I know from first-hand experience, as I was once a transgender woman, and I regret my sex-reassignment surgery. The Plot The movie is set in Denmark in the s. When we first meet him, Einar, the husband, is a stable, bright landscape artist with some success in the art world. He exhibits no noticeable gender quirks or homosexual tendencies. Gerda, also an artist, is an attractive woman who loves her husband, but she struggles to gain recognition as an artist.
They seem to be an ordinary couple in love. Things start to turn strange when Gerda is in need of a female model to complete a painting. Gerda asks Einar to help her out by posing as a woman. They make it into a playful game—a game that ends up going too far. Gerda is taken in by the excitement of Einar posing as a female. She encourages the emerging female, whom they teasingly call Lilli, to be lovely and beautiful.
Gerda discovers her untapped artistic passion when sketching him and he, in turn, is entranced by the drawings of himself as a woman. The trigger is pulled. Einar falls in love with the way he looks dressed as a female. Einar sneaks off to cross-dress privately and to explore the sexual allure of himself dressed in the soft silky fabrics.
The play-acting reaches a new level when, for some reason, Gerda encourages her husband to accompany her to an art showing in female guise. Gerda dresses Einar with a wig, applies his makeup, and chooses an ensemble. Gerda coaches him how to walk and carry himself as a woman. Lilli is out of the gate, running laps of pure joy, by the time Gerda finally sees what she has unleashed. Gerda finds herself unsure of what to do with Lilli, whose unwanted and unannounced appearances are becoming more frequent. Parallels to My Life The experiences of my early childhood evoked within me the same desires that awakened within Einar.
She sewed special dresses for me to wear and told me how pretty I was when I modeled them for her. Like Einar, I married a woman and lived as a man. Like Einar, I cross-dressed in secret and eventually began going out in public dressed as a woman. I, too, felt energized by the experience. That is why I underwent a full surgical transformation.
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Lilli did not have the opportunity to live as a transgender female to see if living life as a woman fulfilled her expectations and served as her path to peace. She died from an infection a few days after the second reconstruction operation. After undergoing sex-reassignment surgery, I lived as a transgender female for eight years, some of the time working and living in San Francisco. Right after surgery, like Einar, I was elated about finally having made the transition.
Yet the excitement soon wore off. Over time, I discovered that life as a woman could not give me peace. To my dismay, I still fluctuated between being Walt and being Laura, sometimes several times in one day. Whatever caused me to want to change my gender identity had not been solved by sex-reassignment surgery or by living as a woman. I kept searching for an answer. An Accurate Portrayal—To a Point The movie accurately portrayed the deep emotional and psychological problems that transgender people experience, illustrating how infuriatingly difficult these issues are to diagnose and treat.
It did a good job in showing how gender discomfort can start from a seemingly small incident in childhood and then grow in adulthood into severe gender discomfort that eventually leads to sex-reassignment surgery. Lilli fervently wants the genital surgery, even at the risk of her life. Immediately after the surgery, Lilli appears truly happy with her decision.
Most transgender people would say this is true in their experience; in fact, I saw this same progression in my life. However, because Lilli died after the second surgery, the movie could only portray pre-transition longings and the immediate effect of the surgery, not the long-term reality of life after the transition. In my case, transition promised a good life, but after the initial euphoria wore off, it delivered only despair. Until I determined to stop living as Laura and to do whatever it took to be Walt, peace eluded me.
Being open to being restored to manhood changed everything. When a proper diagnosis of my dissociative disorder was made, the first effective treatment could begin. It took several years, but as I persisted with the treatment for dissociative disorder, my feelings of wanting to be a woman dissolved until they were completely gone.
I learned that sex-reassignment surgery had not been necessary, but it was too late. My body was irreversibly mutilated. The movie shows the comorbid disorders of Einar quite clearly. First, we see the onset of autogynephilia, a mental sexual disorder in which Einar becomes the object of his own affection in the identity of Lilli. After being nurtured and indulged for a while, this escalates to a narcissistic obsession of self-gratification at the expense of his relationship with his wife.
The yearning becomes an obsession. His powerful new emotions change his view of himself as a man. Eventually, Lilli dissociates from Einar, and two personae exist within one person. This is called a dissociative disorder. Unchecked, Lilli takes total control and turns Einar into the canvas picture of Lilli, the female.
Lilli says Einar is dead and gone. That statement demonstrates a disorder rather than reality, because Einar is standing there talking. I made similar statements about Walt. That is a disturbed mind talking. As it turns out, I too had a comorbid disorder. The makers of The Danish Girl are clearly trying to sell the popular idea that trapped inside of Einar all his life was a girl. Transgender people are not born that way; they evolve from experiences that shape their emotions and desires.
Providing Real Psychiatric Care At the end of the movie, as the credits rolled, I turned to the middle-aged lady seated next to me and asked her what she thought. I live in a neighborhood where people in need of psychiatric care wander the streets, but no one is there to help them. Over 60 percent of patients with gender dysphoria suffer from the existence of comorbid disorders.
These commonly include psychological or psychiatric disorders such as dissociation, sexual fetishes such as autogynephilia, and mood disorders such as depression. In nearly all cases, these disorders could be resolved without any surgical intervention if patients receive proper treatment, including psychotherapy and medication.
Anorexia nervosa e transmissão psíquica transgeracional
A survey found that 41 percent of transgender people reported attempting suicide at least once. Charles Ihlenfeld. Utensils and items of clothing that consist of two parts e. These underpants are too small for me. The monks shave their heads. All the men took their hats off. Countability There are some nouns where the plural in Portuguese corresponds to an uncountable singular in English, e.
I had a piece of meat with some plain rice. The murder of the boy was a barbaric act. He said a number of stupid things. In Portuguese, the form of the definite article depends on the gender and number of the noun it accompanies. The masculine singular and plural forms are usually unstressed and pronounced [u] and [us]. If stress is required for some reason, they are pronounced with the closed o sound: [o] and [os]. The feminine articles are pronounced [a] and [as], as you would expect. Note that, when the word following the plural articles begins with a vowel, h or a voiced consonant b, d, g, l, m, n, r, v , the s is pronounced [z] as the article and the word it accompanies are run together, e.
Russian is a difficult language. With proper names, e. In this case, the article lends a tone of familiarity and is not therefore used with the names of historical figures, nor in more formal written language, such as news reporting. Bob understands Portuguese. O jogo vai passar na Globo. Ele jogou pelo Palmeiras. He played for Palmeiras. Did they stamp your passport? He took his glasses off. Put your hand on your head. Ela parece com o pai. She looks like her father.
I saw the photo of Davi and the one of Pedro. Tenho que olhar as minhas roupas e separar as que quero levar. I have to look over my clothes and sort out the ones I want to take. The new models are less bulky than the old ones. Desculpe, confundi a sua mala com a minha. Sorry, I mistook your suitcase for mine. The contraction is normally made in speech, but not always in the written language: em. Sou budista. The house became a museum. He works as a waiter in a restaurant. Have you bought a ticket yet? O hotel tem piscina. The hotel has a pool. I came out without an umbrella. Bebeto, a former player in the national squad.
He was born in Porto Feliz, a town near Sorocaba. The indefinite article occurs in Portuguese in the following cases where it is not used in English:. The film is breathtakingly beautiful. She is endowed with incisive intelligence. With many abstract nouns to mean one instance: Acabei dizendo uma besteira. I ended up saying something stupid. O que eles fizeram foi uma crueldade.
My dad gave me some money. Comi uma carne e um arroz branco. I had a piece of meat and some plain rice. Preciso comprar umas canetas. I need to buy some pens.
I got about ten phone calls. Deve custar uns cem reais. It must cost about a hundred reais. This is such an instinctive rule that other types of words, names, etc. However, the rule can be broken when an adjective is used not to differentiate or specify, but rather to mention an inherent quality of the noun. The restaurant serves delicious Italian food. Adjectives with different meanings according to their position A number of common adjectives have slightly different meanings according to whether they are placed before or after the noun: Before noun old, former meu antigo professor my former teacher.
They live in a small apartment in Copacabana. The difference between pre-nominal mau and post-nominal ruim is that mau is a more objective measure of badness, while ruim implies a subjective value judgement:. It follows that only ruim can be further qualified: tempo muito ruim very bad weather. He was so mean to me. Sou ruim em geografia.
O tempo estava ruim naquele dia. The weather was bad that day. All adjectives that describe people can be used as nouns in Portuguese, e. The unthinkable happened. Meeting people is easy; the difficult part is finding the right person. A number of adjectives are used in the masculine singular base form as adverbs: Adverb meaning s adoidado colloquial.
You can reach higher than I can. Ele fala muito alto. He talks very loud ly. The plane was flying too low. The ring cost a lot. Ele vai pagar caro pelo que fez. He went straight to the point. Ela mata aula direto. Chovia forte na hora do acidente. It was raining hard at the time of the accident.
He hit his head hard on the ground. Formation of adverbs of manner Just as English derives adverbs of manner from adjectives by adding the suffix -ly, so Portuguese does the same by adding the ending -mente to the feminine form of the adjective, e. Note that any written accent the adjective may carry is lost when the -mente suffix is added, e.
When one adverb of manner follows another, only the second has the -mente suffix, e. He sometimes forgets things. Adverbs of manner and multiword adverbial expressions of manner are usually placed immediately after the verb and before any direct object. This is different from English, which usually places the adverb of manner before the verb or after the direct object: Planejamos cuidadosamente os nossos gastos mensais.
We carefully plan our monthly expenditure. This rule can be broken to give special emphasis to the adverb or adverbial, i. You have to plan your monthly expenditure carefully. I followed the instructions to the letter. That other model is more expensive. Can you speak a little more slowly? Here, the river is wider. Renato works faster or the fastest. Irregular comparative forms The following adjectives and adverbs have irregular comparative forms:.
Note that melhor, pior, maior and menor are the same for masculine and feminine singular, the plural forms being melhores, piores, maiores and menores. They say that French wines are the best in the world. It seems that the situation is worse than we imagined. Do you need more towels?
Do you have a bigger size? Ela ganha menos que eu. She earns less than me. Fui melhor do que esperava na prova. I did better than expected on the test. I finished in less than an hour. Her sister is as talented as she is. It is formed as follows: i. The government increased the minimum wage. That hotel is really expensive. Ele canta superbem. He sings really well. She talks a blue streak or nineteen to the dozen. What a lame excuse! You look so beautiful! We had a major fight. It was midnight, but there was loads of traffic. Before a feminine noun, the forms are uma and duas, e.
The same applies to compound numbers, e. Before a smaller number, cem becomes cento e. The masculine form is used in counting and mathematics. In other cases i. The feminine and plural are formed according to the usual rules, e. Their use is avoided by paraphrasing, e. These are nouns and may be used in the singular to express an approximate number, e. Os refugiados continuam chegando aos milhares. The refugees continue to arrive in their thousands. The prize for five correct numbers was 10 million. Dates Unlike English, dates are expressed in Portuguese using cardinal numbers except for the first of the month.
Today is the 16th. In more formal written language, the word dia and the definite article are omitted: sua carta de 11 de abril your letter of April 11th. Note also that, in letterheads and official documents, the date is always preceded by the name of the place: Rio de Janeiro, 18 de setembro de Years are read as if they were numbers, e. What time is it? After prepositions, clock times are preceded by the definite article as or a before uma. I start work at eight. O banco abre das The bank opens from In everyday conversation, the hour clock is used.
The part of the day can be specified if necessary, i. His flight arrives at seven in the evening. The hour clock is used in the spoken language for giving the exact times of flights, appointments, etc. Note that hour clock times are still preceded by the article as: The movie starts at I ate half an apple. He ate half of the cake himself. Decimal fractions Decimal fractions are written in Portuguese with a comma in place of the decimal point.
The price has gone up by an amazing per cent. The annual rate of inflation went above 10 per cent. It cost 8. It cost 8 reais Note that monetary amounts are grammatically plural, the gender depending on that of the currency unit: Vou te dar outros cem reais. Is this 50 dollars enough? Monarchs, popes, etc. With the names of monarchs, popes, etc. In both cases, the number is usually written in Roman numerals. English I, he, she, we, they and object pronouns e.
English me, him, her, us, them. Personal pronouns may also occur after prepositions e. Julia kissed me. O professor nos ensinou umas palavras novas. The teacher taught us some new words. For the placement of object pronouns, see 7. We live in the next street. O Paulo vai encontrar a gente aqui. Quer ir com a gente? Do you want to go with us? Are you American? Are you hungry? They are not subject to the rules on object pronoun placement see 7.
I consider you to be my best friend. I intend to visit you next year. These are also the forms of address used by employees in service industries to address customers. Are you in the queue? Can I talk to you? Would you like a coffee, madam? Would you like to sit down? Would you follow me, please? But, as a true object pronoun, it must be placed immediately before the verb it is associated with, functioning as either a direct or indirect object: Eu te amo. I love you. Te empresto o dinheiro. See also 7. Can I help you? How can I be of service to you? We are delighted to invite you to the launch of the new book.
Vimos apresentar-lhes proposta de reforma do estatuto social. We hereby submit to you a proposal for reform of the company statutes. See 7. We will be sending you two copies of the contract. The description given here more accurately reflects actual usage. The stressed forms of the third person pronouns ele, ela, eles, elas are used as subject pronouns and after prepositions in both the spoken and written languages: Ela gosta de chocolate.
She likes chocolate. Vou com eles. The unstressed object pronouns are mainly used in the written language and are placed immediately before or after the verb they are associated with see 7. Dei as chaves ao gerente e ele as colocou na gaveta. A gente vai buscar eles no aeroporto. Falei para as meninas que eu ia escrever para elas. Estou com minha bicicleta aqui. Te empresto. Among other functions see Chapter 22 , it is used when the third person subject and object are the same, i.
The boy dried himself with a towel. Did you hurt yourself? Subject pronouns occur in various types of verbless sentences and comparative expressions. This does not always correspond to English usage:. Quem quer sorvete? Quem diria que escolheriam uma pessoa como eu? With verbs, subject pronouns are never obligatory in Portuguese and can always be left out if the subject of the verb is clear from the wider context or from the form of the verb itself.
In many cases, the inclusion or omission of a subject pronoun is purely a matter of personal preference, but there are a number of factors to take into consideration: I will decide who does what. He plays tennis. Do you play too? My name is Ricardo.
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Will you call me when you get home? Unstressed object pronouns me, te, se, nos, o, a, os, as, lhe, lhes have to be placed immediately before or immediately after the verbs they are associated with. When there is a straight choice between the two positions, it is generally true that placing the pronoun after the verb sounds more formal than placing it before, although euphony may also be a deciding factor. The crucial difference between the spoken language and the written language as regards object pronoun placement is that, in speech, there are no restrictions on placing an object pronoun at the beginning of a sentence or clause, so we can say that me, te and nos are always placed before the verb in the spoken language:.
But in written Portuguese, there is a cardinal rule that you must not begin a sentence or clause with an unstressed object pronoun. This means that, if there is no explicit subject, However, there are also a number of circumstances in which the unstressed object pronoun has to be placed before the finite verb: i.
When the subject of the verb is a noun or personal pronoun, you have the choice of placing the pronoun immediately before or immediately after the verb. Broadly speaking, placement before the verb is preferred in less formal written style e. See note The pronouns me, te, se, nos and lhe s can be placed before an infinitive or appended to it with a hyphen.
They are placed before it in speech and neutral written style, and after it in more formal and literary style: Ela pode nos ajudar. O filme pode ajudar-nos a entender o que aconteceu. The pronouns o, a, os, as are appended to an infinitive as -lo, -la, -los, -las in all styles, in accordance with the rule explained in 7.
I decided to buy it. Delighted to meet you. In the spoken language and neutral written language, me, te, se, lhe s and nos are placed between the auxiliary and the past participle Ele tem se queixado de dores abdominais. The third person pronouns o, a, os, as are positioned before or after the auxiliary according to the rules given in 7. Haviam-na ajudado. In the spoken language and neutral written language, me, te, se, nos and lhe s 22 are placed between the auxiliary and the gerund: Estou me preparando para o concurso. The pronouns o, a, os, as are either positioned before the auxiliary or appended to the gerund with a hyphen, according to the rules given in 7.
The government is supporting him. Estavam esperando-a. They were waiting for her. Note that object pronouns are always appended to the gerund when it is used adverbially, i. She put her cigarette out, crushing it with the heel of her shoe. More about indirect pronoun objects Although the prepositional phrases a ele s and a ela s can always be used instead of the indirect object pronouns lhe s in the written language, there are three cases where a prepositional phrase has to be used:.
When the indirect pronoun is stressed i. I gave the money to her. When lhe could be ambiguous: Depois do que o amigo fez, ele prometeu a ela que nunca mais o procuraria. After what his friend did, he promised her he would never contact him again. He left the house to his brother after having promised it to us. The indirect object pronouns can be used to indicate that someone is the beneficiary or victim of an action.
Ele me roubou a carteira. He stole my wallet. Eles nos consertaram o carro. They fixed our car for us. Instead of paying off his debts, he only goes and buys a brand-new car. In speech, most people would also use eu in the first case: entre eu e ele. The other pronouns form regular two-word combinations with com, e. The third person reflexive pronoun se takes the form si after prepositions and forms the word consigo with the preposition com. He promised himself that he would not smoke again. A Laura se surpreendeu com ela mesma.
Laura was surprised at herself. In the spoken language, this is only an issue with the first person object pronouns, as in other cases the pronouns are placed in noun-object position anyway and can simply be pronounced with greater emphasis. The same rules apply when a pronoun forms a composite direct object with a noun. Conheci a ele e ao diretor. Preciso convencer a mim mesmo primeiro. This usage is most widespread in the southernmost part of Brazil, where it may be considered the norm in colloquial spoken language. A small number of speakers in that region also use second person verb forms.
See Appendix V: Second person verb forms on page Table 7. There are three demonstratives in Brazilian Portuguese, though only two are regularly used in the spoken language. They can be used as adjectives accompanying a noun or as pronouns replacing a noun , but in either case they must agree in gender and number with the noun in question. In addition, there are corresponding neuter forms, which are only used as pronouns and refer to something as yet unidentified or to a fact, an idea, etc. Forms and meaning In each case, the masculine singular form ends in -e, the feminine singular in -a.
The plural is formed by adding -s to the singular form: Masc. Where did you buy that watch i. Can you see that green house i. If payment has been made, disregard this notice. I bought this T-shirt last week. Foi nesse momento que percebi. It was at that moment i. When did you take this decision i. Have you been in that new shopping centre yet?
I woke up today with such a hangover. Foi aquele sufoco para achar uma vaga. It was the usual hassle to find a parking space. I prefer this skirt to the one I tried on before. The demonstratives can be used in conjunction with possessives and other indefinite pronouns, as in English: todos esses problemas all these problems aquelas outras meninas those other girls O que aconteceu com aquele seu namorado? What happened to that boyfriend of yours? We must meet up one of these days.
It was a major rush to get everything finished. The feminine singular form essa is used pronominally in a number of colloquial expressions, some of which are: A impressora quebrou? Oh no! Essa foi boa! Good one! South America was colonized by the Portuguese and the Spanish: the former in Brazil and the latter in the other countries. These pronouns combine with the prepositions em and de to form nisto, nisso, naquilo and disto, disso, daquilo respectively. These neuter pronouns are used to refer to something concrete that has not yet been identified, or to something abstract, such as a fact, an idea, something a person has just said, etc.
Why did you say that? This all happened a long time ago. Are you going to eat all that? Are you only taking this bag here? This is my daughter. Is it this way to the museum? Is Cristina around? These adverbs can be combined with other adverbs of place. It was then that I found out the truth. So what? Possessives can be used as adjectives accompanying a noun or as pronouns replacing a noun , but in either case they must agree in gender and number with the noun in question.
The usage of the possessives differs slightly between the spoken language and the written language, as explained below:. O Carlos me trouxe no carro dele. Carlos brought me in his car. Is your mother a teacher? They invited me to stay at their house. He wants to sell your house. Guys, can I go in your car? Qual o nome da senhora? Ele pagou o jantar da gente. He paid for our dinner. A peculiarity of Portuguese possessives is that they may be preceded by the definite article, and must be when used pronominally i.
Her hair is darker than mine. Their houses are different from ours. When the possessives are used adjectivally i. In the spoken language, its inclusion with nouns in subject or object position is a matter of personal preference, whereas after prepositions that contract with the definite article a, de, em, por and para — see 4. I look forward to hearing from you literally, I await news of you. Pode tirar uma foto nossa? Can you take a picture of us? When a possessive is used in English to refer back to the subject of the sentence, Portuguese usually uses the definite article instead, especially in the following cases: i.
Put your hands on your head. With items of clothing and personal accessories: Ele tirou o casaco. He took off his jacket. Ela colocou a bolsa na cadeira do lado. She put her bag on the chair next to her. They take after their father. Ele rabiscou o telefone num guardanapo.
He scribbled his phone number on a napkin. The definite article may also be used with similar types of noun object, the possessor being expressed as an indirect object pronoun see 7. This construction is primarily used in written language:. Iam ver os barcos e o mar em Richmond, de que ambos tanto gostavam.
Catarina teve, nos momentos de crise, da parte do conde de Castelo-Melhor um grande aliado. Em o casal real muda de Whitehall para Windsor. Havia jogos em que toda a corte participava, bailes constantes e muito teatro. Era vulgar rodear-se de mais de quinze caninos e era visto regularmente a passear-se com a sua matilha entre Knightsbridge e St. E passou a ser preparado em bules de porcelana. Uma das actividades a que D. Que puder tinha D. Catarina para tal? Pessoalmente espero que um dia a tragam para Portugal. Catarina e D.
Nunca se soube exactamente o que o vitimou a 6 de Fevereiro de , com cinquenta e cinco anos. Como sempre, levantaram-se suspeitas de envenenamento e o rei foi autopsiado, mas nada ficou provado. Catarina passou os piores dias da sua vida, ao ver o homem que amava piorar de dia para dia. Pobre mulher. Catarina tudo perdoou e chorou amargamente a perda do homem que amara com respeito durante 23 anos.
O rei no seu leito de morte, como era desejo da mulher e do duque de Iorque converteu-se ao catolicismo e comungou. Viveu oito anos em Whitehall e depois foi residir para Somerset House. Pedro II, pedindo-lhe para regressar. Por impedimento do rei de Portugal D. Vicente de Fora.