The Louisiana city of New Orleans still retains much of its French-infused heritage, and The French Revolution was a watershed event in modern European history that began in and ended in the late s with the ascent of Napoleon Bonaparte. Elected in as the 35th president of the United States, year-old John F.
Kennedy became one of the youngest U. This Day In History. Origins of the French Revolution. French and Indian War. The French in New Orleans. John Adams. John J. Pershing U. John Brown John Brown was a radical abolitionist who believed in the violent overthrow of the slavery system. John Smith Colonizer and publicist. Remember me. Sign in. Sign up for our newsletter. Add to Wants List. Add this lot to your Wants List and we will notify you when another copy is being offered.
How it works Register. Email or share. Monick S. Lock, Ron, and others A collection of three signed Zulu War books. Juta, H. Mustapha's army was 18, strong and supported by several cannons, with trenches defending it on the landward side and free communication with the Ottoman fleet on the seaward side. Bonaparte ordered an attack on 25 July and the Battle of Abukir ensued.
In a few hours the trenches were taken, 10, Ottomans drowned in the ocean and the rest captured or killed. Most of the credit for the French victory that day goes to Murat, who captured Mustapha himself. Mustapha's son was in command of the fort and he and all his officers survived but were captured and sent back to Cairo as part of the French triumphal procession. Seeing Bonaparte return with these high-ranking prisoners, the population of Cairo superstitiously welcomed him as a prophet-warrior who had predicted his own triumph with such remarkable precision.
The land battle at Abukir was Bonaparte's last action in Egypt, partly restoring his reputation after the French naval defeat at the same place a year earlier. He also foresaw that the army was getting yet weaker from losses in battle and to disease and would soon have to surrender and be taken prisoner by its enemies, which would destroy all the prestige he had won by his many victories.
Bonaparte thus spontaneously decided to return to France. During the prisoner exchange at Aboukir and notably via the Gazette de Francfort Sidney Smith had sent him, he was in communication with the British fleet, from which he had learned of events in France. As Bonaparte saw and later mythologised France was thrown back into retreat, its enemies had recaptured France's conquests, France was unhappy at its dictatorial government and was nostalgic for the glorious peace it had signed in the Treaty of Campo Formio — as Bonaparte saw it, this meant France needed him and would welcome him back.
He only shared the secret of his return with a small number of friends whose discretion and loyalty were well-known. He left Cairo in August on the pretext of a voyage in the Nile Delta without arousing suspicion, accompanied by the scholars Monge and Berthollet , the painter Denon , and generals Berthier , Murat , Lannes and Marmont.
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As night fell, the frigate Muiron silently moored by the shore, with three other ships escorting her. Some became worried when a British corvette was sighted at the moment of departure, but Bonaparte cried "Bah!
French campaign in Egypt and Syria
We'll get there, luck has never abandoned us, we shall get there, despite the English. On their day voyage back they did not meet a single enemy ship to stop them, with some sources suggesting that Bonaparte had purchased the British fleet's neutrality via a tacit agreement, though others hold this unlikely, since many would argue that he also had a pact with Nelson to leave him to board on the Egyptian coast unopposed with the fleet bearing his large army. It has been suggested that Sidney Smith and other British commanders in the Mediterranean helped Napoleon evade the British blockade, thinking that he might act as a Royalist element back in France, but there is no solid historical evidence in support of this conjecture.
On 1 October Napoleon's small flotilla entered port at Ajaccio , where contrary winds kept them until 8 October, when they set out for France. When the coast came in sight, ten British ships were sighted. Contre-amiral Ganteaume suggested changing course towards Corsica, but Bonaparte said "No, this manoeuvre would lead us to England, and I want to get to France.
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As there were no sick men on board and the plague in Egypt had ended six months before their departure, Bonaparte and his entourage were allowed to land immediately without waiting in quarantine. Command of the French army passed to General Menou , who held command from 3 July until August Menou's letter was published in Le Moniteur on 6 September, with the conclusions of the committee charged with judging those responsible for the assassination:. Under the terms of his capitulation , the British General John Hely-Hutchinson allowed the French army to be repatriated in British ships.
Menou also signed over to Britain the priceless hoard of Egyptian antiquities such as the Rosetta Stone which it had collected. An unusual aspect of the Egyptian expedition was the inclusion of an enormous contingent of scientists and scholars "savants" assigned to the invading French force, in total. This deployment of intellectual resources is considered as an indication of Napoleon's devotion to the principles of the Enlightenment , and by others as a masterstroke of propaganda obfuscating the true motives of the invasion; the increase of Bonaparte's power.
Their original aim was to help the army, notably by opening a Suez Canal , mapping out roads and building mills to supply food. The Egyptian Institute saw the construction of laboratories, libraries, and a printing press. The group worked prodigiously, and some of their discoveries were not finally cataloged until the s. Publications such as these of Napoleon's discoveries in Egypt gave rise to fascination with Ancient Egyptian culture and the birth of Egyptology in Europe. The printing press was first introduced to Egypt by Napoleon.
In the Middle East, Africa, India and even much of Eastern Europe and Russia, printing was a minor, specialised activity until the s at least. From about , the Mutaferrika Press in Istanbul produced substantial amounts of printing, of which some Egyptian clerics were aware of at the time. Juan Cole reports that, "Bonaparte was a master of what we would now call spin, and his genius for it is demonstrated by reports in Arabic sources that several of his more outlandish allegations were actually taken seriously in the Egyptian countryside.
Bonaparte's initial use of Arabic in his printed proclamations was rife with error. In addition to much of the awkwardly translated Arabic wording being unsound grammatically, often the proclamations were so poorly constructed that they were undecipherable. The Maltese language is distantly related to the Egyptian dialect; classical Arabic differs greatly in grammar, vocabulary, and idiom.
Venture de Paradis, who had lived in Tunis, understood Arabic grammar and vocabulary, but did not know how to use them idiomatically. Over the course of Napoleon's invasion of Egypt, al-Jabarti wrote a wealth of material regarding the French and their occupation tactics. In addition to its significance in the wider French Revolutionary Wars , the campaign had a powerful impact on the Ottoman Empire in general and the Arab world in particular. The invasion demonstrated the military, technological, and organisational superiority of the Western European powers to the Middle East, leading to profound social changes in the region.
The invasion introduced Western inventions, such as the printing press , and ideas, such as liberalism and incipient nationalism , to the Middle East, eventually leading to the establishment of Egyptian independence and modernisation under Muhammad Ali Pasha in the first half of the 19th century and eventually the Nahda , or Arab Renaissance. To modernist historians , the French arrival marks the start of the modern Middle East.
The campaign ended in failure, with 15, French troops killed in action and 15, by disease. Napoleon's reputation as a brilliant military commander remained intact and even rose higher, despite some of his failures during the campaign. That propaganda even spread back to France, where news of defeats such as at sea in Aboukir Bay and on land in Syria were suppressed. On September 27, he wrote a letter from Cairo to the first consul, couched in an Oriental style. He regretted being very far away from Napoleon and offered his total devotion to the French nation and expressed the Mameluke's wish to become the bodyguard to the first consul.
They wished to serve him as living shields against those who would seek to harm him. The first consul became receptive of admitting a unit of carefully selected cavalrymen as his personal guard. He had an officer pay appropriate respects to the foreign troops and provided Napoleon himself with a full report to the number of refugees. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the twentieth-century conflict, see Suez Crisis. Egypt , Levant. Egypt—Syria campaign of the French Revolutionary Wars. Part of a series on the. Main article: French invasion of Malta.
Main articles: Battle of the Pyramids and Battle of the Nile. Further information: Revolt of Cairo. Main article: Battle of Mount Tabor Main article: Siege of Acre British Museum Press. Tricolor and Crescent: France and the Islamic World. Retrieved Napoleon's Egypt: Invading the Middle East.
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Palgrave Macmillan. Archived from the original on 6 January Retrieved 2 May Archived from the original on 4 March Archived from the original on 21 August Graff, ; pp. Available at "Archived copy". Archived from the original on CS1 maint: Archived copy as title link. Garrett County Press. Unwin Brothers, Ltd. Napoleon in Egypt. Random House Publishing Group.
Napoleon: A Life. Penguin Random House Publishing Group. Ta'rikh, Muddat al-faransis bi misr. Cairo: Dar al-Kitab al-Jami'i.
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Markus Wiener Publishing. A history of the modern Middle East. Michigan University Press. Napoleon's Mamelukes. New York: Osprey Publishing. French Revolution. Significant civil and political events by year. What Is the Third Estate? Peace of Basel. Treaty of Amiens 25 Mar Charles-Alexandre Linois. William V, Prince of Orange. Alexander Korsakov Alexander Suvorov. Luis Firmin de Carvajal Antonio Ricardos. Other significant figures and factions.
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