Hull in , followed by a master's degree at the London School of Economics, he gained a PhD at King's College, Cambridge. In , he started working at the University of Leicester.here
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At Leicester — considered to be one of the seedbeds of British sociology — he met Norbert Elias and began to work on his own theoretical position. In , he was appointed to a position at the University of Cambridge , where he helped create the Social and Political Sciences Committee. Giddens worked for many years at Cambridge as a fellow of King's College and was promoted to a full professorship in , he is cofounder of Polity Press.
He was an adviser to Tony Blair. He has been a vocal participant in British political debates, supporting the centre-left Labour Party with media appearances and articles, he was given a life peerage in June , as Baron Giddens, of Southgate in the London Borough of Enfield and sits in the House of Lords for Labour. Giddens holds over 15 honorary degrees from various universities, including honorary degrees from Jagiellonian University , the University of South Australia , University of London and Lingnan University.
Giddens, the author of over 34 books and articles and reviews, has contributed and written about most notable developments in the area of social sciences, with the exception of research design and methods, he has written commentaries on most leading schools and figures and has used most sociological paradigms in both micro and macrosociology. His writings range from abstract, metatheoretical problems to direct and'down-to-earth' textbooks for students. His textbook, first published in , is in its eighth edition.
He is known for his interdisciplinary approach: he has commented not only on the developments in sociology , but in anthropology , psychology , history, economics, social work and most political science. In view of his knowledge and works, one may view much of his life's work as a form of'grand synthesis' of sociological theory.
Before , most of Giddens' writings offered critical commentary on a wide range of writers and traditions. Giddens took a stance against the then-dominant structural functionalism , as well as criticising evolutionism and historical materialism. In Capitalism and Modern Social Theory , he examined the work of Weber and Marx, arguing that despite their different approaches each was concerned with the lin.
Stranger A stranger is a person, unknown to another person or group. Because of this unknown status, a stranger may be perceived as a threat until their identity and character can be ascertained. Different classes of strangers have been identified for social science purposes, the tendency for strangers and foreigners to overlap has been examined; the presence of a stranger can throw an established social order into question, "because the stranger is neither friend nor enemy. The distrust of strangers has led to the concept of stranger danger, wherein excessive emphasis is given to teaching children to fear strangers despite the most common sources of abduction or abuse being people known to the child.
A stranger is defined as someone, unknown to another. Since individuals tend to have a comparatively small circle of family, friends and other people known to them—a few hundred or a few thousand people out of the billions of people in the world—the vast majority of people are strangers to one another, it may more figuratively refer to a person for whom a concept is unknown, such as describing a contentious subject as "no stranger to controversy," or an unsanitary person as a "stranger to hygiene". A stranger is represented as an outsider, a source of ambivalence, as they may be a friend, an enemy, or both.
The word stranger derives from the Middle French word estrangier, meaning a alien; the boundaries of what people or groups are considered strangers varies according to circumstances and culture, those in the fields of sociology and philosophy in a variety of broader contexts. According to sociologist and philosopher Zygmunt Bauman , every society produces its own strangers, the natures of "strangeness" is "eminently pliable man-made".
Alternatively, Lisa Atwood Wilkinson has written that "y definition, whoever is a stranger to me is someone, not a philos: a stranger is a person, not related to me by blood or marriage, not a member of my tribe or ethne , not a fellow citizen. The state of being a stranger may be examined as a matter of degrees. For example, someone may be a partial stranger in cases where they are unable to communicate, or another is unable to understand aspects of an individual, their perspective or experiences. Alternatively, one may be a moral stranger to another who acts "out of fundamentally divergent moral commitments" though the person may be a close friend or family member.
A stranger with whom a person has had no contact of any kind may be referred to as a "total stranger" or "perfect stranger"; some people who are considered "strangers" due to the lack of a formally established relationship between themselves and others are nonetheless more familiar than a total stranger. A familiar stranger is an individual, recognized by another from sharing a common physical space such as a street or bus stop, but with whom one does not interact. First identified by Stanley Milgram in the paper The Familiar Stranger : An Aspect of Urban Anonymity, it has become an popular topic in research about social networks and technologically-mediated communication.
Consequential strangers are personal connections other than close friends. Known as "peripheral" or "weak" ties, they lie in the broad social territory between strangers and intimates; the term was coined by Karen L. A stranger is not a foreigner , although a foreigner is likely to be a stranger: A foreigner, the dictionary tells us, is someone not from one's own country, while a stranger is someone, neither one's friend nor acquaintance.
Although they overlap, the two meanings are not synonymous: a stranger is a foreigner, though not necessarily. Foreignness implies passports and questions of citizenship or national belonging, in addition to evoking personal feelings of acceptance or rejection. According to Chris Rumford , referencing the work of sociologist and philosopher Georg Simmel , "people who are physically close by can be remote and those who are far away may in fact be close in many ways".
With the conglomeration of populations into large cities, people now have a high propensity to "live among strangers". Adopting a statist view, strangers may be seen as a chaotic challenge to the order imposed and sought by the nation-state , faced with the challenge of assimilating the stranger, expelling them, or destroying them. Although this view may overlook important issues of what authority defines the stranger, how that determination is made.
Interactions with strangers can vary depending on the circumstances and the personalities of the people involved; some people have no difficulty striking up conversations with strangers, while others experience strong discomfort at the prospect of interacting with strangers. At the opposite end of the spectrum, some people are excited by engaging in sex with strangers.
Psychologist Dan P. McAdams wr. Red Hat Society The Red Hat Society is an international social organization, founded in in the United States for women age 50 and beyond, but now open to women of all ages. Its main purpose is to provide women with opportunities for pleasant social interaction, both for reconnecting with old friends and making new ones. There are more than 50, members in the United States and 30 other countries.
When a good friend was nearing a 55th birthday, Cooper cast about for an idea for an original gift. She gave her friend a red hat of her own suggesting that she keep it as a reminder to grow older playfully and on her terms. The symbolism behind the red hat affected women.
Cooper repeated the gift on request several times, several of the women bought purple outfits and held a tea party on April 25, , at which the Red Hat Society began. After spreading by word of mouth, the society first received national publicity in the year through the magazine Romantic Homes and a feature in The Orange County Register. The Red Hat Society membership increased through word of mouth, growing from two chapters in to over 70, members. Nominees are made up of inspiring women who deserve recognition for the effect they have had in the lives of others ; the Red Hatter of the year is the highest national recognition given to a member who shows influence and involvement to her community and fellow members.
The Red Hat Society is an international society of women that connects and encourages women in their pursuit of fun, freedom and fitness while supporting members in the quest to get the most out of life; the Red Hat Society's primary purpose is social bonding among women. In the early part of their lives, most women give their all to family and community, and they enjoy it.
But, along the way, sometimes their existing bonds of friendship diminish. Membership in the Red Hat Society can be used for reconnecting old friends, making new friends and rediscovering the joy of getting together with other women for the express purpose of having fun. The society promotes periods of "recess" from the cares and duties of everyday life in which members gather for no other purpose than to play. The benefits of being a part of the Red Hat Society include interpersonal connections and emotional support systems built among Sisters both online and offline.
Members of the society support one another in every life stage from all corners of the globe. RHS members are reshaping the way women are viewed in today's culture by promoting fun, freedom from stereotypes, fulfillment of goals and dreams; the RHS sees physical fitness as the foundation on which they base rewarding lives. A founder or leader of a local chapter is referred to as a "Queen". Members 50 and over are wear red hats and purple attire to all functions. Women who wish to join the society can do so by going to the Red Hat Society website to sign up as a Queen or Member.
Individuals can search for chapters based on location or geography and connect with local chapters by using tools on the society website. Any woman may join the Red Hat Society as a Queen of an individual chapter or as a supporting member of a local chapter. There are supporting members who do not belong to any local chapter but have access to the RHS website, online communities, special communications, discounts.
Both Red and Pink Hatters wear elaborately decorated hats and attention-getting fashion accessories, such as a feather boa, at the group's get-togethers; the Red Hat Society is dedicated to encouragement of a positive life outlook through the sisterhood of a local chapter. Members gather in large and small local chapters to have fun and support one another, though some Hatters chose to remain individual members and participate in activities as their schedule allows. The society's events vary depending on the chapter, but one of the most common activities among Red Hatters include hosting tea parties, playing games, going to movies or theater events, traveling on excursions and to larger RHS conventions.
The organization has published several books: Red Hats and the Women who Wear Them. Eat Dessert First! From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. In Lang, F. New York: Cambridge University Press. But Really Do. New York: W. Journal of Family Theory and Review. The Future of Children. Personal Relationships. The Consequences of Modernity.
Inspired some social scientists to reconsider this bias further. In Cook, K. Sociological Perspectives on Social Psychology. Journal of Marriage and the Family. Merrill Lynch Forum. In Vangelisti, Anita L. The Cambridge Handbook of Personal Relations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. An Inductive Study". Social Network. Rethinking Friendship: Hidden Solidarities Today.
In Ito, M. Societal Structures of the Mind. Springfield, IL: Charles C. The Cambridge Handbook of Personal Relationships. Interpersonal Communication and Human Relationships Fifth ed. In Berkowitz, L. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology. New York: Academic Press. American Psychologist. Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on Journal of Experimental Social Psychology.
New York: Warner Books. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Milardo, H. Phoenix, AZ. Most of the year Zimbabwe is a warm destination and most people make the mistake of taking along too much clothing. Take along comfortable, casual and semi-casual, "wash and wear" clothes. Bright colours and white are not suitable for game viewing and avoid camouflage clothing which is banned for civilians in Zimbabwe.
Please dress appropriately when crossing borders, no bare feet, bare chests, bikini tops, or when visiting markets, villages or towns. For photography of birds and animals a mm telephoto lens is recommended. In most parts of Africa it is considered respectful to first ask permission from local people before taking a photograph.
A pair 8x30mm of binoculars is really essential to benefit fully from the safari. Anyone with an English language licence containing a photograph can use it in Zimbabwe for up to 90 days. Self-driving often gives more independence and flexibility and is a good way to explore the country, see the wildlife and visit the National Parks.
A 4x4 is only obligatory in the rainy season, but vehicles should have high clearance. Wearing seat belts is compulsory for front seat occupants of a vehicle.
Zimbabwe inherited the best road infrastructure in Africa, but it soon became quite dilapidated with the economic collapse of This means that driving between cities on all the national roads is fairly safe; the roads between Victoria Falls and Bulawayo, Bulawayo and Masvingo Great Zimbabwe Bulawayo and Harare and Masvingo and Mutare are all in excellent condition. Only the A4 between Harare and Beit Bridge has still to be widened and upgraded and carries a lot of slow heavy Lorries.
zambezi a simple history a cavalcade of strangers Manual
Travelling at night is never advised as there are no fences along the highways meaning outside the cities livestock including cattle, donkeys, goats and dogs can wander onto the roads outside and many vehicles have poor and badly adjusted headlamps. From November to March during the rainy season potholes are a very common occurrence and are a serious threat to any vehicle that is travelling too fast.
There are always plenty of police blocks outside cities, perhaps as many as ten between Harare and Bulawayo and they may involve delays, but keep your cool. They are usually uneventful and in a modern vehicle which has paid up road and radio licences you will probably be waved through, or asked to show your licence and your Temporary Import Permit TIP.
Police will fine you if you do not have adhesive reflectors on your car, red hazard triangles in your boot, a spare tyre, and a fire extinguisher: these items are listed below. Pity the kombi and mini-bus drivers who are inevitably pulled over. Roadblocks manned by less than three policemen are illegal and maybe a scam. Speed traps are common so keep your eyes peeled for speed limit signs which you should obey to avoid fines.
In towns quite often the lights at road junctions are not working. Put your flasher lights on and proceed cautiously when the road is clear. No need to panic as Zimbabwean drivers are used to this occurrence and an unwritten form of etiquette has developed. Be cautious of bag snatchers at traffic lights especially at night; keep doors locked and windows up, handbags under car seats and all suitcases locked in the boot.
Fuel prices are generally cheaper in Harare, but will vary around the country. All fuel is imported which makes it more expensive than many neighbouring countries. Distances are quite long between towns and drivers should always try to keep the tank above the halfway mark just to be on the safe side. Note that almost no gas stations in Zimbabwe currently take credit cards and all payments are in cash. Two white reflex reflectors are required on each side of the front bumper and two red reflex reflectors on each side of the rear bumper. The first police roadblock from the border will notice if these are missing and fine you.
This is free. If you are looking for a tour of Zimbabwe without having to stick to a planned itinerary, then a self-drive safari might be the answer. In this way, you will be able to discover the country and its attractions with the freedom of doing so at your own pace. The car hire rentals generally includes unlimited kilometres, tourism levy, airport surcharge, personal accident insurance, standard collision damage waiver CDW , standard theft loss waiver TLW , value added tax, delivery and collection within a 30 kilometre radius. In the past many more airlines flew direct to Zimbabwe including KLM and British Airways and if the economic situation improves again they may well re-instate those direct flights.
Johannesburg-OR Tambo. British Airways. Ethiopian Airlines. LAM Mozambique Airlines. Malawian Airlines. South African Airways. South African Express. Only the first stopover is listed above so for passengers flying to London they would stopover in Lusaka before flying to Dubai and then London. Most international airlines fly to Johannesburg, so for many international travellers this is the preferred route. Between and almost all of the major airlines originally plying the Harare route had left and at the same time the city suffered the negative stereotype of being the capital city of a country that was no longer perceived by the bulk of the international community as a good place to travel to.
Many people now consider flying long-haul into Harare is a good option and increasingly the airlines that left are re-establishing their flights into Harare which means visitors can now cut out first having to go through Johannesburg in South Africa, which had become the only reliable route into the region. There are two types of local buses: express and local. There is no public transport from Victoria Falls to Botswana, but taxi will take travellers to the border and some hotels in Vic Falls can arrange transfers.
These connections are frequent, their timetables can be relied upon and their fares are still comparatively reasonable. They are the fastest and most reliable form of travel between major cities and as local incomes increase more services are becoming available. Local buses normally depart when full from township markets outside the centre of a town. These are old public buses, often enveloped in a black cloud of diesel exhaust fumes that stop at every intersection and carry almost everything from wheelbarrows to sofas.
They are often the only affordable way for local people and the only means of transportation available in rural areas. Travel if you would like the experience and you will be received with friendly smiles and politeness as always and everywhere in Zimbabwe but they are not usually that roadworthy and very often extremely late due to frequent breakdowns. Minibus taxis are available for intra-city transport, and are relatively inexpensive by European standards and they provide a cheap, though a not necessarily safe or very comfortable way of seeing the true Zimbabwe. Trains are very slow; they are in desperate need of servicing and parts and the only train journey worth considering is between Bulawayo to the Victoria Falls which passes through Hwange National Park, one of the biggest in Africa.
Foreward Despite all the internal political upheaval and subsequent poor international press that Zimbabwe has endured over the past fifteen years, potential visitors should be assured that the country and its people still make a great and safe destination. Overall the general number of birds that can be seen in Zimbabwe is remarkable. Notable birds are:. Southern yellow-billed hornbill. Near Endemics include:.
Other birding specials are:. Blue-mantled crested flycatcher. White-breasted cuckoo-shrike. Table showing the National Parks where Zimbabwe's mammals can be sighted. Buffalo - African Savannah. Elephant - African savannah. Gemsbok Southern Oryx. Hedgehog - Southern African. Lichtenstein's Hartebeest. Mongoose - white tailed. Southern African Springhare.
Air Namibia. Air Botswana. Air Zimbabwe. Kenya Airways. Game Resorts and Wildlife Lodges. Gorges Lodge. Imbabala Zambezi Safari Lodge. Pioneers Camp. Victoria Falls Safari Lodge. Bomani Tented Lodge.
Camelthorn Lodge. Ivory Lodge. Somalisa Acacia. Somalisa Camp. Musango Island Safari Camp. Rhino Safari Camp. Bumi Hills Safari Lodge and Spa. Chapungu Safaris Gache Gache Camp. Gache Gache Lodge. Spurwing Island Lodge. This young man had won the Military Medal during WW1 for very brave actions and had been badly injured in the process. A "Hunter" pocket watch was bought, and inscribed, with the proceeds. Most of the local young people from several nearby villages attended to enjoy the fun. We played Whist at the beginning of the evening. Much to my surprise I won first prize. That was the only time I have ever won at a card game in public.
He had built and owned the Castle. This famous and humble man awarded the prizes for the Games. Sandy was on the top table for he was delegated to make the speech praising his comrade in arms and do the watch presentation. After I was given my prize I cannot remember what it was by Mr.. I also had to shake hands with Sandy. He had lovely hands. He gazed into my eyes, and smiled at me, as he said appropriate words which I never heard, and handed me the prize. That was when Sandy first noticed me. The sound of his gentle voice, his long glance and grin, made me tingle all over, feel weak in the legs, and at the knees.
I felt hot all over and I was sure that I would faint. All I could do was to take the gift, and utter some confused words of thanks. Then I blunder my way back to my seat, and boyfriend, with a very flushed face, tears welling in my eyes, a great big grin on my face, and a heart pounding so hard, fast, and loud, that I thought everyone could hear it.
Then there was the pocket watch presentation to the soldier followed by dancing and then group games. Sandy could not dance but he loved the parlour games and joined my team.
It was during this games activity that Sandy asked if he could escort me home afterwards to Dron. I hated having to refuse him for my father had already arranged for someone to escort me and my boyfriend to my home. I could not sleep that night for thinking about Sandy and how I might have lost him, but God had other plans. Next day I had a letter from Sandy which was delivered by Angus, his younger brother, who cycled daily with me, and Meg, my younger sister, to Cupar where we all worked.
In the note Sandy asked me to meet him. Soon our romance developed for I already knew that I was hopelessly in love with him. He was equally in love with me and had just been too shy and too busy to speak to me earlier. Sandy had thought that a lovely young lady like me could never see anything attractive about a man like him, or one who would be in tune with his future Missionary plans. David, one of Sandy older brothers, and quite a lad for the girls, had tried to date me several times before I met his younger brother.
I had politely refused each time. Now I had no eye. Many months later, Sandy told me an amusing event. David and he were out on a cycle tour of Fife with a group of old school friends. Some of the friends congratulated Sandy on capturing my heart. That was the fist time David learned we were courting.
He became so angry that I had turned him down for Sandy that he threw his expensive new bicycle over a hedge that hid a rocky stream some 25 feet below. The machine was so badly damaged that David could not continue the ride, and had to walk several miles home carrying his broken bicycle. My mother understood why there were no costly presents for her when she found out that Sandy was not well-off. The reason being that he had cashed in his lifelong WW1 Disablement Pension for five hundred pounds sterling to pay for his own further education and training in Theology, Missionary, Agricultural and Horticultural subjects at Colleges in Edinburgh.
Our United Free Church had accepted Sandy for training as a Missionary in Africa on the condition that he paid for his own education costs. Sandy so wanted to fulfil the promise he had made to Rev.
Crighton, our Minister, at the age of 11 years to go to Africa in the sick clerics place that he was spending all his money to make the dream a reality. After this she became his great admirer, and supporter for my hand in marriage. Not that any other lad had a chance of marrying me for my soul told me that God had made us for each other, from the beginning of time, to be husband and wife.
That was the day we exchanged rings. Sandy always insisted on giving me gifts on the 19th March each year thereafter for he said he had proposed and I had accepted on that date, and the ring giving was a detail. My parents cottage at Dron, Fife, was set beside an orange gold sandstone bridge running over the main St. Andrews and North East of Scotland railway line. The beauty of the stone colour was hidden by a film of dirt from the smoke of the coal-burning engines that passed underneath. On the evening of our happiest of days Sandy inscribed our intertwined initials into one of the coping stones in the middle of the bridge to mark the spot where I said "Yes" to being his wife.
He used a long rusty hand made iron nail that just happened to be on the ground. My five sons knew this "secret of the bridge at Dron" story and loved it. It was a much demanded bedtime tale when they were toddlers. When each newly engaged couple added their intertwined initials to the coping stones they would also clean out every other set of begrimed initials. The amazing thing is that there was always a big rusty nail somewhere in the cinders covering the road to do the inscribing, and cleaning, of initials.
In , because my husband and I were becoming too crippled to go to see the bridge, Ronnie you know him as Ron created and drew a design onto a blank tapestry cloth. It incorporated all our family initials as they appeared to be carved into the stone of the bridge. I stitched in appropriate colours, and Sandy framed it for me. Eveline's Engagement ring had a Sapphire stone in it to mark the fact that Sandy and I had just celebrated our 65th, or Sapphire, Wedding Anniversary.
My parents Cottage at Dron has been enlarged, and modernised, since , by people who have no idea of the love tokens, or their history, scratched into the once again begrimed bridge coping next to their home. The "Dron Bridge Tapestry" with the family initials I worked into it in hangs near to me in my room at Clashfarquhar House, Stonehaven, Scotland Each time I look at it I relive lovely memories of my Engagement Day delight in I cannot see its details, as I approach my th Birthday.
That does not matter for they are also imprinted on my mind, and engraved on my heart. Sandy and I and our families had planed our marriage for late to fit in with Sandy's first furlough a short holiday back at home after about every two years of service in Africa. An unfortunate set of circumstance in Africa suddenly speeded everything up. The Rev.
Their serious state called for immediate hospital treatment in the town of Zomba and then repatriation to Scotland for specialist treatment.