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Large-scale seismic transects: images of the Earth's crust and mantle
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  2. Geofizicheskiy Zhurnal
  3. Wind is swaying th Earth
  4. Mantle (geology) - Wikipedia
  5. 1 Introduction

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Mantle rocks are also sampled as xenoliths within basalts or kimberlites. Most estimates of the mantle composition are based on rocks that sample only the uppermost mantle.

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There is debate as to whether the rest of the mantle, especially the lower mantle, has the same bulk composition. The pressure in the mantle increases from a few kbar at the Moho to kbar GPa at the core-mantle boundary [11]. Because of the temperature difference between the Earth's surface and outer core and the ability of the crystalline rocks at high pressure and temperature to undergo slow, creeping, viscous-like deformation over millions of years, there is a convective material circulation in the mantle.

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Downward motion of material occurs at convergent plate boundaries called subduction zones. Locations on the surface that lie over plumes are predicted to have high elevation because of the buoyancy of the hotter, less-dense plume beneath and to exhibit hot spot volcanism. The volcanism often attributed to deep mantle plumes is alternatively explained by passive extension of the crust, permitting magma to leak to the surface the "Plate" hypothesis.

Geofizicheskiy Zhurnal

The convection of the Earth's mantle is a chaotic process in the sense of fluid dynamics , which is thought to be an integral part of the motion of plates. Plate motion should not be confused with continental drift which applies purely to the movement of the crustal components of the continents. The movements of the lithosphere and the underlying mantle are coupled since descending lithosphere is an essential component of convection in the mantle.

The observed continental drift is a complicated relationship between the forces causing oceanic lithosphere to sink and the movements within Earth's mantle.

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Although there is a tendency to larger viscosity at greater depth, this relation is far from linear and shows layers with dramatically decreased viscosity, in particular in the upper mantle and at the boundary with the core. The mantle is considered to be viscous and incapable of brittle faulting. A number of mechanisms have been proposed to explain this phenomenon, including dehydration, thermal runaway, and phase change. Thus, the upper mantle can only flow very slowly. However, when large forces are applied to the uppermost mantle it can become weaker, and this effect is thought to be important in allowing the formation of tectonic plate boundaries.

Exploration of the mantle is generally conducted at the seabed rather than on land because of the relative thinness of the oceanic crust as compared to the significantly thicker continental crust. The first attempt at mantle exploration, known as Project Mohole , was abandoned in after repeated failures and cost over-runs. On 5 March , a team of scientists on board the RRS James Cook embarked on a voyage to an area of the Atlantic seafloor where the mantle lies exposed without any crust covering, midway between the Cape Verde Islands and the Caribbean Sea.

The exposed site lies approximately three kilometres beneath the ocean surface and covers thousands of square kilometres. This is nearly three times as deep as preceding oceanic drillings. A novel method of exploring the uppermost few hundred kilometres of the Earth was proposed in , consisting of a small, dense, heat-generating probe which melts its way down through the crust and mantle while its position and progress are tracked by acoustic signals generated in the rocks. Exploration can also be aided through computer simulations of the evolution of the mantle.

In , a supercomputer application provided new insight into the distribution of mineral deposits, especially isotopes of iron, from when the mantle developed 4.

The silicate mantle of the Earth's moon is approximately km thick, and is the source of mare basalts. Titan and Triton each have a mantle made of ice or other solid volatile substances. Some of the largest asteroids have mantles; [29] for example, Vesta has a silicate mantle similar in composition to diogenite meteorites.

Wind is swaying th Earth

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Part of the interior of the planet Earth. For other uses, see Mantle disambiguation. See also: Structure of the Earth. Main article: Mantle convection. The planetary scientist's companion. Fegley, Bruce. New York: Oxford University Press. Universe Today. Retrieved Earth: Portrait of a Planet 5th ed.

Mantle (geology) - Wikipedia

New York: W. Oceanic crust is generally less than 10 kilometers thick. February Earth and Planetary Science Letters. New Theory of the Earth. Vinnik, L. Egorkin, A. Zverev, I. Kosminskaya, Moscow: Nauka, , pp. Belousov, G. Kviatkovskaya, Moscow: Nauka, , pp. Solid Earth , , vol. Kuskov, O. Pavlenkova, G. Pavlenkova, N. Solid Earth , , no. Suvorov, V. Chermak, V. Artemieva, I.

B8, pp. Babuska, V.

1 Introduction

Engdahl Boulder, Rep. SE, , pp. Praha: Univerzita Karlovo, Cipar, J. Deschamps, F. Earth Planet. Fuchs, K.