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  1. Attribution
  2. After the crash
  3. Marie Gottschalk | Political Science Department

Sybill Trelawney is the only Seer portrayed in the books, and is considered an "old fraud" by her students - although it is mentioned that Sybill's great-great-grandmother, Cassandra Trelawney, was a renowned Seer in her day. Trelawney is ultimately sacked by Dolores Umbridge in the fifth book for her lack of ability. She has however twice made true prophecies - both of significance to Harry Potter - but had no recollection after the event. Legilimency is the magical skill of extracting feelings and memories from another person's mind—a form of magical " telepathy " although Snape, an able practitioner of the art, dismisses the colloquial term "mind-reading", as a drastic oversimplification.

It also allows one to convey visions or memories to another person, whether real or imaginary. A witch or wizard possessing this skill is called a Legilimens, and can, for example, detect lies and deceit in another person, witness memories in another person's past, or "plant" false visions in another's mind.

The counter-skill to Legilimency is Occlumency and its user, known as an Occlumens , by which one can compartmentalize one's emotions, or prevent a Legilimens from discovering thoughts or memories which contradict one's spoken words or actions. An advanced form of Occlumency is planting false temporary memories inside an Occlumens' own head while blocking all other true memories, so if a Legilimens, even a highly skilled one, were to attempt to read the mind, he or she would find false memories only and believe everything was right.

The skills are first mentioned in Order of the Phoenix. Legilimency and Occlumency are not part of the normal curriculum at Hogwarts, and most students would graduate without learning them. Voldemort, Snape , and Dumbledore are all skilled in Legilimency and Occlumency, albeit with the use of their wands. Voldemort is said to be the master of Legilimency by Snape, as he, in almost all cases, immediately knows if someone lied to him. In addition, in Deathly Hallows , Voldemort repeatedly uses Legilimency to interrogate his victims. Voldemort practices Occlumency throughout the period of Half-Blood Prince to deny Harry access to his thoughts and emotions.

However, in Deathly Hallows , Voldemort repeatedly loses grip, resulting in occasional but very powerful burst of thoughts, visions and emotions to be sent to Harry. Throughout the books, Snape is repeatedly said to be highly skilled in Occlumency, [17] explaining how he was able to deceive Voldemort for years.

Even before Order of the Phoenix , Harry has the impression that Snape can read minds. Due to the antagonism between the two, and Harry's secret desire to know Voldemort's thoughts, he makes poor progress, and only once manages to overcome Snape and enter his mind. He realises that his grief—or as Dumbledore calls it, love—is what can block out the Dark Lord.

Queenie Goldstein, in Fantastic Beasts and Where to Find Them , is revealed to be a proficient Legilimens, born with the ability, as she is able to read the minds of Jacob Kowalski and others in the film, as well as sense and hear them from afar through their thoughts and emotions. Unlike Snape, Voldemort and Dumbledore however, she does not require a wand to cast the spells of Legilimency as the ability to read minds comes naturally to her.

Apparition is a magical form of teleportation , through which a witch or wizard can disappear " Disapparate " from one location and reappear " Apparate " in another. It is sometimes accompanied by a distinctive cracking or popping sound, though the more skilled wizards such as Dumbledore can Apparate "so suddenly and silently" that they seem to have "popped out of the ground".

According to Harry, apparition is also accompanied by a very unpleasant squeezing sensation, as though being sent through a tight rubber tube. The Ministry of Magic licenses Apparition. A witch or wizard must be 17 years old or older and have a licence to Apparate as a means of transportation in much the same way real-world governments require individuals to have a licence to drive a motor vehicle.

Students at Hogwarts may attend Ministry-administered Apparition lessons during their sixth year, and take their examination once they turn seventeen. It is shown that although it is possible to Apparate without a licence, it is not usually done unless in lessons and is illegal. In Deathly Hallows , Harry does not possess a licence, but since his Trace has been lifted, the Ministry is likely unaware that he does it. Learning to Apparate is difficult, and students run the risk of splinching —being physically split between the origin and destination—which requires the assistance of the Ministry's Accidental Magic Reversal Squad to undo properly, although essence of dittany can also mend certain wounds.

Splinching is quite common during lessons, and can be uncomfortable and at times rather gruesome depending on the body parts splinched, but is ultimately harmless if properly reversed. Although Ron can Apparate, he isn't terribly skilled at it, and splinches himself at least three times once losing half an eyebrow, two fingernails and part of his arm.

Harry and Hermione both pick up the skill quickly in comparison. As explained in the Half-Blood Prince , there is no word spell to Apparate or Disapparate, but the caster has to concentrate on the location on which he has to apparate, needs to be fully focused on the spell, and also has to "feel" it through the whole body. It has been indicated that it is considered rude to Apparate directly into a private area, such as a home.


Dumbledore states in Half-Blood Prince that it would be "quite as rude as kicking down the front door". For this reason, and for reasons of security, many homes have Anti-Apparition spells protecting them from uninvited intrusions. The accepted way to travel to a home is to Apparate to a nearby location and continue to the final destination on foot.

Apparition is considered unreliable over long distances, and even experienced users of the technique sometimes prefer other means of transport, such as broomsticks. Rowling has stated that Apparating over long distances depends on the skill of the wizard, and "Cross-continental Apparition would almost certainly result in severe injury or death. For reasons of security, the grounds and buildings of Hogwarts are protected by ancient Anti-Apparition and Anti-Disapparition spells, which prevent humans from Apparating on the school grounds.

There is also a spell that prevents individuals from Disapparating, which Dumbledore places on the Death Eaters captured at the Ministry in Order of the Phoenix ; a sister spell, which allows one to Apparate into a location but prevents them from Disapparating out of it, is cast by the Death Eaters in Hogsmeade in concordance with the Caterwauling Charm. Dumbledore is the only person who can both Apparate and Disapparate from the school grounds, since he is the headmaster.

A witch or wizard can use Side-Along Apparition to take others with them during Apparition. Dumbledore successfully transports Harry this way several times in Half-Blood Prince , and Harry's first non-lesson attempt at the skill is the Side-Along Apparition with the weakened Dumbledore when they return from the seaside cave. In the Order of the Phoenix film, Death Eaters and Order members Apparate and Disapparate in clouds of black and white smoke respectively. In the film, both sides also appear to be able to "half-apparate" in which their bodies were made out of smoke, giving them the ability to fly.

Both times Fred and George apparated and disapparated, they did it with a pop as in the books. In the books, the words "Apparate" and "Disapparate", like many other neologisms used by Rowling, are capitalised , whereas established English words such as "jinx" and "hex" are not.

Another possible derivation is from the English word "apparition", meaning "a supernatural appearance of a person or thing; anything that appears, especially something remarkable or startling; an act of appearing", which comes from the Latin "apparitio" , meaning attendance. Some magical creatures have their own forms of instantaneous travel, such as a house elf's ability to teleport or a phoenix's ability to appear and disappear in a burst of flame.

Unlike wizards, these creatures are not restricted by anti-Apparition magic. Dobby , Kreacher and the rest of the house-elf population can Apparate within the Hogwarts grounds, as they demonstrate on multiple occasions, most notably when Dobby visits Harry in the hospital wing, and when Harry summons Dobby and Kreacher and assigns them to tail Draco Malfoy. Fawkes disapparates from the headmaster's office at Hogwarts along with Dumbledore when the latter evades arrest at the hands of Ministry officials in Order of the Phoenix.

School of Law

Some magical devices like the Floo Network , Portkeys and Vanishing Cabinets also provide forms of magical teleportation. An ability attributed to Veela and those of Veela heritage, such as Fleur Delacour. It is used to charm males, much like the Sirens in The Odyssey. Men who are exposed to it over time become more resistant to it, although the Veela charm takes full effect if the Veela surprises the man, as noted by Ron in Half-Blood Prince. As shown in Goblet of Fire , Veela hair can be used as cores to create magical wands. According to famed wandmaker Mr. Ollivander, these wands are a little "temperamental".

This refers to a certain degree of immunity against hexes and spells found in powerful creatures such as trolls , dragons , and giants. Hagrid is resistant to certain spells, like the Stunning Spell, due to his giant blood. This type of resistance is not insurmountable; if enough Stunning Spells, for example, are fired at a creature with magical resistance at once, the creature may still be rendered unconscious. Also, wizards and witches can resist certain spells with the power of their own sheer will, such as Harry did in Goblet of Fire , when Barty Crouch Jr.

At Hogwarts, students must study a core group of subjects for the first two years, after which they must choose between several electives. During their final two years, students are permitted to take more specialized subjects such as Alchemy. At the end of their second year, students are required to add at least two optional subjects to their syllabus for the start of the third year. Very specialised subjects such as Alchemy are sometimes offered in the final two years, if there is sufficient demand. There is a total of twelve named Professors at Hogwarts, each specializing in one of these subjects.

Transfiguration is essentially the art of changing the properties of an object. Defence Against the Dark Arts , commonly shortened to D. In Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows , with Death-Eaters in charge of the school, the subject is renamed the Dark Arts , and involves pupils practicing the Cruciatus Curse on those who have earned detentions. Harry is exceptionally skilled in this subject. Hagrid suggests in Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets that "They're startin' ter think the job's jinxed. No one's lasted long for a while now. The position had also been coveted by Snape, but he was denied the position as well.

Snape was finally appointed D. Rowling announced in an interview that once Voldemort had died, the jinx he placed on the office was lifted and a permanent professor had been teaching the subject between the end of Deathly Hallows and the epilogue , set nineteen years afterwards. Furthermore, she imagines that Harry Potter occasionally comes to the class to give lectures on the subject. Charms is the class that teaches how to develop incantations for the uses of bewitchment.

Rowling has described Charms as a type of magic spell concerned with giving an object new and unexpected properties. The class is taught by Filius Flitwick. Potions is described as the art of creating mixtures with magical effects. It requires the correct mixing and stirring of ingredients at the right times and temperatures. As to the question of whether a Muggle could brew a potion, given the correct magical ingredients, Rowling has said, "Potions seems, on the face of it, to be the most Muggle-friendly subject. But there does come a point in which you need to do more than stir.

Astronomy classes take place in the Astronomy Tower, the tallest tower in Hogwarts, and are taught by Professor Aurora Sinistra. Lessons involve observations of the night skies with telescopes. No astronomy lessons are shown in the books, but they are frequently referenced. Known student homework activities include learning the names of stars, constellations and planets, and their location, movements, and environments. History of Magic is the study of magical history. Cuthbert Binns ' lessons are depicted as some of the most boring at Hogwarts.

They are only lectures, given without pause, about significant events in wizarding history. Topics have included goblin rebellions, giant wars, and the origins of wizarding secrecy. This is the only class at Hogwarts that is taught by a ghost, as the professor never noticed he had died and simply continued teaching as if nothing had changed. Herbology is the study of magical plants and how to take care of, utilise and combat them. There are at least three greenhouses described in the books, holding a variety of magical plants.

Herbology is also the only subject Neville excels in. The epilogue to Deathly Hallows explains that he later replaces Professor Sprout as the Herbology teacher. Arithmancy is a branch of magic concerned with the magical properties of numbers. As Harry Potter does not take this subject, the class is never described in the books. It is, however, a favourite subject of Hermione. Arithmancy is reportedly difficult, as it requires memorising or working with many charts. In Order of the Phoenix , it is mentioned that the study of Arithmancy is required to become a Curse-Breaker for Gringotts.

The subject is taught by Professor Septima Vector. Study of Ancient Runes , more commonly known as Ancient Runes , is a generally theoretical subject that studies the ancient runic scripts. Because only Hermione studies it, little else is known about this subject, taught by Professor Bathsheda Babbling. Divination is the art of predicting the future. Various methods are described, including tea leaves , fire omens , crystal balls , palmistry , cartomancy including the reading of conventional playing cards and the tarot , astrology , and dream interpretations.

Divination is described by Professor McGonagall as "one of the most imprecise branches of magic". Those opposed claim that the subject is irrelevant and fraudulent. Harry is first taught Divination by Professor Trelawney, and then later by Firenze after Trelawney is sacked by Dolores Umbridge in Harry's fifth year. In the sixth and presumably seventh year, Firenze and Professor Trelawney share Divination classes, divided by year.

Care of Magical Creatures is the class which instructs students on how to care for magical beasts. Classes are held outside the castle. In Harry's first two years, the class is taken by Professor Silvanus Kettleburn who then retires "in order to enjoy more time with his remaining limbs". Dumbledore then recruits the gamekeeper Rubeus Hagrid to accept a teaching position along with his gamekeeping duties.

When Hagrid is absent, his lessons are taken over by Wilhelmina Grubbly-Plank, a witch and an acquaintance of Dumbledore's. Muggle Studies is a class which involves the study of the muggle non-magical culture "from a wizarding point of view. As the class is only mentioned as being taken by Hermione , and for just one year, little is known about its curriculum.

In the opening chapter of the final book, Voldemort murders Professor Charity Burbage because she portrays muggles in a positive light and is opposed to limiting wizardry to only people of pure-blood origins. However, her lessons which are made compulsory mainly describe muggles and muggle-borns as subhuman and worthy of persecution. Alchemy classes are not mentioned in the Harry Potter series; however, Rowling has used Alchemy as an example of a 'specialized' subject offered when there is sufficient demand. Alchemy is a philosophical tradition searching for the philosopher's stone , which is said to have the power to turn base metals into gold and to contain the elixir of life , which makes or keeps the drinker young and immortal.

Flying is the class that teaches the use of broomsticks made for the use of flying and is taught only to Hogwarts first years by Rolanda Hooch. The subject is the only one that requires physicality. Apparition is an optional class for those in the sixth and seventh years at Hogwarts, in preparation for obtaining their licence. Magical enchantments on Hogwarts castle and grounds prevent Apparition and Disapparition inside the castle; however Half-Blood Prince explains that these protections are temporarily relaxed within the Great Hall for short periods to permit students to practice.

Students are warned, though, that they will not be able to Apparate outside of the Great Hall and that it would be unwise to try. The Unbreakable Vow is a voluntary agreement made between two witches or wizards. It must be performed with a witness "Bonder" on hand, holding their wand on the agreeing persons' linked hands to bind them with magic as a tongue of flame. The Vow is not literally "unbreakable" as the person taking it is still able to go back on his or her word, but doing so will cause instant death.

Another example in Half-Blood Prince occurs when Ron tells Harry how Fred and George tried to make him undertake an Unbreakable Vow, but because of their father's intervention, they did not succeed.

After the crash

Priori Incantatem from Latin: priorem incantatum - a previous spell , or the Reverse Spell Effect , is used to detect the spells cast by a wand. The spells cast by the wand will emerge in smoky or ghost-like replicas in reverse order, with the latest spell emerging first. It is first encountered in Goblet of Fire when the house elf Winky is found holding Harry's wand.

This spell is used to reveal that it was indeed Harry's wand that cast the Dark Mark. In Harry Potter and the Half Blood Prince , it is revealed that the teenage Voldemort murdered his father and grandparents using his uncle Morfin's wand, knowing that, when examined, the wand would incriminate Morfin as the murderer. This would reveal that she had accidentally broken his holly-and-phoenix-feather wand when a curse misfired and they both narrowly escaped Voldemort earlier. As a result, the protection of the shared cores was lost and, worse still, this would now be made known to Voldemort.

During the final duel between Harry and Voldemort, the latter mentions that he knows that the holly and phoenix wand is destroyed, implying that the Priori Incantatem has indeed been performed on Hermione's wand, as they had feared. Forcing two wands that share the source of their cores to do battle can also cause a more potent form of Priori Incantatem. The tips of the two wands will connect, forming a thick golden "thread" of energy, and the two wands' masters fight a battle of wills.

The loser's wand will regurgitate shadows of spells that it has cast in reverse order. This phenomenon occurs during the duel between Harry and Voldemort at the end of Goblet of Fire. Their simultaneous spells Harry and Voldemort cast "Expelliarmus" and "Avada Kedavra" respectively trigger the threads, and as Voldemort loses the battle of wills, his wand regurgitates, in reverse order, echoes of the people his wand had last murdered: Cedric Diggory ; Frank Bryce ; Bertha Jorkins ; as well as Harry's parents.

Harry was previously informed by Mr. Ollivander that the holly wand that "chose" Harry was the "brother" of the yew wand that gave him the lightning-shaped scar on his forehead, although the significance of this was not discussed then. Dumbledore later reveals to Harry that his and Voldemort's wands both contain a tail feather given by Dumbledore's pet phoenix , Fawkes.

The Dark Arts are magical spells and practices that are usually used for malicious purposes. Practitioners of Dark Arts are referred to as Dark witches or wizards. The most prominent of these is Voldemort, known to them as the Dark Lord. His followers, known as Death Eaters , practice the Dark Arts while doing his bidding. The type of spells characteristic of Dark Arts are known as curses, [26] which usually cause harm to the target. All, to a certain degree, are in some circumstances justifiable. The motivation of the caster affects a curse's result.

This is most notable in the case of Cruciatus : when cast by Harry, angered by the death of his godfather at Bellatrix's hands and desiring to punish her, it causes a short moment of pain. As Bellatrix herself comments, righteous anger does not allow the spell to work for long. When cast by figures such as Voldemort, who desire to inflict pain for its own sake, it causes intense agony that can last as long as the Dark witch or wizard desires.

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Use of Dark Magic can corrupt the soul and body; Voldemort has used such magic in his quest to prolong his life and obtain great power. The Dark Arts also cause Voldemort to look deformed and inhuman, a side effect of splitting his soul into Horcruxes. According to Snape, the Dark Arts "are many, varied, ever-changing and eternal In the wizarding world, use of the Dark Arts is strongly stigmatised and even illegal; however, these spells are prevalent enough that even before the rise of Voldemort, many schools, including Hogwarts , taught Defence Against the Dark Arts as a standard subject.

Techniques include anti-curses and simple spells to disable or disarm attackers or fight off certain creatures. Some schools, such as Durmstrang , teach Dark Magic. The Unforgivable Curses are some of the most powerful known Dark Arts spells. They were first classified as unforgivable in Used by the books' villains, such as Voldemort and the Death Eaters and in some cases the Ministry of Magic, their use inspires horror and great fear amongst others.

The curses are so named because their use is forbidden and unforgivable in the wizarding world and is punishable by a life sentence in Azkaban. The only exception is if a person is proved to have done them under the influence of mind control. These curses are thus very rarely used openly. Shortly after his resurrection, Voldemort names two Death Eaters "killed by Aurors ".

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He also uses the Imperius Curse on a goblin and a suspicious Death Eater during their disguised attack upon Gringotts Bank. The Dark Mark is the symbol of Voldemort and the Death Eaters and takes the form of a skull with a snake coming out of the mouth in place of a tongue. The mark is cast into the sky by Death Eaters whenever they have murdered someone. The spell used by Death Eaters to conjure the Mark is Morsmordre. It first appears in Goblet of Fire and is described as a "colossal skull, composed of what looked like emerald stars, with a serpent protruding from its mouth like a tongue".

Once in the sky it was "blazing in a haze of greenish smoke". Dark Marks are also branded on the left forearm of the closest followers of Voldemort. The mark serves as a connection between Voldemort and each who bears it; he can summon them by touching his mark, causing it and those of his followers to burn and change colour. Death Eaters can summon Voldemort in the same fashion. In all other film appearances it has been grey.

An Inferius plural: Inferi is a corpse controlled through a Dark wizard's spells. An Inferius is not alive, but a dead body that has been bewitched into acting like a puppet for the witch or wizard; this manifests itself as a white mist in the controlled corpse's eyes.

They cannot think for themselves: they are created to perform a specific duty assigned by the Dark wizard who commands them, and as seen in the Inferi guarding Voldemort's Horcrux in a seaside cave, remain idle until their task can be performed. This task is then thoughtlessly carried out, whether or not it will produce any result. Inferi are difficult to harm by magic; however, they can be repelled by fire or any other forms of heat or light, as the Inferi in Voldemort's cave had never been exposed to either of these elements.

When defeated, they return to their idle state. Inferi are considered dangerous and frightening enough by the magical world that impersonating an Inferius as Mundungus Fletcher is reported to have done in Half-Blood Prince is an offence worthy of imprisonment in Azkaban.

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The Ministry of Magic fears that Voldemort is killing enough people to make an army of Inferi: as they are dead, they are very difficult to stop. When Voldemort was hiding one of his Horcruxes in the past, he filled a lake in a cave with many Inferi, which were to attack and drown anyone but Voldemort who came into the cavern and took the locket. When Harry and Dumbledore took the locket, the Inferi attacked Harry; Dumbledore repelled them with a rope of fire.

It is also revealed that the Inferi almost killed Kreacher after he drank from the basin to help Voldemort hide his Horcruxes, but having been ordered to return to his master after his task with Voldemort was complete, he was able to apparate out of the cave. These Inferi later killed Regulus Black when he stole the Horcrux and ordered Kreacher to destroy it. In Latin, the word inferus plural: inferi means "below", often referring in the plural to "the gods below" see di inferi or the spirits of the dead.

A horcrux is an object created using dark magic to attain effective immortality. Snape closed the door and turned to look at them. Wanted to arrive with a bang, did we, boys? He began to read aloud. I believe your father works in the Misuse of Muggle Artefacts Office? I shall go and fetch the people who do have that happy power. You will wait here. Harry and Ron stared at each other, white-faced. He now felt extremely sick. She might be fairer than Snape, but she was still extremely strict. Ten minutes later, Snape returned, and sure enough it was Professor McGonagall who accompanied him.

Harry had seen Professor McGonagall angry on several occasions, but either he had forgotten just how thin her mouth could go, or he had never seen her this angry before. She raised her wand the moment she entered. Harry and Ron both flinched, but she merely pointed it at the empty fireplace, where flames suddenly erupted. Ron launched into the story, starting with the barrier at the station refusing to let them through. I believe you have an owl?

There was a knock on the office door and Snape, now looking happier than ever, opened it. There stood the Headmaster, Professor Dumbledore. Dumbledore was looking unusually grave. He stared down his very crooked nose at them and Harry suddenly found himself wishing he and Ron were still being beaten up by the Whomping Willow.