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My research task was determined through one broader and one more concise research question, the scopes of which I believe were appropriate to a pro gradu thesis. How is the communication between experts constructed and how does it change during the creative cooperation on Veikkaus.
- Juhamatti - 24 Suosituinta Sävelmää (Cassette, Compilation) | Discogs;
- Umbrella (Finnish translation)!
- Survival Instincts Part 8?
- Frozen (OST) - Do You Want to Build a Snowman? lyrics + Finnish translation.
- A filha do seu irmão (Desejo) (Portuguese Edition).
- Trade creates value, there’s no way getting around that;
We thought that this question, along with certain practical development measures, could provoke discussion that would help us to arrive at positive changes in the communication during the creative cooperation. I had already made assumptions about the research object. The latter research question took its form slowly, in many stages and spread out over a long time span. How does the pursuit of change in communication influence the cooperation between experts?
This question has to do with my work as a developer and coordinator of Veikkaus ICT design. This question, just like the previous one, reveals my assumption and hope that there will be change and development; however, I am not basically making presumptions about their quality. In my pro gradu thesis, I am freely learning about and applying action research and exploratory narration, drawing on the ethnographic tradition.
Action research explores human action, instead of, e. Rationality and goal-orientation have been regarded as characteristic of human beings as a species. Action research aims to improve practices by using rationality Heikkinen et al. Klaus Krippendorff , pp. This is a very usable idea, which can be grasped by everyday thinking. It is definitely interesting and worth thinking about. Second-order understanding should be included and rooted in the thinking and everyday language use of a creative design community. In section 2, I will also be considering constructivist thinking based on the relationship-constructed perspective.
The third section will deal with the action-research based approach of my pro gradu thesis, whereas the fourth section will discuss the different phases of the research project and the data used. Section 5 will focus on the results. I will first tell about communication and interaction as targets of development, followed by a discussion on trust and listening, as well as my thoughts about communication. The section will end in a concise guide on expert communication in creative cooperation. The sixth — the last — section will discuss criticism of the methods used and their possible uses in respective development projects, as well as ideas for possible further research that arise.
The designers of modern digital services, versatile experts representing a variety of fields, find their inspiration in human-centred thinking. Figure 1. Krippendorff , pp. Product semantics also covers a vocabulary and methods for the design of artefacts that are meaningful to people e. As far as I understand, product semantics explores, e. By applying product semantics, designers can also generate simplicity, irrespective of the technology used, and improve the interaction between services and their users. I will get back to the theme of product semantics later, in figure 2.
According to Krippendorff , pp. Sense, according to Krippendorff , pp. Senses invoke meanings and these meanings always involve what is being sensed. Basically, meanings are constructed on differences between the sensed and the action. In our ability to perceive, meanings arise from our consciousness to different ways of seeing. The generation of meanings can also be discussed in connection with reading, language use in general and interpersonal discussions; in interaction. Figure 2. Sense, meaning, and action, adapted from Krippendorff , p.
According to Krippendorff , p. New media experts think and want to work in a human-centred way. They appreciate the fact that they are building services to customers and understand that the different needs, thoughts, and understandings of these people need to be accounted for in, e.
Their language, concepts, and actions include the principles of user-oriented design, including scenario-based design Carroll, , interaction design e. Greger, , prototyping, iteration, and usability assurance. I make drawings about the processes and, for example, service situations; I try to visualise them sufficiently enough to make them unambiguous and easy to comment on. And visualisation is an outstanding tool for that. This is actually only way to make sure that customers are expressing exactly what they want.
Prototyping and customer tests with prototypes are business as usual in digital business and in digital product development nowadays. Puro , p. The better we are aware of this, the better we can tackle the tension Puro, , p. Irrespective of the forms and contents of communication, ethical awareness leads us to understand the contradictions that everyone in the community has to face between their own existence and communication Puro, , p.
Puro , pp. Focusing on understanding leads to a circle where the desire to understand and a burning need to be understood alternate. The general objective of ethically aware communication is to gain a deeper understanding of being Puro, , p. Our own understanding is not enough alone. Krippendorff has used widely the useful concept of second-order understanding. It describes how people understand each other, which is indispensable to both human-centred experts and researchers.
Krippendorff , p. Figure 3. Second-order understanding of a designer, an expert, adapted from Krippendorff , p. Human-centredness requires concrete human interaction.
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Experts also need to communicate and interact smoothly with each other in design cooperation. Second-order understanding is associated with the relationship-constructed perspective and constructivism, which were already touched upon in the introduction. They write about two perspectives on management and organization, and compare them with each other.
They summarize , p. This table also presents the basis of the constructivist reflections about communication in the present thesis. Relationship-constructed perspective Individual-centred perspective What is the nature of reality? Table 1. As a communication analyst, Krippendorff has made the methodological choice to use second-order understanding as a tool for thinking and working.
The different understandings enrich each other, build on each other, and equal more together than the individual understandings would equal considered distinct from each other. In communication, second-order understanding is constructed on those multiple realities that, in turn, are constructed of the linguistic metaphors people use , pp. The six metaphor categories established by Krippendorff are seen on the left in the above figure. As a researcher, Krippendorff , p. According to this view, second-order understanding is at the core of the social phenomenon investigated, i.
He establishes six metaphor categories , pp. He says , p. We can, e. We may conclude, after we have lived through the same events with another person, that we have a shared experience, history, or background. This form of communication is overused. The thought that communication contents which had been previously considered almost material could suddenly be transferred through wires produced linguistic expressions referring to different communication channels, their problems and capacities, etc. Human communication turned into a multi-channel phenomenon , p.
However, they are distinguished from each other by, e. No-one is certain about which matter concerns whom. Control metaphors also entail the idea of cause-and-effect relationships. Claims about successful and unsuccessful communication are often based on control metaphors.
We frequently talk about controlling communication, communicative skills, techniques and efficiency , pp. Occasionally, the messages have not been transmitted smoothly to the lower levels. Cryptography originated in the communication of secret communities; it has been used in wars, and encryption techniques are currently used to protect, e. Krippendorff refers to Claude E. However, these papers also contain themes that indicate towards, e. The following answer to an open-ended question in the background survey would also seem to indicate transmission metaphors.
They may lead to unnecessary self-assertion, dominance over others, or demonstrations of power over others. Further, they may not necessarily have to do anything with the issues or problems people try to solve by communicating Krippendorff, , p. The following comment in the background survey could serve as an example or war metaphors — and dance-ritual metaphors, which I will be introducing next.
The purpose of conversation is to keep it going Krippendorff, , p. He states that conversation becomes bad when it turns into a monologue. He also claims that what is essential in dance-ritual metaphors is that they entail just participants, rather than winners, losers, or managers in a conversation. Krippendorff, , p. As a whole: everyone is being listened to, even crazy ideas are considered and refined. Due to schedules, it has been necessary to restrict this dialogue, and it has delayed the schedules already for its part.
But along with it, the results of the design work have nearly reached perfection. The team meetings have become better since the slight cacophony of the early days. I understand that you need to have representatives of the different instances present in the team meetings, but it seems the meetings frequently grow longer and lose structure for this very reason.
After all, all things do not require such broad representation to materialize. In smaller teams, things have generally been done a bit faster and more efficiently. A really big part of the work is right here. Why the games are the way they are. They tell us about communication and the different understandings related to it. Metaphors are common; they live in our everyday language and are in constant relationship with each other.
People are cognitively independent and construct their understandings by themselves. Further, he claims that all knowledge includes its knowers. Krippendorff proposes three knowledge positions. Seen from the third position, that of the Becomings, communication entails cognitive growth and emancipation Krippendorff, , pp. On the basis of these three positions, Krippendorff outlines three preliminary theories of communication, or rather their introduction. The theory observes how individuals retain or extend their cognitive autonomy when faced with social traps or challenges.
The challenges may stem from, e. When I think about my own role as a chair in relation to how they were at the beginning and what they turned out to be like in the end, I realize what a huge difference listening made. That may also be common, but that got better, too. After all, I was the one who asked the question. The main focus in this position is on forms that are invented, constructed, reconstructed and preserved jointly, and on how all of these can be surpassed in a situation where communication is interrupted.
This is a theory of communication focusing on the joint construction and reconstruction of the media or discourse Throwing out ideas is okay, but teams of this size could be used much more efficiently if everyone was given a clear assignment sort this out and present it in the next workshop, etc. This has definitely changed in the course of the project and some of the sprints have worked this way exactly. This theory pays attention to the conditions according to which people objectify the structures and then subject themselves to these structures of reality of their own invention.
Such a theory may, e. In addition, this type of a theory may inspire questions, such as: How do social practices legitimize strong authorities? And in what kinds of realities are people incited to act on strong arguments? From the perspective of the present pro gradu thesis, even the older papers by Krippendorff ; ; ; made an interesting read. They involved an interesting combination of constructivist thinking and a philosophical basis which is essential in the construction of interpersonal cooperation and mutual understanding in design and communication alike.
It is easy for human-centred experts to describe good human interaction on the basis of their everyday experience, human-centred skills and knowledge, and the methods available. Another important issue, widely known, is that good interaction requires trust between people. This idea is easy to accept and be enthusiastic about. Trust provides people with a safe ground for acting. Trust enables fruitful community spirit. The lack of trust and care will lead to an atmosphere of terror , pp. At the core of trust lie equal opportunities Himanen, , pp.
You need to take it into account. Making the most of skills and creative potential poses challenges not only to the management but also to the communicative competence within the working community. It is necessary to have inspiring objectives and skills to create trust between different experts. Confederation of Finnish Industries, , pp. But even the way you act and are present in the meetings; even that makes a difference. The three researchers , pp. According to them, trust is central to present-day economy and society, which are based on creativity, knowhow, and networks.
Trust is a social feeling which is associated with social experiences and action. Trust can be considered as a kind of glue in the social networks and action between working life, society, and everyday life. However, trust also involves the possibility of becoming let down or disappointed. Trust also involves a desire to expose oneself to the other party whose behaviour one cannot control.
Trust is usually positive and emerges mostly from previous experiences Humala, , p. In her doctoral dissertation, Blomqvist discussed trust which is created fast in human interaction. She cites social abilities and close interaction as significant factors whilst building fast trust between individuals. According to her, a shared vision is central to the pursuit of fast trust.
In the second phase, the role of the individual in his or her organization, together with their organizational capabilities and objectives, are assessed. As one of the major results of her doctoral dissertation, Blomqvist , p. Blomqvist calls these individuals boundary spanners. Their most important qualities include, according to Blomqvist, interactive skills and multi-dimensional interest in and understanding of their partners in cooperation.
Blomqvist , pp. Figure 5. As for the sections marked with dotted lines, they refer to results that still need further investigation and discussion Blomqvist, , p. In section e 1c, the individual-based fast trust leads to intuitive decision-making, which, as suggested in section e 1d, may lead to experimentation of cooperation , p. Blomqvist suggests that the concept of experimentation could illustrate here the preliminary and future-oriented nature of cooperation and that it would cover both the contents of the cooperation and the quality of the cooperative relationship.
In section e 2, Blomqvist describes experimentation as a practice between the partners in cooperation, used to make sense of the cooperation, constantly re-evaluating it. The final section e 3 illustrates how an individual-based relationship may develop into a partnership between organizations, provided that the horizontal and vertical commitment, as well as the incremental organizational trust, is developed.
Horizontal and vertical commitment refers to the necessary operative and strategic commitment as a precondition to organizational commitment. The incremental organizational trust, developed step by step, is a result of increased individual-based trust and successful cooperative experimentation Blomqvist, , pp. Jorma Kananen , pp. Reina Reina , who claim that trust emerges from three subtypes of trust.
Competence trust is also boosted by allowing people to make decisions and involving people in the activities. In addition, helping people to learn new skills also increases competence trust. Trust can be maintained by adhering to mutual contracts, being consistent, delegating appropriately, and establishing boundaries Kananen, , p. Trust is a value deeply rooted in our thinking and a familiar concept in our language.
Today, trust is also subject to extensive studies and analyses. The creation of trust in human relationships is by no means a self-evident fact. Philosopher Pekka Himanen mentioned, in his lecture series of autumn , how little people discuss and do active deeds for trust, in spite of the fact that it is a very basic issue. I will be considering everyday deeds that help creating trust in human relationships at a later stage in this thesis. I will be focusing on small deeds that affect the creation and construction of trust. I will settle with focusing on nuances, perhaps even gestures in the creation of interpersonal trust.
In addition to trust, however, interaction requires more. Yet, there is often a contradiction between what we know and what we do. We frequently do not act the way we would like to. Jukka-Pekka Puro , p. I will be dedicating the following section to interactive skills. She concludes in her doctoral dissertation , pp. Software development entails social interaction between the participants rather than the use of different methods and techniques. According to Jaana Venkula , pp. This also applies to interaction in creative design.
Although the grounded knowledge we use can be considered uncontroversial, objective, value-free, and easily transmitted through information technology, it is not enough according to Venkula. She claims , pp. Thus, the way we perceive things is constantly changing and multi-dimensional. Our scientific knowledge, just as other types of knowledge, is formed only when these five dimensions meet.
From the point of view of creative design, shared knowledge formation and understanding, i. Venkula does not use reflective listening as a synonym for some kind of a solemn meditation but presents it as free dialogue that offers all the occurring observations on display , p. On listening Jukka-Pekka Puro , p. This can also be thought the other way round, making the argument stronger: it is hard to find a person, in any kind of an organization, who would not want to be heard.
In practice this means that, in an organization that listens, it is essential to lay down rules that guarantee the fulfilment of this basic communicative need Puro, , p. Listening is also about psychological contracts. A listening organization — psychologically the opposite of an organization that settles with mere hearing — chooses consciously to follow the principle of dialogism. As long as it is dealing with the construction of something common and shared, the organization will try to make the option of not listening, brought by authoritative distance, subject to sanctions.
In this sense, listening is closely associated with the theory of dialogism Puro, , p. Good listeners need to be supported, encouraged, and their value must be acknowledged. That way, the good listeners will be able to continue as good listeners. When good listeners are given the same status as — or even a better status than — operators who have acquired the status of speakers in an organization, listening becomes something worth pursuing and supporting Puro, , p. In short: it is part of appropriate human resource management.
Minna Rasila and Maria Pitkonen , p. Inefficient listening turns expensive: we base our decisions on inadequate knowledge, make mistakes, do overlapping work, or accidentally skip a stage in our work. As long as the working chains consist of multiple stages, not listening in a given stage may accumulate later. Listening has become more important, as knowledge-intensive expertise work has increased. So that you have the ability to present something and when you start getting that feedback or ideas start flying at you, you gotta be able to keep your ears open and at the same time document them.
He takes the adjusting moves of listening as his starting point; and discusses good listening, misinterpretations, misunderstandings, and the problems of prejudiced listening Puro, , pp. He claims it is essential to encourage a speaker not only verbally but also through gaze, gestures, and facial expressions. He also points out that it is important to indicate clearly what one thinks about the things he has heard, and to make summaries, conclusions, and evaluate the things said Puro, , p.
- Do You Want to Build a Snowman?.
- Do You Want to Build a Snowman? (Finnish translation).
- Musings born from the fiery crucible of meditative anxiety?
- Angel in Disguise.
- Meeting challenge.
Moreover, it is important not to interrupt and to show by your look that you are listening to the speaker Puro, , p. Genuine discussion and interaction are necessary in order that the different skills of different experts are made most of: different skills are stored and used for the benefit of the project. A good reflective listener tries to understand what is important to the speaker; he aims to understand not only the informative contents but also the emotions and values the speaker associates with the topic. Further, he helps the speaker to give shape to his thoughts, feelings, and opinions Puro, , p.
According to Puro , p. This is why dialogic listening aims at sincerity, openness, and trust Puro, , p. A good dialogic listener encourages the speaker to talk more in order to gain a more accurate and versatile idea of the informative contents and the details; he pursues shared metaphors, visualisations, and points of comparison. He also seeks for new complementary and alternative ways of formulating the things expressed by the speaker Puro, , p. Rasila and Pitkonen , pp. We know, for example, that whilst convening a meeting, it is wise to draft an agenda, the objectives, and a schedule in advance.
We also know that we should prepare ourselves for the meeting, be there on time, and deal with it within the previously determined schedule. Today people also generally understand the fact that meetings will work out best if they, besides the above-mentioned things, display interaction based on active listening, as was described in the above section.
Despite this, we can consider that the psychological contracts of listening that are valid in face-to-face conversation are also largely applicable to, e. Puro does not find an unambiguous reason why good listening could not materialize in textual interaction like the email or instant messenger. It is not wise to let conceptual delineations lead us to thinking in terms of black-and-white opposites in practice Puro, , pp. The technological preconditions of smooth video conferencing do exist, but adopting the new technologies often requires some kind of a trigger Puro, , p.
Alasilta Building trust on small everyday deeds It is easy to see a natural relationship between, e. Trust is enhanced by positive, favourable, and discreet interaction. It is good to note that it does not only entail talking and taking initiatives but also listening, sympathising, making good questions, analysing, and responding. According to some studies, up to ninety percent of our communication consist of communication other than spoken language.
This extra-linguistic communication includes facial expressions, gestures hands etc. We can train our non-verbal communication consciously. Above all, it is useful to learn to recognize, in ourselves and in other people alike, what non-verbal messages we are using. Softening messages can be trained consciously, whilst at the same time learning to listen to and recognize them as a message recipient. Soften messages are culture-bound; however, by using your common sense, probing discreetly, being alert and favourably inclined, you will manage ever since the first contact.
I dare argue this on the basis of my fifty years of experience of everyday life, and of student and working lives. A mere surface scratch on thinking about the everyday deeds that build trust tells us that we are not dealing with difficult or impossible issues here. However, what makes this a challenging issue is that we are actually faced with moments of creating mutual trust and appreciation the whole time we are awake — all the time we come to contact with other people.
The small everyday deeds of building trust stem from our values, attitudes, desires, wishes, and interactive skills, among other things. In fact, they are concrete gestures and small deeds in relation to every human being we meet. These deeds can be trained and learned. Trust is built and it materializes in human relationships as a result of tolerance and a favourable attitude. In communicative situations that take place in a foreign language, it is essential to create an explanation-favouring, relaxed atmosphere, where the problems possibly caused by the foreign language and cultural differences are taken into account.
In such an atmosphere, making clarifying questions is easy, and the interaction is characterized by a sense of positive humour. Tiensuu , p. According to Tiensuu , pp. Compressive thinking requires, firstly, that individuals are genuinely present in team situations. Secondly, teams should not be overly diffident or resist constructive design disputes. Fourthly, Tiensuu claims that the participants should find, at least to some extent, common ways of working.
Fifthly, the participants should work on their ability to endure dissonance up to the point where the different fragments of information have been placed into a new order. Sixthly, and finally, those involved in the design work should develop their collective consciousness towards a shared, integrated thinking Tiensuu , p. Another important topic is interaction between the physical and mental realities of people working in creative cooperation.
The most central issue from the perspective of creative design cooperation and management is the ability to gather information from a variety of sources and to refine, mold it into meaningful products or services for customers, consumers Tiensuu , p. The above-mentioned ability to gather and refine design information is related to the mental processes of creative design specified by Tiensuu , pp.
He claims that four out of five mental processes are related to the refinement of design information , pp. The fifth mental process, compressive thinking, is associated with the preconditions of creative cooperation , p. As terms, reflection and generation refer to analysis and synthesis.
Simplification is necessary in order to define chaos, and management of complexity is needed to create a harmonious unity Tiensuu , p. In fact, the question is how to organize creative cooperation between experts. The process of compressive thinking fits in here. If the partners in cooperation are unable to think in a compressive way, the cooperation will not turn out very productive Tiensuu, , p. In the next section I will be considering my approach to research and writing; how I have applied action research and exploratory narrative to my work. A scientific text is not necessarily a standard research paper or report but it may be, e.
The action research approach How did my research approach emerge? Having read a variety of definitions of action research, it seems to me that the summary on wikipedia. Action research has its roots in the social and design sciences, but it is also applied widely in education theory. The research journal can function as a data collection method and as a way of documenting. It can also be used as a tool for self-evaluation and reflection.
These attempts to narrate and write about research in alternative ways have been associated with a strong view that the traditional forms of research and reporting have left many stages of the research process unreported. Adopting this stand has enriched my own research approach and made the exploratory expressiveness of my writing more versatile. The way I understood my research task and approach evolved slowly from September to May I realized that, with a research object like the one I had — the reform of Veikkaus.
It was clear to me that I could only burden my colleagues with issues related to my academic project to a limited degree, by asking very carefully planned questions. However, my subject, i. I decided to progress in small steps, as clear as possible; keep a research journal conscientiously; concentrate on thinking about change in my own actions and thinking in particular; carry out a background setting survey; and interview my colleagues as widely as necessary.
That would constitute my research material. Further, I would make use of the written communications during our project, including emails, meeting memos, and design documents. My research approach turned out very tentative, improvising, and occasionally even fragmented, with the research work carried out side by side with my tightly scheduled and even chaotic work tasks.
Thus, I tried to create stamina and regularity in my work by adopting simple routines. Next I will be discussing, e. I have mainly familiarized myself with Finnish sources but I have also attempted to skim through Swedish and English sources, especially on the internet. I will be shedding some light on what my point of view turned out to be like after I had read about the earlier ways of thinking — and why. The question arises how action research fits into such a research topic. According to Arja Kuula , p. However, instead of having a psychological dimension, it involves a rational idea about the positive effects of increased communication on the achievement of change Kuula, , p.
I am going to discuss the earlier writings on action research in a fairly straightforward manner. My project is so practice-oriented that I will not be considering, e. I would like to encourage the readers to acquaint themselves with these themes by looking at the rich source material available.
My intention here is to gather the thoughts mainly to come up with an interpretation of action research as it is defined in this pro gradu thesis. Arja Kuula , p. Kuula notes that communicative action research has been developed especially in the Nordic countries since the mids and it has been dealt with in numerous writings. Kuula , p. Citing Gustavsen, Kuula , p. All participants have to be active. In addition, all participants are responsible, by expressing their own views, for helping the others to express their views in turn. See the principles of democratic dialogue reference to Gustavsen , pp.
According to Kuula , pp. It is acknowledged that everyone has the ability — and, at the same time, the responsibility — to independently find opportunities for change through direct conversation and conflict solving , p. On the basis of what I have experienced, I dare write that the above claims are also valid in expert communication and interaction in concept design based on cooperation. However, for example, cooperation is not necessarily in a one-to-one relationship with team work.
Source: Wikipedia. Source: EIA. CATF brought this to the attention of the Environmental Defense Fund with whom they ultimately co-led a political campaign for methane regulation—successfully. Furthermore, sometime after, both Mexico and Canada followed suit and made the same pledge. Since CATF has worked with carbon capture and storage, the area which, according to Founders Pledge analysis, is the most effective of all foreseeable climate change interventions. This gave carbon producers, like power plants, tax incentives to use carbon capture technology.
According to their analysis, it has had the effectiveness of averting a tonne of CO 2 -equivalent greenhouse gases for 1. For instance, their Clear the Air campaign reduced an amount of atmospheric particulate matter that can be said to have averted 7, deaths per year.
The Clean Air Task Force accepts donations here.
Cause Area Report: Climate Change. A blanket around the Earth. Climate Change — Synthesis Report. Consensus on consensus: a synthesis of consensus estimates on human-caused global warming. Environmental Research Letters , [online] 11 4 , p. How climate is changing. Cataract Surgery. Parachuting for charity: is it worth the money? A 5-year audit of parachute injuries in Tayside and the cost to the NHS. Injury , [online] 30 4 , pp. United Nations , [online] p. Nature Geoscience , 2 11 , pp. CO2 emissions metric tons per capita. PC [Accessed 13 Dec. Cause Area Report. This same text can be found in English here.
Lopuksi esittelen Founders Pledgen suosittelemat lahjoituskohteet. Mutta jos menet suoraan lahjoituskohteisiin, menee lukemiseen noin 7 minuuttia. Maa on suuri kasvihuone. Infograafi, joka visualisoi erilaisten tieteellisten innovaatioiden vaikutuksen ihmiskuolleisuuteen. Onko organisaatio tarpeeksi avoin sen toimintatavoista ja taloudenpidosta? Monitoroiko se omaa onnistumistaan? This is an appendix to a post that can be found here. And in that I believe it succeeds. When addicts switch to intravenous use because of the increased tolerance and need for economy, the problems accompanying intravenous use present themselves.
Like heroin, opioid use is hard to tell on lower doses and many people can have careers while being addicted. Anyone with sugar and yeast can produce large quantities of alcohol fast and reliably. The act of distilling, however, requires some knowledge. Smuggling creates the incentive to distil as pure alcohol as possible.
This process, if done improperly, can create extremely lethal methanol. Generally alcohol is used in parties, but alcoholics can learn to hide the effects to a degree in other times too. A single dose of psilocybin mushrooms is relatively heavy compared to other common drugs, around 2 grams.
Moreover, these mushrooms are quite easily cultivated 7 by the user or collected from a forest. They grow naturally in every continent except Antartica. LSD is measured in micrograms. If a common dose was considered to be micrograms 10 gram of the substance would provide around 67, doses. That is why LSD can be reliably mailed to anywhere. LSD is almost exclusively sold as unadulterated 12 , but sometimes people are sold different substances as LSD. Moreover, psychedelics can catalyse very challenging states of mind which can lead some to have panic attacks — to which it can be hard to seek help if it would require the admittance of a criminal act.
Amphetamine is a common prescription drug all over the world and the illegal laboratories producing it are widespread. If a common dose is considered to be In the streets amphetamine is often confused with the similarly looking, except more dangerous, stimulant called methamphetamine.
The intoxication is very hard to point out as the user is merely stimulated and attentive. The doses measured in milligrams are inconspicuously ingested usually orally or nasally and easily carried with oneself. Although diamorphine is a ubiquitous prescription drug, the general availability is quite low because of the intense worldwide demand. This is because heroin is the most powerful of opioids. Nevertheless, diamorphine is easy to smuggle as 10 grams would provide doses for the black market with each dose giving hours of intoxication.
In this case I consider a common dose to be about 15mg. Many addicts tell they can have perfectly safe professional lives, in the health care business for instance, while being addicts. If we take a common dose of cannabis to be around 0. Because most cannabis users seem to use cannabis recreationally times a year 22 , a single plant provides the user enough produce for years. And enough to give to friends, too. Smells while growing or smoking can be problematic. Nevertheless, cannabis is only mildly addictive so the use is commonly very infrequent which calls less hiding. If a common dose of tobacco is considered to be 0.
Each dose offers about an hour of intoxication. The smoke sets off fire alarms, the pungent smell sticks to everything and the act of smoking is itself extremely conspicuous. And traditionally you have to re-dose hourly. Williams, Racher N. Lipari, Jonaki Bose, Elizabeth A. Copello, and Larry A. I Was One of Them. Accessed May 29, These include psychedelic agents, such as lysergic acid diethylamide LSD , which are used for their ability to produce perceptual distortions at low and moderate doses.
Darke, S. Hall, D. Weatherburn, and B. Accessed May 30, A Pound!
CMX:Suljettu Astia Lyrics
King, William Saulsbury, and Colin Blakemore. The thing about using logic and first principles to reason, is that sometimes you can disturb even yourself. Logic, like mathematics, has a life of its own that we can merely follow down its rabbit hole. And regardless of our emotions, no matter how inconvenient, once achieved, the conclusion will just sit there staring at us in the face.
If we were to prohibit tobacco, there are few key differences that make that drug different to all other drugs. And, consequently, the prohibition of tobacco, unlike other drugs, would appear as generally a good idea. To offer some background for my views on this matter, I feel most drug prohibitions have failed what comes to increasing the overall well-being of society or keeping drugs out. And our choice of dealing with them through criminal justice system — rather than treating drug addiction as a social problem and a health problem — has borne some bitter fruit.
The cartels have been estimated to be worth 13 billion dollars a year. Many countries tried to prohibit alcohol, too, but it had the same effects. Except the bulk of the organised crime was not centred in South-America; instead of birthing El Chapos the new policy birthed our very own Al Capones and the violence and corruption that go with it. With these problems of poisonings, overdoses and addictions users were beyond social safety nets — they were criminals, after all.
We should tax and regulate drugs instead. That is to say, can it be expected for imprisoning users and patrolling borders to diminish the overall use and problems involved. So how can we know this beforehand? I think we may know this by taking a careful look at the drugs themselves. I argue that given any drug, there are three key variables with tremendous predictive value of how much prohibition will exacerbate the harm caused by a drug.
We could give the following system an extremely boring name, something like the Three Variable Predictive System of drug prohibition efficacy , or 3VPS. So the three key variables are as follows. So, if by using 3VPS we assessed the most common drugs giving points to each variable, and then applied a total score, the resulting graph would look something like the following. The details of what produced this chart can be found here.
So the higher the column, the more problems in relation to the already existing harms a prohibition entails for the substance. We can see that the 3VPS makes the prediction that prescription painkillers and alcohol are clearly the two most problematic substances to prohibit.
The problems of alcohol prohibition are already well-known, but for prescription painkillers the forecast is also very accurate: prescription painkillers, in fact, do kill more Americans each year than all other drugs combined. But the real anomaly on our graph is tobacco. Prompted by 3VPS I gave it an availability score of 2, toxicity score of 1 and ease of use score 1. The prohibition availability of tobacco is low but not the worst possible. If a person smokes a pack a day, that would be 14 grams of tobacco. This is a lot of product compared to most other drugs that you measure in thousandths or hundredths of a gram.
For criminals to keep up with the demand, with volumes that are hundred or thousand times bigger than with other drugs, would make the whole business unprofitable in comparison. You can grow tobacco yourself too, but to fully supply your habit you need a lot of production space for the plants. The opposite of tobacco what comes to availability would be alcohol. With normal household equipment you can produce great quantities in very short periods of time.
As long as you have sugar and yeast, that is — or something that has both components already, like apples. The prohibition toxicity of tobacco is the lowest possible. The opposite of tobacco, what comes to toxicity, would again be alcohol. The distilling procedure with which you produce spirits can produce methanol in addition to ethanol. Methanol is lethal for humans in very small quantities. The ease of secrecy is the lowest possible. And traditionally you have to re-dose hourly which is a fraction for that of other drugs with durations ranging around 6 hours.
The opposite of tobacco, what comes to the ease of secrecy, could be said to be psilocybin mushrooms. So, as far as I can tell, unlike other drugs, there are good reasons to believe that we can successfully prohibit tobacco. And I also find that there are, in fact, proper reasons to prohibit tobacco — reasons that are again unique for tobacco and beyond mere health concerns. We can see from the paper produced by 40 European Union drug experts in the Journal of Psychopharmacology that tobacco scores right next to methamphetamine in its total harm to the user and the environment.
Drugs are, after all, used for reasons other than the fun of being an evil criminal! Stimulants like cocaine are used for their euphoric effects usually in parties. Alcohol or opioids as depressants relax you and temporarily numb away your worries. And psychedelics, like psilocybin mushrooms and LSD, are often used to induce spiritual experiences with great personal importance for the experiencer. Nicotine is a central nervous stimulant that binds to nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the brain boosting certain cognitive functions such as attention and memory. So we are not talking about free citizens practicing their natural rights; we are talking about victims of addiction who then, worst of all, go and pass the torch to a new generation of kids in an endless, self-perpetuating cycle of tragedy.
So we could prohibit tobacco, and if my reasoning is correct, make the world a better place as a result. American Cancer Society explains that tobacco smoke comprises thousands of chemicals from which we recognise at least 70 that cause cancer not to mention other diseases. They further explain that most of this stuff is directly related to burning tobacco leaves, not nicotine itself or other tobacco products.
Smoke, any smoke in your lungs, is extremely toxic. So, nicotine is extremely addictive, and definitely causes cancer in its own right — but the mere act of removing the smoke would have truly a remarkable effect for the well-being of society. So I feel pertinent to present a third option for your consideration between prohibition and not-prohibition. E-cigarettes are electronic devices that, instead of creating smoke, create vapour by heating flavoured liquids.
This is basically a more fancy version of boiling water in a kettle and then breathing it in. So, roughly speaking, instead of spreading around toxic smoke and nicotine, you spread around vapour and nicotine. So, I introduced the Three Variable Predictive System, or 3VPS, in my effort to break down what qualities of a substance will lead to a failed prohibitionist policy. Those are high expected availability, high expected toxicity and high expected ease of secrecy in a post-prohibition environment.
This led me to believe that tobacco, in these regards, is unlike any other drug. I showed that as other drugs are used also to catalyse meaningful experiences, tobacco is mainly used because of its addictive properties — which then are, depending on the exact definition, either about the same or many times worse than those of hard drugs. I showed that tobacco is one of the most harmful substances used, so breaking this insidious cycle of intergenerational addiction is called for.
And in the end I put forth a possible compromise between prohibition and the current state. According to experts, the most harmful part of tobacco is the smoke, not nicotine. Accessed May 27, Kleykamp, and Edward G. It blew my eyes open to a whole new mode of being, something that ended up rewriting my priorities in life. Instead I have incorporated the Buddhist practice and philosophy in my life to further cultivate that noblest of things, which is love. Love as a word has become a meaningless slur. It has strong positive connotations, very true, but no meaning.
This is my attempt to tell you what true love is. It was a rave in the middle of the city. We waited the queue, went straight to the bathrooms, popped the pills and headed to the dance floor. Pretty much on schedule, an hour or so, the effects came rushing in. Things started to feel heavy; the music was pulsating through the room and I no longer felt good to fight those waves with my aggressive motions but rather flow through it smoothly, tenderly even.
And I guess this girl saw what was happening. I opened my eyes and there she now was, this tribal angel graciously flowing in sync with me, smiling, looking into my eyes. Looking into me. In that moment I was already stripped of all my guards, all my notions of an outer appearance and was connecting with my being in its entirety; expressing my soul rather than a social mask invented to please. Well, how did I react in this moment? Download meeting cards pdf.
People, simply campaign is a change towards more compassionate Finland, started together by Amnesty, Finn Church Aid and the Finnish Red Cross — and you are all invited to join! See our video. Powered by Juicer. Meeting challenge Whose story would you like to hear, and what would you like to tell about yourself? Meeting cards Download People, simply cards to help you start a conversation.