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New Mexico
  1. La Farge on Holtby, 'Forty-Seventh Star: New Mexico's Struggle for Statehood'
  2. History: People, Places, and Politics

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La Farge on Holtby, 'Forty-Seventh Star: New Mexico's Struggle for Statehood'

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Should I pay a subscription fee to qualify for free shipping? What are the terms of the Free Shipping Program? Can I use the Free Shipping Program without limitation? Rate this product:. Two Japanese internment camps are established in Arizona in At their height, they hold 30, Japanese people, most of them American citizens. Phoenix elects its first Hispanic councilman, Adam Diaz, in He serves four years and later serves five years on the Phoenix Elementary School District board.

He champions historic preservation in downtown Phoenix and pushes for preserving the spirit and legacy of Hispanic people. The first Asian councilman, Thomas Tang, would be elected a few years later. In , U. Barry Goldwater receives the GOP nod for president, the first Arizonan to win a party nomination for the nation's chief executive. A merchant's son, Goldwater started his political career as a Phoenix City Council member before moving on to the U. As an elder statesman in the Republican Party, Goldwater in urges Richard Nixon to resign the presidency after the Watergate scandal.

Goldwater is the first Republican from Arizona to fail in a presidential bid. In , Ernesto Miranda had been arrested and convicted in Phoenix of kidnapping and rape based on a supposed confession. But his attorneys take the case to the U. Supreme Court, where his conviction is overturned. From then on, the Miranda warning — "You have the right to remain silent Conservative Republican Margaret Hance in becomes the first female mayor of Phoenix, the largest American city with a woman in charge.

Her name graces the downtown park that spans Interstate Sandra Day O'Connor, who grew up on a southern Arizona ranch, in becomes the first woman appointed to the U. Supreme Court. She becomes an influential jurist, often a swing vote on controversial cases such as those regarding affirmative action, gay rights and tax vouchers for religious schools. The nation's largest nuclear-power producer, the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station, starts producing electricity in Operated by Arizona Public Service, the plant is in the desert about 50 miles west of downtown Phoenix and uses treated wastewater to cool its reactors.

She dies of wounds incurred in a firefight in Iraq. Piestewa Peak in Phoenix is named in her honor. Gabrielle Giffords is shot on Jan. Six people are killed, including a 9-year-old girl, a federal judge and one of Giffords' aides. Thirteen are injured, Giffords most seriously. The shooter, Jared Loughner, is serving a life sentence.

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Giffords later resigns her congressional seat and with her husband, Mark Kelly, campaigns for gun safety. Lightning ignites the Yarnell Hill Fire on June 28, On June 30, the blaze overruns and kills 19 members of the Granite Mountain Hotshots. The wildfire is fully contained by July It is the sixth-deadliest American firefighter disaster and the deadliest wildfire ever in Arizona. These services can involve the mediation of a dispute, educating the public on consumer issues, investigating suspicious business activities, the proposing of legislation, and through the Attorney General's Office, the initiation of litigation.

When dealing with consumer protection issues, the state's Attorney General's Office can initiate civil and criminal proceedings; represent the state before state and federal regulatory agencies; administer consumer protection and education programs; handle formal consumer complaints; and exercise broad subpoena powers. In antitrust actions, the Attorney General's Office can act on behalf of those consumers who are incapable of acting on their own; initiate damage actions on behalf of the state in state courts; initiate criminal proceedings; and representing other governmental entities in recovering civil damages under state or federal law.

However, neither the Attorney General's office nor the Consumer Protection Division are authorized to act in a private capacity for an individual citizen. After the turn of the century, banking establishments expanded rapidly in the state, mainly because of growth in the livestock industry.

The Fiscal Case against Statehood Accounting for Statehood in New Mexico and Arizona

As of June , New Mexico had 57 insured banks, savings and loans, and saving banks, plus 25 state-chartered and 28 federally chartered credit unions CUs. As of June , CUs accounted for Banks, savings and loans, and savings banks collectively accounted for the remaining The median net interest margin the difference between the lower rates offered savers and the higher rates charged on loans was 4.

Regulation of state-chartered banks and other financial institutions is the responsibility of the Financial Institutions Division. As of , there were seven property and casualty and one life and health insurance company domiciled in the state. New Mexico has the lowest percentage of employment-based insureds among the 50 states and the second-highest percentage of uninsured residents following Texas.

The state offers a six-month health benefits expansion program for small-firm employees in connection with the Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act COBRA, , a health insurance program for those who lose employment-based coverage due to termination or reduction of work hours. In , there were over 1. There are no securities exchanges in New Mexico. In , there were personal financial advisers employed in the state and securities, commodities, and financial services sales agents.

Both companies are listed on the NYSE. The governor of New Mexico submits a budget annually to the legislature for approval. The fiscal year FY runs 1 July June. Property taxes accounted for 0. As of 1 January , New Mexico had four individual income tax brackets ranging from 1. The state taxes corporations at rates ranging from 4. The per capita amount ranks the state third-lowest nationally. In addition to the state tax, local taxes on retail sales can reach as much as 2. Food purchased for consumption off-premises is taxable. The tax on cigarettes is 91 cents per pack, which ranks 22nd among the 50 states and the District of Columbia.

New Mexico taxes gasoline at This is in addition to the The Economic Development Department EDD promotes industrial and community development through such measures as tax-free bonds for manufacturing facilities; tax credits for investment and for job training, venture capital funds; and community development block grants. The state also seeks export markets for New Mexico's products and encourages use of the state by the film industry. The Economic Development Partnership, the biggest part of the Economic Development Department, focuses on business and community development.

In , New Mexico targeted the following areas for economic development: aerospace, biotechnology, film, food processing, manufacturing, maquila suppliers, renewable energy, and technology. The infant mortality rate in October was estimated at 5. The birth rate in was The abortion rate stood at In , about The crude death rate in was 7. As of , the death rates for major causes of death per , resident population were: heart disease , The mortality rate from HIV infection was 1. In , the reported AIDS case rate was at about 9.

As of , about In , New Mexico had 37 community hospitals with about 3, beds. There were about , patient admissions that year and 4. The average daily inpatient census was about 2, patients. Also in , there were about 81 certified nursing facilities in the state with 7, beds and an overall occupancy rate of about In , it was estimated that about New Mexico had physicians per , resident population in and nurses per , in In , there were a total of dentists in the state. TANF is funded through federal block grants that are divided among the states based on an equation involving the number of recipients in each state.

This number included , retired workers, 29, widows and widowers, 42, disabled workers, 21, spouses, and 29, children. Social Security beneficiaries represented In , New Mexico had an estimated , housing units, , of which were occupied; About Utility gas and electricity were the most common heating energy sources. It was estimated that 40, units lacked telephone service, 9, lacked complete plumbing facilities, and 10, lacked complete kitchen facilities.

The average household had 2. In , 12, new privately owned units were authorized for construction. Some The total enrollment for fall in New Mexico's public schools stood at , Of these, , attended schools from kindergarten through grade eight, and 96, attended high school. Approximately Total enrollment was estimated at , in fall and expected to be , by fall , an increase of 5. There were 22, students enrolled in private schools in fall The resulting report, The Nation's Report Card , stated that in eighth graders in New Mexico scored out of in mathematics compared with the national average of As of fall , there were , students enrolled in institutions of higher education; minority students comprised In New Mexico had 42 degree-granting institutions including, 7 public four-year institutions, 20 public two-year institutions, and 6 nonprofit, private four-year institutions.

New Mexico Arts, the state arts commission, consists of 15 governor-appointed members and provides financial support for statewide art programs. State and private sources also contribute funding to the state's arts programs. New Mexico Arts has contributed funding to promote multicultural arts programs that reflect the Spanish and American Indian cultural influences of the area.

The New Mexico Humanities Council was founded in New Mexico is a state rich in Indian, Spanish, Mexican, and contemporary art. Major exhibits can be seen at the University of New Mexico Art Museum in Albuquerque, which as of , holding close to 30, pieces was considered the largest fine art collection in the state. The city of Taos is an artists' colony of renown and is home to the Hardwood Museum of Art, established in The Hardwood Museum of Art's permanent collection focuses both on the multicultural heritage of the state as well as the city's influence on the development of American art.

The Santa Fe Opera, established in , has become one of the nation's most distinguished regional opera companies. The New Mexico Symphony Orchestra also called the Albuquerque Symphony Orchestra, established in and the Orchestra Chorus present a variety of musical programs from classical to pops. In June , New Mexico had 80 public library systems, with a total of libraries, of which 21 were branches. The systems in that same year, had a combined total of 4,, volumes of books and serial publications, and a circulation of 7,, The system also had 91, audio and 64, video items, 4, electronic format items CD-ROMs, magnetic tapes, and disks , and three bookmobiles.

The largest municipal library is the Albuquerque Public Library, with over 1,, volumes. The largest university library is that of the University of New Mexico, with 1,, volumes. There is a scientific library at Los Alamos and a law library at Santa Fe. New Mexico has museums. A state natural history museum, in Albuquerque, opened in The first regular monthly mail service between New Mexico and the other US states began in In addition, by June of that same year there were , mobile wireless telephone subscribers.

By June , there were , high-speed lines in New Mexico, , residential and 19, for business. In there were 5 major AM radio stations and 37 major FM stations. There were 9 major network television stations in A total of 29, Internet domain names were registered in the state in The Santa Fe Republican , established in , was the first English-language newspaper. In , there were 9 morning, 9 evening, and 13 Sunday newspapers in the state. The leading dailies include the Albuquerque Journal , with a morning circulation of , , on Sundays ; and the Santa Fe New Mexican , with a morning circulation of 24, 26, on Sundays.

La Herencia , est. In , there were over 1, nonprofit organizations registered within the state, of which about 1, were registered as charitable, educational, or religious organizations. The state is home to several organizations focusing on the rights and welfare of Native Americans. The development of New Mexico's natural recreational resources has made tourism a leading economic activity.

An estimated 80, people employed in tourism. In , the state hosted some The most popular vacation area was the Albuquerque-Sante Fe region with Shopping, outdoor activities, and historical sites were the most popular attractions. Hunting, fishing, camping, boating, and skiing are among the many outdoor attractions. Sandia Mountain is a popular ski destination. In , the US House of Representatives designated 27, acres 11, hectares of new wilderness preserves in New Mexico's San Juan basin, including a 2,acre 1,hectare "fossil forest. Santa Fe is known for its many art galleries.

Taos has skiing and also Indian sacred sites. Thoroughbred and quarter- horse racing with pari-mutuel betting is an important spectator sport. Sunland Park, south of Las Cruces, has a winterlong schedule. Mexico, ? Diego de Vargas b. Later Indian leaders include Mangas Coloradas ? Army scout and trapper Christopher Houston "Kit" Carson b. Kentucky, — 68 made his home in Taos, as did Charles Bent b. A pioneer of a different kind was Jean Baptiste Lamy b.

Bonney, b. Alabama, — Missouri, — , a Republican who dominated New Mexico politics during the territorial period; Albert Bacon Fall b. Kentucky, — , who later, as secretary of the interior, gained notoriety for his role in the Teapot Dome scandal; Dennis Chavez — , the most prominent and influential native New Mexican to serve in Washington; Carl A. Hatch b. Kansas, — , best known for the Hatch Act of , which limited partisan political activities by federal employees; and Clinton P. Anderson b. South Dakota , — who was also secretary of agriculture. New Mexico has attracted many artists and writers.

Painters Bert G. Phillips b. New York , — and Ernest Leonard Blumenschein b. Ohio — started the famous Taos art colony in Mabel Dodge Luhan b. New York , — did much to lure the creative community to Taos through her writings; the most famous person to take up residence there was English novelist D. Lawrence — Peter Hurd — 84 was a muralist, portraitist, and book illustrator.

New Mexico's best-known artist is Georgia O'Keeffe b. Wisconsin, — Maria Povera Martinez ? Other prominent persons who have made New Mexico their home include rocketry pioneer Robert H. Goddard b. Massachusetts, — , Pulitzer Prize-winning editorial cartoonist Bill Mauldin — , novelist and popular historian Paul Horgan b. New York, — 95 , novelist N. Scott Momaday b.

Oklahoma, , and golfer Nancy Lopez -Melton b. California, Al Unser Sr. Busby, Mark ed. The Southwest. Westport, Conn. Council of State Governments. The Book of the States, Edition. Lexington, Ky. Santa Fe: New Mexico Magazine, Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, Preston, Thomas. Billings, Mont. Rees, Amanda ed. The Great Plains Region. Etulain, Richard W. Szasz eds. Religion in Modern New Mexico. New York: Cambridge University Press, Roberts, David. Samora, Julian, and Patricia Vandel Simon. A History of the Mexican-American People.

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History: People, Places, and Politics

New Mexico, Washington, D. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. July 10, Retrieved July 10, from Encyclopedia. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. Because each style has its own formatting nuances that evolve over time and not all information is available for every reference entry or article, Encyclopedia. Having encountered unfathomable wealth and high civilization among the Aztecs in the Valley of Mexico, Spaniards quickly turned their attention northward, hoping to find another Mexico.

New Mexico acquired its name and its early European visitors and residents from this misplaced belief in its potential mineral wealth. The Europeans found a dry, mountainous land of few trees and even less water populated by indigenous descendants of Anasazi Indians, whom the Spaniards named "Pueblos" for their towns that occupied the best lands along the banks of the Rio Grande. Seminomadic Athapascan and Shoshonean peoples, the Apaches and the Navajos, also called the high desert plateau home. The descendants of all of these groups inhabit the "Land of Enchantment" in the twenty-first century.

New Mexico's history revolves around the relationships, sometimes tense, sometimes violent, sometimes friendly, among these groups and the land. Cabeza de Vaca and his compatriots did not return with glowing reports of northern wealth, just rumors of a populous country to the north with large houses and trade in turquoise and other valuable items. These rumors sparked wild speculation as to the existence of another Mexico. Fray Marcos de Niza to lead the expedition to verify the presence of wealthy northern cities. He was accompanied by the experienced Esteban.

In accordance with their plans, Esteban sent to Fray Marcos crosses of varying sizes, depending on his findings. The friar instructed Esteban to wait but to no avail. The expedition seemed a mobile colony, including Spaniards outfitted in armor and weaponry, 1, Native Mexican auxiliaries, six Franciscans, and hundreds of support staff. Coronado and his forces discovered an adobe pueblo of some one hundred families. Disgusted with the friar's apparent lies, Coronado sent him back to Mexico City.

The expedition settled down at Zuni for five months, where Coronado entertained delegations from other pueblos. At Pecos, a citadel of some two thousand people on the western edge of the Plains, Alvarado learned from an Indian slave called "the Turk" of a rich kingdom known as Quivira out on the Plains.

Alvarado brought the Turk to Coronado, who had relocated to Tiguex Pueblo.

The expedition settled into a pueblo vacated for them north of present-day Albuquerque, where they spent the severe winter of — When spring finally arrived, almost the entire expedition headed for the Plains in search of Quivira, which proved elusive. Coronado, at the behest of the Turk, took thirty Spaniards and support persons deep into the Plains of central Kansas.

Although other Indians claimed the Turk was lying, Coronado pushed onward. At last he located Quivira, not a rich kingdom but a village of grass lodges. For his treachery the Turk was garroted. Now convinced that no kingdom or city filled with riches lay hidden in the north, Coronado returned to Mexico in the spring of Although Coronado took no gold or riches back with him, his expedition mapped out much of the American Southwest, transforming the region from a mystery into an area ripe for permanent European settlement.

He spent three years organizing the privately funded expedition and recruiting colonists. The San Juans graciously shared their food and homes with their new neighbors, who soon founded their first capital at San Gabriel. Spain also found it prudent to maintain New Mexico as a buffer zone against foreign encroachment on the profitable mining areas of northern New Spain. Franciscans established missions along the Rio Grande in or near existing Pueblo Indian communities. In addition the Franciscans launched a harsh campaign of eradication against the Pueblo religion, particularly against Native priests, which angered the Pueblos.

Peralta almost immediately clashed with religious authorities in New Mexico, inaugurating a competition for authority that endured until the Pueblo revolt. Civil and religious leaders argued over which group held control of and authority over Pueblos and their tributes.

In essence the contest between the two groups was over control of New Mexico itself. Such squabbles revealed to Pueblo Indians the weaknesses of the sparsely populated northern colony of less than two thousand Europeans. In one of their first acts of unity, most of the Rio Grande and western Pueblos Tanos, Tewas, and Keres , with the exception of Socorro, which did not get the word of revolt in time, and Isleta, which was hampered by the presence of too many Spaniards, organized to drive the Spaniards out of New Mexico.

Plans were to revolt on 11 August On that day Pueblos rose up against everyone and everything Spanish, killing twenty-two Franciscan missionaries and some four hundred Spanish settlers and destroying mission churches as the most hated symbols of Spanish domination. The revolt was largely successful. The Spanish survivors, many of them female heads of households, accompanied by some Isleta and Socorro Pueblos, spent twelve years in exile in the El Paso area. The Pueblos had lost their unity, and some sought to ally themselves with the Spanish. Vargas's bloodless reconquest had to be followed by force, including a room-by-room siege of Pueblo-held Santa Fe.

The Spanish victory in Santa Fe provided Vargas with a stronghold, from which he conducted a difficult military campaign against the Pueblos throughout The Pueblos answered his campaign with another revolt in , during which they killed five Franciscan priests and twenty-one other Spaniards and burned churches and convents.

Determined to subdue the Pueblos, Vargas launched a war of attrition that lasted six months, targeting food supplies as well as rebellious Natives. By the war's end all but the three western pueblos Acoma, Zuni, and Hopi were subdued. The resumption of trade in European goods beckoned the rest of the Pueblos, and they fell in line. New Mexico after Vargas was largely a different place from what it had been in the seventeenth century. The eighteenth century ushered in more accommodation between Spanish settlers and Pueblos, ending the "mainly missions" atmosphere of the seventeenth century and the religious intolerance of the Franciscans.

The two groups intermingled on a daily basis, sometimes intimately. Most New Mexicans eked out a meager existence, combining agriculture with raising small livestock. Merchants, soldiers, and government officials fared better, often employing a retinue of servants to tend their fields and care for their families. Roman Catholicism provided a central focus for many New Mexicans, including the Pueblo Indians, who practiced a form of Catholicism that left much of their Native religion intact.

In the eighteenth century raids by Comanche and Apache Indians and foreign encroachment from the French, British, and later the upstart Americans posed the largest threats to New Mexico. Spaniards learned from the French that "peace by purchase" was far cheaper in the long run than continual raids and protracted battles. Anza convinced the Comanches to join with the Spanish against their common enemy the Apaches. The joint forces were successful in ending the Apache raids that had impoverished New Mexico's Spanish and Pueblo communities.

The independence-oriented turmoil in Mexico in the s and s brought an end to "peace by purchase" payments to the two tribes and therefore an end to the peace. Although Spanish officials frowned upon foreign trade, a few tenacious foreign souls attempted to reach Santa Fe and its markets prior to Mexican independence in En route to New Mexico in they lost their six tons of trade goods in the Saline River in Kansas.

Spanish authorities in Mexico denied the Mallet brothers' request for a trade license, but the brothers made a private agreement to trade with Santa Feans despite the government's decision. Over the next few decades dozens of French traders from the Illinois country carried implements, cloth, and manufactured goods to Santa Fe in exchange for furs, gold, and silver.

The international trade made Santa Fe a thriving town, and by the advent of the Missouri—Santa Fe highway, Santa Fe boasted nearly two thousand inhabitants. A few intrepid Americans, such as Zebulon Pike, rediscovered the trail to Santa Fe in the early s. The trade remained the same as with the French, furs and silver in exchange for textiles, cutlery, and utensils.

Spanish officials justifiably feared invasion, as American explorers and traders kept appearing along the border and even in Santa Fe. But Spain, weak and on the verge of collapse, was in no position to guard New Mexico from the Americans. Mexican independence from Spain in brought looser trade policies to New Mexico, but Mexico had as much difficulty protecting its northern frontier from foreign intrusion as had Spain. Thanks to the fortune of good timing, William Becknell, an Indian trader from Missouri, first broke open the Santa Fe trade. In so doing Becknell paved the way for American traders to tap into the pent-up consumer desires of New Mexicans.

In the autumn of Becknell followed the Arkansas River west from Franklin, Missouri, with twenty men and a pack train of horses loaded with trade goods. As Becknell's group crossed Raton Pass north of Santa Fe to trade with Indians, they by chance encountered Mexican soldiers, who told them of Mexican independence and predicted that Santa Feans would gladly welcome the Missouri traders. To Becknell's delight the Mexican soldiers were correct.

From trading with the New Mexicans, Becknell earned a healthy profit in silver. New Mexicans were pleased as well, for Becknell sold them higher-quality goods than what they received from the Chihuahua, Mexico, merchants, who had been their only legitimate source of trade goods prior to Becknell's visit to Santa Fe. Seeking a shorter and easier route for wagon travel than the long and arduous trip across Raton Pass, Becknell forged the alternate Cimarron route, crossing the Cimarron River west of modern Dodge City , Kansas.

This route, despite its heat and lack of water, became the Santa Fe Trail. By a well-established highway marked the route between Independence, Missouri, and Santa Fe. American fur trappers also made their way into New Mexico in the s, and Taos became the focus of the western American fur trade. By more than one hundred mountain men trapped beaver along the Rio Grande and the Gila. While Mexican authorities saw these mountain men as a threat, presciently recognizing them as the advance wave of American movement into the Southwest, they were not willing to interrupt the lucrative trade the trappers ushered into New Mexico.

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  4. For the most part Mexican authorities left New Mexico to its own devices. In Governor Armijo successfully warded off attempts by land-hungry Texans to claim all the land east of the Rio Grande to its source, an episode that engendered a long-held antipathy toward Texans. Rather than organizing a defense, Governor Armijo departed for Chihuahua after meeting with the trader James Magoffin, who somehow negotiated a peaceful conquest, although no one knows for certain what happened.

    All did not remain peaceful, however. Discontented New Mexicans planned an uprising for 24 December , but rumors reached officials, who managed to squelch the opposition's plans. On 19 January a rebel mob scalped the appointed U. Rebellion spread throughout northern New Mexico. After a bloody battle the ringleaders were hanged, bringing an end to the armed resistance to the American occupation of New Mexico.

    In the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo , which officially ended the war in , New Mexico became part of the United States, and its people became American citizens. New Mexico had the necessary population for statehood, sixty-one thousand Hispanics and thirty thousand Indians in the census, and the support of Presidents James K. Polk and Zachary Taylor , but circumstances changed as gold was discovered in California. The Compromise of declared New Mexico a territory without restrictions on the issue of slavery and adjusted the long-contested boundary between New Mexico and Texas.

    New Mexico lost its bid for statehood to the politics of slavery and remained a territory for sixty-two years, until During the s the U. The military thereby became the mainstay of the territory's economy and allowed the population to spread out from the Rio Grande valley. In , however, Federal troops returned home to fight the Civil War , abandoning the defense system protecting those settlers and disrupting the orderly development of New Mexico.

    The territory sided with the Union, mostly out of hatred for the Confederate Texans. The few Civil War battles, including Valverde and Glorieta Pass , that took place in New Mexico were more a reassertion of Texas imperialism than an integral part of Confederate strategy. Colonel James H.

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    Carleton ordered Colonel Christopher "Kit" Carson, a former mountain man, to campaign against the Mescalero Apaches and then the Navajos Carson prevailed against both tribes. Survivors were marched to Bosque Redondo, the first experiment in Indian reservations, which failed utterly. An treaty allowed the Navajos to return to their much-reduced homeland. The U. After the war New Mexico shared much of the history of the rest of the American West, range wars, mining booms, railroad construction, Indian wars, nationalized forests, and military bases.

    As Anglo-Americans moved into the territory, Hispanic New Mexicans found it more difficult to hold onto their ancestral lands. The — Lincoln County War reflected the tensions among New Mexico's various populations, especially Hispanic sheepherders and Anglo cattle ranchers. New Mexico finally achieved statehood in , beginning a new era. Statehood meant that a satisfactory level of Americanization had been reached, and participation in the twentieth century's major military efforts continued the process.

    The state had the highest volunteer rate of any state. Many of these volunteers died in the Bataan death march. Military defense continued to boost New. Mexico's economy in the early twenty-first century along with tourism and some manufacturing. The legendary Route 66 bisected the state, passing through Albuquerque and bringing tourists who sampled the state's blend of cultures and drank in the romanticized Spanish and Indian past provided by boosters. Indians maintained a significant presence in New Mexico.

    Unlike most Native Americans , the Pueblos, Navajos, and Apaches remained on a portion of their ancestral homelands, while many other Native Americans settled in Albuquerque. India agent John Collier and the General Federation of Women's Clubs helped New Mexican Pueblos successfully overturn the Bursum bill, which would have given squatters land ownership and water rights in traditional Pueblo lands.

    The Pueblo Lands Act of protected Pueblo lands from squatters and recognized the land rights Pueblos had enjoyed under Spanish and Mexican rule. In recent years, Indian gaming brought an influx of cash to some of New Mexico's tribes and added punch to their political presence. After Hispanics sought redress for the loss of their ancestral lands, mostly through the U. In the last half of the twentieth century the issue of land grants generated some isolated violence, namely the July takeover of the county courthouse at Tierra Amarilla by the activist Reies Lopes Tijerina and his followers. New Mexican Indians also fought the loss of their lands, particularly sacred sites such as Taos Pueblo's Blue Lake, which had been swallowed by the Carson National Forest.

    President Richard M. Nixon returned Blue Lake to them in the s. The twentieth century also put New Mexico on the map as a center for the arts. Early in the century Taos became an arts colony, attracting artists, writers, and other intellectuals. In , artists Ernest L. Santa Fe, the state capital, also draws artists and the tourists who support them. The mix of three cultures, Indian, Hispanic, and Anglo, makes the forty-seventh state a vibrant laboratory for race relations.

    Boyle, Susan Calafate. DeBuys, William. DeMark, Judith Boyce, ed. Deutsch, Sarah. New York : Oxford University Press, Stanford, Calif. Jensen, Joan M. Miller, eds. New Mexico Women: Intercultural Perspectives. Kessell, John L. Department of the Interior, Simmons, Marc. New Mexico: An Interpretive History. Szasz, Ferenc Morton. Vargas, Diego de. Edited by John L. Weber, David J.


    The Spanish Frontier in North America. New Haven , Conn. Facts and Figures Area, , sq mi , sq km. Capital, Santa Fe. Largest city, Albuquerque. Statehood, Jan. Highest pt. Nickname, Land of Enchantment. State flower, yucca. The topography of the state is marked by broken mesas, wide deserts, heavily forested mountain wildernesses, and high, bare peaks. The mountain ranges, part of the Rocky Mts. In the southwest is the Gila Wilderness. Broad, semiarid plains, particularly prominent in S New Mexico, are covered with cactus, yucca, creosote bush, sagebrush, and desert grasses.

    Water is rare in these regions, and the scanty rainfall is subject to rapid evaporation. The two notable rivers besides the Rio Grande—the Pecos and the San Juan —are used for some irrigation; the Carlsbad and Fort Sumner reclamation projects are on the Pecos, and the Tucumcari project is nearby.

    Other projects utilize the Colorado River basin; however, the Rio Grande, harnessed by the Elephant Butte Dam, remains the major irrigation source for the area of most extensive farming. Economy Because irrigation opportunities are few, most of the arable land is given over to grazing.