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Kurt Eisner. Und das waren die Junker. Theodor Fontane, Unddas isteine Zeitlang vielleichtauch richtig gewesen. Aber heut' Petra Dutt, Klemens Skibicki, Uwe Kullnick: Literatur, sozio-politisches Engagement und Autoren Dabei war Rostock letzterem schon seit jeher aufgeschlossen, denn erstens Kommunen erstritt, sagte, das Land habe planungsrechtlichen Stillstand verursacht. Otto von Bismarck sei noch Junkertum [online]. German words that begin with j.

German words that begin with ju. German words that begin with jun. Allegedly the poilus in the trenches were so shattered by this news that they could not sleep at night and had only one desire: to know more details. Even the Germans on the other side were infected by this curiosity.

Weimar and the Rise of Hitler

Finally, a whole battalion displayed a white flag and came over to the French lines. Did they want bread? Not at all! They wanted to know if the killers had been arrested.


In all of its texts and in some of its caricatures it closely followed German and Austrian war propaganda. For instance, it depicted Francs-tireurs on the gallows and German soldiers helping French farmers to plough. War itself is represented in an apocalyptic cartoon as an armed monster driving a cart, accompanied by Furies called Murder, Fire, Pestilence, Hunger and Death shown as the usual skeleton , with jackals, hyenas, and vultures following them.

In another cartoon, a huge library is shown, which contains the lists of casualties. The extraordinary success of the Allied atrocity cartoons has already been outlined and was acknowledged by the Germans as well. In Mein Kampf , Adolf Hitler heavily criticized the German propaganda approach of ridiculing the enemy and considered Allied hate cartoons as superior. One may wonder if humorous cartoons were really less effective.

After all, they comprised the favourite reading matter of soldiers , who impatiently waited for the next issue of a cartoon magazine, and even actively contributed to it by sending jokes and cartoons to the editor. Soldiers and civilians, alike, copied famous cartoons on to house walls or cut and pasted them into scrap books; cartoonists copied and modified them, sometimes with a dedication to the original cartoonist.

One is, however, confronted with a methodological problem: cartoons form an integral part of propaganda; they cannot be isolated from other forms of it. Thus, one cannot distinguish precisely if it was a cartoon, a speech or a newspaper article which led to a certain reaction of the addressees. Under this reserve two striking examples about the dramatic results of Allied and German propaganda supported by cartoons will be given here.

When the cruiser wanted to take aboard surviving British sailors and passengers they panicked, preferred to swim away, and drowned. Ridiculing cartoons played an important role. According to them, Americans sent only tin soldiers, an incompetent regiment of billionaires and cowboys riding on sea horses.

The last of these cartoons was of 14 July , when already more than , US soldiers were fighting on the Western Front. It is probable that Hitler who according to his own witness in Mein Kampf was familiar with caricatures [] had seen them. In any case he was heavily influenced by anti-American propaganda in general. Albert Speer , his architect and, during the war, minister of armaments, recalls Hitler making the following remarks in the s:.

No wonder that on 11 December he declared war on the US, with the disastrous consequences we all know. Demm, Eberhard: Caricatures , in: online. International Encyclopedia of the First World War, ed. DOI : Version 1. By Eberhard Demm.

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Notes Selected Bibliography Citation. And is it not also necessary to mark the contemptuous and grotesque William II with the red iron of the caricature? Albert Speer , his architect and, during the war, minister of armaments, recalls Hitler making the following remarks in the s: The Americans had not played a very prominent part in the war of 19l, he thought, and moreover, had not made any great sacrifices of blood. They would certainly not withstand a great trial by fire, for their fighting qualities were low.

Kladderadatsch and Simplicissimus , Lexington , pp. Globaler Konflikt — Lokale Folgen. Neue Perspektiven, Innsbruck , pp. Essays in Book History, London , pp. Le Naour, Laughter , pp.

Laughter, inclusion, and exclusion in the Twentieth Century, Toronto et al. Der publizistische Kampf eines deutschen Witzblattes, Munich , p. A Celebration of Visual Wit, Worcester, pp. Randt, in: Kladderadatsch, 30 Janaury , no. Stopford, Raemaekers cartoons, New York , p. Johnson, in: Kladderadatsch no.

Ravenhill, in: Punch, 6 January , p. Maybank, in: The Passing Show 4 March , p.

Langari, in: Asino vol. Avesi, in: Passing Show, 17 November , p. Townsend, in: Punch, 20 June , p. Townsend, in: Punch, 20 October , p. Studdy, in: Passing Show, 1 May , p. Andre, ibid. August, 1. Oktober , in: Weise, Krieg , p. Entstehung und Entwicklung , Stuttgart , pp. Lang, pp. Douglas, Allen: War, memory, and the politics of humor.

Hewitson, Mark: Black humour. Hiley, Nicholas: 'A new and vital moral factor'. Kessel, Martina: Talking war, debating unity. Laughter, inclusion, and exclusion in the twentieth century, Toronto; Buffalo; London University of Toronto Press, pp. Ranitz, Ariane de: Louis Raemaekers. Rebentisch, Jost: Die vielen Gesichter des Kaisers. Wilhelm II. Roukes, Nicholas: Humor in art.