While the original genre draws on music of Europe and North America, there is no clear delineation of which other culture's music might be included as influences. The term is not typically associated with blues-based rock music, African American music, Cajun-based rock music, nor music with non-European folk roots.
There are some exceptions which are mediated through folk revivalists. The American folk-music revival began during the s; building on the interest in protest folk singers such as Woody Guthrie and Pete Seeger , it reached a peak in popularity in the mids with artists such as Bob Dylan and Joan Baez.
At roughly the same time as these "collegiate folk" vocal groups came to national prominence, a second group of urban folk revivalists, influenced by the music and guitar picking styles of folk and blues artist such as Woody Guthrie, Lead Belly , Brownie McGhee , and Josh White , also came to the fore. The vast majority of the urban folk revivalists shared a disdain for the values of mainstream American mass culture  and led many folk singers to begin composing their own "protest" material.
During the s and early s in the UK, a parallel folk revival referred to as the second British folk revival , was led by folk singers Ewan MacColl and Bert Lloyd. Of particular importance to the development of folk rock by the British Invasion were the subtle folk influences evident in such Beatles' compositions as " I'll Be Back ", " Things We Said Today ", and " I'm a Loser ",  with the latter song being directly inspired by folk singer-songwriter Bob Dylan. He cites " She Loves You " as one of the first examples where the Beatles introduced folk chord changes into rock music and so initiated the new genre.
This melding of folk and rock 'n' roll in the Beatles' music became even more explicit during , with the release of " You've Got to Hide Your Love Away ", a folk-derived song with introspective lyrics, again influenced by Dylan. Author and music historian Richie Unterberger has noted that the Beatles' impact on American popular culture effectively sounded the death knell for the American folk music revival.
In addition to The Beatles, the two British groups that were arguably the most influential on the development of folk rock were the Animals and the Searchers. The song reached number 1 on the Billboard Hot singles chart and stayed there for three weeks, selling over a million copies in just five weeks in the U. The Searchers were influential in popularizing the jangly sound of the electric twelve-string guitar.
However, the Searchers' use of amplified twelve-strings provided another example of how conventional folk elements could be incorporated into rock music to produce new and exciting sounds. The Beatles' lead guitarist , George Harrison , also influenced this trend towards jangly guitars in folk rock with his use of a Rickenbacker twelve-string guitar on the Beatles' mids recordings. This relatively clean, jangly sound—without distortion or other guitar effects —became a cornerstone of folk rock instrumentation and was used in many American folk rock records made during and Although folk rock mainly grew out of a mix of American folk revival and British Invasion influences,  there were also a few examples of proto-folk rock that were important in the development of the genre.
Of these secondary influences, Unterberger has cited the self-penned, folk-influenced material of San Francisco's the Beau Brummels as arguably the most important. Despite their Beatlesque image, the band's use of minor chords , haunting harmonies, and folky acoustic guitar playing—as heard on their debut single " Laugh, Laugh "—was stylistically very similar to the later folk rock of the Byrds. Pre-dating the Beau Brummels' commercial breakthrough by almost two years, singer-songwriter Jackie DeShannon 's April single " Needles and Pins " marked, according to Unterberger, the earliest appearance of the ringing guitar sound that would become a mainstay of early folk rock.
In the UK, the folk group the Springfields featuring Dusty Springfield had been releasing folk-oriented material featuring full band arrangements since the early s, including renditions of " Lonesome Traveler ", " Allentown Jail ", and " Silver Threads and Golden Needles ". There are also a few antecedents to folk rock present in pre-British Invasion American rock 'n' roll, including Elvis Presley 's cover of the Bill Monroe bluegrass standard " Blue Moon of Kentucky ";  Buddy Holly 's self-penned material, which strongly influenced both Dylan and the Byrds;   Ritchie Valens ' recording of the Mexican folk song " La Bamba ";  Lloyd Price 's rock 'n' roll adaptation of the African-American folk song " Stagger Lee " originally recorded by Mississippi John Hurt in ;   Jimmie Rodgers ' rock 'n' roll flavored renditions of traditional folk songs;  and the folk and country -influenced recordings featured on the Everly Brothers ' album Songs Our Daddy Taught Us.
The moment when all of the separate influences that served to make up folk rock finally coalesced into an identifiable whole was with the release of the Byrds ' recording of Bob Dylan 's " Mr. Tambourine Man ".
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Tambourine Man" peaked at number 1 on the Billboard chart. It was during the rehearsals at World Pacific that the band began to develop the blend of folk music and Beatles-style pop that would characterize their sound. Tambourine Man's blend of abstract lyrics, folk-influenced melody, complex harmonies , jangly string Rickenbacker guitar playing, and Beatles-influenced beat, resulted in a synthesis that effectively created the subgenre of folk rock.
Dylan's material would provide much of the original grist for the folk rock mill, not only in the U. Tambourine Man", along with the Animals ' rock interpretation of " The House of the Rising Sun " itself based on Dylan's earlier cover , helped to give Dylan the impetus to start recording with an electric backing band. As the s dawned, folk rock evolved away from the jangly template pioneered by the Byrds, but their influence could still be heard in the music of bands like Fairport Convention and Pentangle.
The folk rock sound of the Byrds has continued to influence many bands over the years, including Big Star , Tom Petty and the Heartbreakers , R. On 20 July , Dylan released the groundbreaking " Like a Rolling Stone ", a six-minute-long scathing put-down, directed at a down-and-out society girl, which again featured Dylan backed by an electric rock band.
Tambourine Man" topped the charts in the United States, the song was instrumental in defining the burgeoning folk rock scene and in establishing Dylan as a bona fide rock star, rather than a folksinger. Dylan followed "Like a Rolling Stone" with the wholly electric album Highway 61 Revisited and the non-album single " Positively 4th Street ", which itself has been widely interpreted as a rebuke to the folk purists who had rejected his new electric music.
The popularity and commercial success of the Byrds and Bob Dylan's blend of folk and rock music influenced a wave of imitators and emulators that retroactively became known as the folk rock boom. Although he started out as a jazz musician, the young, African-American Columbia Records producer Tom Wilson became known as the "mid-wife of folk-rock" for his seminal work behind the scenes. Music critic Richie Unterberger has noted that the commercial success of the Byrds' cover version of Dylan's " Mr. Tambourine Man ", along with Dylan's own contributions to the genre on the albums Bringing It All Back Home , Highway 61 Revisited , and Blonde on Blonde , initiated an explosion of emulators and imitators.
The reissued single rose to number 1 on the Billboard pop chart in late , became a hit around the world, and set the duo on one of the most successful careers in pop and rock music. One of the first bands to craft a distinctly American sound in response to the British Invasion was the Beach Boys ; while not a folk rock band themselves, they directly influenced the genre and at the height of the folk rock boom in had a hit with a cover of the s West Indian folk song " Sloop John B ", which they had learned from the Kingston Trio , who had learned it from the Weavers.
Much of the early folk-rock music emerged during a time of general global upheaval, the Vietnam War , and new concerns for the world by young people. In the United States, the heyday of folk rock was arguably between the mid-sixties and the mid-seventies, when it aligned itself with the hippie movement and became an important medium for expressing radical ideas. Cities such as San Francisco, Denver , New York City and Phoenix became centers for the folk rock culture, playing on their central locations among the original folk circuits.
The "unplugged" and simplified sound of the music reflected the genre's connection to a critical view of a technological and consumerist society. Unlike pop music's escapist lyrics, arguably a fantasy distraction from the problems in life, folk artists attempted to communicate concerns for peace, global awareness, and other touchstones of the era. In the mids, singer-songwriter Gordon Lightfoot began moving his folk songs into a folk-rock direction with recordings such as the percussion-driven "Black Day In July" about the Detroit riot.
He would rise to top the charts in the s with a number of his folk-rock recordings such as " Sundown " and " Carefree Highway " and eventually become known as a folk-rock legend. In this category was Cat Stevens , who began in London much like the Byrds did in the United States but toned down the sound more frequently with acoustic instruments. He performed songs that contained concern for the environment, war, and the future of the world in general.
A subgenre originally arising from the early s folk and country-influenced music of singer-songwriter artists such as Bob Dylan and Bobby Bare , as well as from folk revivalist vocal groups like the Kingston Trio. A subgenre of folk rock that combines traditional Celtic instrumentation with rock rhythms, often influenced by a wide varitety of pop and rock music styles.
The subgenre was further popularised in by Thin Lizzy , who had a hit with " Whiskey in the Jar ", a traditional Irish song performed entirely in the rock idiom. A more recent folk rock band based in England is the BibleCode Sundays. Medieval folk rock developed as a subgenre of electric folk from about as performers, particularly in England, Germany and Brittany, adopted medieval and renaissance music as a basis for their music, in contrast to the early modern and nineteenth century ballads that dominated the output of Fairport Convention.
This followed the trend explored by Steeleye Span, and exemplified by their album Below the Salt. In Britain the tendency to electrify brought several progressive folk acts into rock. Folk metal is a fusion genre of heavy metal music and traditional folk music that developed in Europe during the s. It is characterised by the widespread use of folk instruments and, to a lesser extent, traditional singing styles for example, Dutch Heidevolk , Danish Sylvatica and Spanish Stone of Erech.
It also sometimes features soft instrumentation influenced by folk rock. The earliest folk metal bands were Skyclad from England and Cruachan from Ireland. It was not until and that other early contributors in the genre began to emerge from different regions of Europe and beyond. Among these early groups, the German band Subway to Sally spearheaded a different regional variation that over time became known as medieval metal. Despite their contributions, folk metal remained little known with few representatives during the s.
It was not until the early s when the genre exploded into prominence, particularly in Finland with the efforts of such groups as Finntroll , Ensiferum , Korpiklaani , Turisas , and Moonsorrow. The music of folk metal is characterised by its diversity with bands known to perform different styles of both heavy metal music and folk music.
A large variety of folk instruments are used in the genre with many bands consequently featuring six or more members in their regular line-ups. A few bands are also known to rely on keyboards to simulate the sound of folk instruments. Lyrics in the genre commonly deal with fantasy , mythology , paganism , history and nature. British folk rock developed in Britain during the mid to late s by the bands Fairport Convention , and Pentangle.
Steeleye Span, founded by Fairport Convention bass player Ashley Hutchings , was made up of traditionalist folk musicians who wished to incorporate electrical amplification, and later overt rock elements, into their music. By the s the popularity of British folk rock was in steep decline but it has survived into the 21st century and has been revived as part of a more general folk resurgence since the s. British folk music has also been influential in those parts of the world with close cultural connections to Britain, such as the U.
The film made based on the rock-opera was one of the biggest box-office hits in Psychedelic Galloping Wonder Stag continues Galloping Coroners ' shaman punk with acoustic, folk-instrumented, extatic sound moving closer to original shamanic folk music. In Romania Transsylvania Phoenix known in Romania simply as Phoenix , founded in , introduced significant folk elements into their rock music around in an unsuccessful attempt to compromise with government repression of rock music.
Although large number of Yugoslav s beat bands performed and recorded covers of Balkan traditional songs, it was the late s and early s when the Yugoslav rock bands started incorporating folk elements into their own compositions. Bijelo Dugme , which emerged in the mids, had huge success with their folk-influenced hard rock sound, becoming the most popular Yugoslav band, managing to sustain this status during the s.
Several hard rock and heavy metal bands, like Vatreni Poljubac and Griva , incorporated folk music elements into their songs. Another notable act whose music featured a combination of rock and Vojvodina folk music were the band Garavi Sokak. The band Azra started their career as a new wave band, but in their late period started to incorporate folk music elements into their music. In the early s, Serbian band Orthodox Celts emerged.
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Russian folk rock artists combine elements of Russian rock with celtic music , folk music of Northern countries as well as Russian folk music. Examples are the band Yat-Kha  and Sak-Sok,  who perform Tuvan and Tatar traditional music based on rock music. The first known fusions between rock music and folklore in Russia began with bands of the VIA generation till the end of the s and the early s, such as Pesniary and Ariel.
The songs by the student ensemble "Ornament" are based on Anglo-American folk music. The group later renamed to Kukuruza and performed from on as a professional band. Less-known bands, such as "Ado", performed in the style of folk and country rock. Musicians of these groups incorporate, beside folk rock, several different genres, ranging from psychedelic music to Jazz and neo-folk. Members of the folk rock band "Til Ulenshpigel", formed in , later invited the singer Hellawes to join the band.
After the break-up of "Til Ulenshpigel" in , Hellawes joined the band Melnitsa , replacing founding member Ruslana Komlyakova. Despite their separation from Melnitsa in , the latter band is still one of the most famous folk rock bands in Russia. Turkey, during the s and s, also sustained a vibrant folk rock scene, drawing inspirations from diverse ethnic elements of Anatolia , the Balkans , Eurasia and the Black Sea region and thriving in a culture of intense political strife, with musicians in nationalist and Marxist camps.
There is a large and diversified folk-rock scene in Germany. The scene is closely, but not solely, connected with the medieval festivals, which for more than 20 years has been kept all over Germany often in old castles e. Veldenburger Festival. The largest of these is spectaculum.
The music realizes all kinds of mixtures between folk and rock.
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There are bands such as Die Streuner whose music is close to medieval music, but there are more bands whose music, though it is close to medieval music, use rock drums and rock-like rhythms and are more or less electrified Vermaledyit, Feuerschwanz, Saltatio Mortis , Corvus Corax. Many bands plays even more rock-like folk-rock Schandmaul , Faun , Ignis Fatuu although Faun is hard to classify due to musice variation. Use of older instruments is common in German folk-rock. The most widely used old instruments in the German folk-rock are perhaps bagpipes, pipes, hurdy-gurdy, nyckelharp, and lute, which often are played together with rock guitar, bass and drums.
Tanzwut and In Extremo have for instance two bagpipes players in their heavyband. The inspiration of the German folk-rock does not stem from old German music only, but from a variety of other sources such as France, Netherlands, Scotland, Ireland and Sweden. Faun has introduced music from even a wider range of countries. German folk-rock has nothing to do with Schlagers music or traditional brass band music. It is difficult to define the boundaries between folk and ethnic music in Italy, because of its geographic position and its history.
The folk side was founded by the Nuova Compagnia di Canto Popolare at the end of the s. The Nuovo Canzoniere Italiano was characterized by musical search and a strong political commitment. In Italy many songwriters imported American models, such as Folk beat n. Branduardi is a classical musician whose first LP Branduardi '74 is near to progressive sound, later he approaches to medieval and rinascimental and Celtic music. In he sang William Butler Yeats poetry.
The violin, the harp , the sitar , the banjo and the lute are accompanied by electric bass and drums. Later he substituted violin with electric violin. In Lou Dalfin formed an Occitan group which performed traditional music with traditional instruments: ghironda , accordion and organetto , violin , flute , boha and bag pipe , with singing in the Occitan language.
A new line-up of the band in played folk, jazz and rock using electric bass , drums, electric guitar , keyboard and saxophone. In Gigi Camedda, Gino Marielli and Andrea Parodi founded Tazenda, an Italian ethno-folk-rock group which uses a launeddas the oldest reed instruments of the Mediterranean , the sampled " canti a tenore " , the diatonic accordions are mixed with electric guitars and drums and harmonicas.
The Gang were formed in as a punk group, inspired by The Clash , but in they began to sing about the Italian political and social situation and they moved away from punk-style electric guitar and used acoustic twelve string guitar, violin, accordion, harmonica , and flutes. In , after two rock discs, Gang recorded Nel tempo e oltre cantando insieme with La Macina, a band of musical search from Marche led by Gastone Pietrucci.
Traditional songs and Gang's songs were revised rearranged: an example of fusion between rock and popular tradition. Later M. Many groups were influenced by M. Spain has produced two folk-rock-bagpipers, Susana Seivane from Galicia and Hevia , who mix traditional with modern dance tunes. Besides, experimental rock musician Lynda Thomas gained notoriety for fusioning traditional music with rock or eurodance music. Canadian folk rock is particularly, although not exclusively, associated with Celtic folk traditions.
Australia has a unique tradition of folk music, with origins in both the indigenous music traditions of the original Australian inhabitants, as well as the introduced folk music including sea shanties of 18th and 19th century Europe. Celtic , English, German and Scandinavian folk traditions predominated in this first wave of European immigrant music. The Australian tradition is, in this sense, related to the traditions of other countries with similar ethnic, historical and political origins, such as New Zealand, Canada, and the USA.
The Australian indigenous tradition brought to this mix novel elements, including new instruments, some of which are now internationally familiar, such as the digeridoo of Northern Australia. Notable Australian exponents of the folk revival movement included both European immigrants such as Eric Bogle , and indigenous Australians like Archie Roach , and many others.
In the s, Australian folk rock brought both familiar and less familiar traditional songs, as well as new compositions, to live venues and the airwaves. Notable artists include The Bushwacker Band and Redgum. Australia's long and continuous folk tradition continues strongly to this day, with elements of folk music still present in many contemporary artists including those generally thought of as rock , heavy metal and alternative rock. Manila Sound is a subgenre popular in the Philippines notably in Manila during the s which combined elements of Filipino folk music , rock and roll , jazz and disco.
Puno , and Ryan Cayabyab , although only Aguilar's, Florante's, Bartolome's, Asin's and Sampaguita's music can be considered folk rock, with the others' more aptly under the folk pop or simply pop rubric. The song is a slightly altered bilingual rock-version of the Afrikaans folk-song of the same name. It also inadvertently kick-started the Afrikaans Rock movement. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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Tom Dooley. An excerpt from the Kingston Trio's hit recording of the traditional folk song " Tom Dooley ". The song reached 1 on the Billboard Hot chart in and provided a template for the nascent "collegiate folk" movement, which itself was one of the foundation stones of the mids folk rock boom.
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