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Blk 6, Flat 1, Nouakchott Street, Po. Box , Area 10 Garki Abuja. Wisdom House, Beside C. Army Barracks, Odogunyan, Ikorodu, Lagos. Harcourt, River state. Box ,Malunfashi Katsina State. A Port Harcourt,. Shop no 1, Awwal ibrahim Shopping Complex, minna, niger State. Way, Lagos. Oyigbo, Rivers. Flat 9A, General J. Box , Uyo Akwa Ibom State. A, Delta State.

Suite 8 Nma Shopping Mall, No. VI Lagos. Allen Avenue Ikeja, Lagos Tel: Wuse II Abuja. Hillside Estate, Gwarinpa Abuja. Off Allen Avenue Ikeja Lagos. Tel: Jikiemi R. A Oke Str. Plot , Adamu Ciroma Str. Off Ebitu Ukaiwe Str. Jabi Abuja. For crebri marking the crowding of a number of discrete items in an area cf. However, consita is a reading found only in a few late MSS; the tradition has concita 'stirred into action' , which is despite Servius a very odd way to express the effect of land on water. An etymological link between Creta and Curetes is implied by the placement of the two nouns after the caesura in and cf.

Apollonius, Arg. However, like Aeneadae in Thrace 13—68 n. The upbeat tone prepares for the contrasting disaster to follow n. Aeneas' emotional words to Dido at 4. An arx is an easily defensible highpoint, and attollere is used elsewhere of land masses that raise themselves naturally the Strophades at , the promontory Lacinia at , pater Appenninus at The Trojans add to the effect. However, tectis does not suggest fortifications, though it might refer to temples, such as that of Juno Moneta, which stood on top of the Arx in Rome templis would convey this straightforwardly.

In a context of city foundation the easiest sense would be 'houses', as at 1. There is similarly evocative imprecision when Aeneas is building another city at 4. The phrase helps the reader to link the sequence of unconjoined main clauses thanks to the implied imminence of the inverted cum -clause Taking the boats out of the water marks the intended move from travel to settlement. As well as establishing the legal framework, Aeneas allots space for the building of homes, as happened whenever Rome founded new colonies: cf. The introduction of the plague echoes the diction from the start of the long description of the disastrous Noric plague at Georgics 3.

Here once owing to a sickness in the heavens there arose a deplorable time: it burnt white with all the heat of harvest-time, and sent to death every kind of animal, domestic and wild, and spoilt the drinking pools, and infected the fodder with pestilence. The existence of that passage 3. For letifer see Harrison on For the individual leaving life rather than vice versa, Servius compares Terence, Adelphoe animam relinquam.

The context here recalls especially Argonautica 2. The combination uictum negare alludes to Geo. Ill fortune forces colonists to return to seek clarification from an oracle already in Herodotus' account of the foundation of Cyrene 4. We may contrast the start of the Iliad , where Agamemnon's folly in not returning the daughter of Chryses leads to the plague inflicted by Apollo; but it is Achilles who calls an assembly and suggests the consultation of seers 1.

Aeneas' optimistic claim to his shipwrecked followers at 1. In the singular finis can be either feminine as here or masculine 3. Fortunately the Penates will save them from re-treading ground just covered. Anchises' advice that Aeneas return to Delos establishes the urgency of the Trojans' plight and his own wisdom in accepting that he may have made an error. As is usual in Homer, there is 'a tacit assumption that the sleeper's senses are awake and active' West on Odyssey 4. Aeneas is aware of the illuminating moonlight coming through the windows —2 and of the fact that he is asleep in bed ; and the visitation is seen as happening there: cf.

The situation as Aeneas sleeps is similar to the despair of the Argonauts when stranded on the desolate north African coast Apollonius 4. Closest in the Aeneid is Hector's ghost at 2. Mercury and Sychaeus also advise departure. As at 2. It is hard to decide whether iacentis is genitive 'lying in sleep', OLD 2b with an implied mei , or accusative plural 'resting', OLD 9a.

However, Servius reports that multi take it as a single word insomnis 'unsleeping' ; and some modern scholars have followed this reading; but —5 imply that Aeneas was asleep, and the point is confirmed by the frequency of the phrase in dream sequences from the time of Plautus Curc. Windows were normally shuttered, and not glazed, in antiquity; insertas thus apparently refers to the construction of the gap within the wall of the house, and the point of the epithet is hard to see. Alternatively we might wonder whether fenestras means 'shutters' as at Horace, Odes 1.

Lucretius 2. Is the participle perhaps corrupt? For the unusual sixth foot, consisting of the two monosyllables qua se , cf. The unemphatic se carries little stress and so hardly disrupts the normal rhythm at line end. For the use of a pair of verbs to introduce speech, cf. Ortygiam is accusative of motion towards, without a preposition, as is normal with names of islands. In fact, they will not reproduce Apollo's intended words, but speak for themselves, reprising and clarifying the instructions of Hector's ghost and Apollo's oracle.

Gods are always potentially present in their sanctuaries or statues, as when Artemis overhears the accidental oath of Cydippe to marry Acontius at Callimachus, Aet. Theocritus, Id. However, in —9 the Penates add the prophecies of apotheosis for Aeneas' descendants and imperium for the city.

The repeated nos echoes the homeless Meliboeus of Ecl. However, tua arma is paired with te grammatically, reworking the poem's opening tag Arma uirumque ; the phrase points to the future too, when Aeneas' arms will be used again in the second half of the poem, as well as to the military prowess of Rome to be.

Though the voyages so far in the book have been smooth, storms will follow, first on the next leg of the long journey — The word recurs in a similar context, though with a different sense, at 6. Here the prophecy moves to material that will in chronological, if not textual, terms be made more precise in Jupiter's speech in Book 1 —90 : nascetur … Caesar , imperium Oceano, famam qui terminet astris Iulius, a magno demissum nomen Iulo.

The word will recur prominently in another prophetic passage, Anchises' survey of future Romans in Book 6, especially —2 Roma imperium terris, animos aequabit Olympo under the auspices of Romulus 'Rome shall make its empire match the lands of the earth, its heart Olympus' , —5 super et Garamantas et Indos proferet imperium Augustus 'will extend the empire beyond the Garamantes and the Indians'. Deification and the stars appear in this speech too: 6. The urbs to which the Penates will bring empire will turn out to be Rome in the long run, not Lavinium founded by Aeneas. The common metaphorical sense of sedes is picked up in considere 'settle', ; the more literal application to the Penates' position by hae nobis propriae sedes in African coast.

But Vergil recalls a particular passage in Book 1 of Ennius' Annales fr. Saturn's part in the earlier history of Latium will be brought out by Vergil especially in Evander's account at 8. Aeneas has already heard the name from the ghost of Creusa in her prophecy at 2. Horace uses the same name for Spain, likewise west of Italy, at Odes 1. The second half of the phrase looks back to ubere laeto 95 , as the Penates begin to explain the correct solution to Apollo's riddling oracle. But the expression as a whole brings out the duality on which the Romans saw their city's greatness as founded: success in war and productivity in agriculture; so e.

Georgics 2. It is perhaps expressive of the limited power of the Penates that they too rely on fama. Italus 7. Both the helmsman Palinurus 5. But he is introduced here because of the link with Corythus The use of nostrum shows the Penates identifying themselves with the people; they recall 94—5 quae uos a stirpe parentum prima tulit tellus.

The emotion will be explicitly shared by the people as a group at ouantes. The expression 'long-lived father' helps present him also as a symbol of a senate a body of senes or patres , to whom Aeneas, as if a magistrate, reports news cf. Corythus cf. There is some irony in having Anchises as the subject of requirat : he will never reach the west coast of Italy. Cretan] fields are yours', perhaps with the implication that, as 'king of Crete' Geo.

The adjective Dictaea and the conversational aspect to negat once again recall the debate about Zeus's origin in Callimachus, Hymn 1. Turnus after his sleeping encounter with Allecto at 7. Here it seems to provide evidence to Aeneas that his vision was real. Servius on After the direct manifestation of the divine, 'unadulterated offerings' seem especially important, a point reinforced by the next phrase,. There is a model for this realization of the truth of a past prophecy at Odyssey 9.

Bowra Harrison ed. Apollo gave Cassandra the gift of prophecy to seduce her, but when she refused him he added the proviso that she never be believed 2. Aeneas' words at 6. The names directly recall , For the imperfect subjunctives. Aeneas' words in response to Mercury's second warning, at 4.

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The point is reinforced by uela damus in cf. The Cretan episode ends as it began with participants in the Trojan War abandoning homes in Crete —3, esp. The Trojans will leave rather more of the party behind at Segesta in Sicily: 5. The joy of escaping from the plague in Crete does not last long: the fleet is soon overwhelmed by the darkness of a thunderstorm. Though the surface of the sea turns into swollen rollers and lightning flashes repeatedly, it is the darkness that troubles them the most: having just learned their destination, for three days they can no longer be sure of their route, or even whether it is night or day.

The weather thus rehearses the darkness that afflicts Odysseus' ships as they sail south of the Peloponnese Od. But whereas Apollo quickly answers Jason's prayers in the Argonautica , the Trojans will arrive at an island that turns out to be as hellish as the storm, and it will not be till that Apollo appears. These lines are a close imitation of Odyssey When we left Crete, and no other lands were visible, but only sky and sea, then the son of Cronos [i. Zeus] set a dark blue cloud above the hollow ship, and the sea grew dark beneath it.

In that case, however, the shared wisdom and experience of Palinurus and Aeneas lead to a simple change of course: they head for Sicily, and helpful West Winds begin to blow. The repetition of the lines in almost the same form is itself an imitation of the Odyssean repetition. Wills —3; Tibullus 1. The adjective was regularly applied to the sea n. Ennius, Ann. In the darkness and the rain the distinctions between air and water disappear.

The repetition of sounds in the first three words perhaps evokes the rolling pattern of the water. Unlike in Book 1, however, they will all reach land together. Though gurges is not limited to its original sense of whirlpool see Henry on 1. Ancient meteorology explained lightning as caused by the bursting of clouds: Lucretius 2. However, the claim 'we are shaken off course' is not borne out by what follows, despite the repetition of erramus in ; for though the Trojans are not able to see where they are headed, wind and water drive them in the wanted direction, south of the Peloponnese and towards Italy Map 1 ; they thus avoid contact with potentially hostile Greek lands e.

Menelaus in Sparta, Nestor at Pylos. There is some irony when our first knowledge of the helmsman has him unable to find his way—and the man who will fall overboard is seen media … in unda. Farrell in Perkell 98 links Palinurus' incapacity with that of Anchises in leading them to Crete 99— Word order shows that caeca caligine qualifies incertos. To an optimist the smoke might suggest the domestic fires of human habitation cf. For the unusual rhythm in the fifth foot, see Introduction, p.

The language particularly echoes early lines of Catullus 64 7 caerula uerr entes … aequora ; 13 torta que rem igio spum is incanuit unda , 'and the water, churned up by the oars, grew white with foam' : pointedly, for Catullus too begins to imitate Apollonius' Argonautica here see e.

Clare, PCPhS 42 , 60— Even as we seem to have entered calmer waters, caerula maintains the language of the dark storm cf. The Trojans have been saved from the storm, and they land on an island where there is the welcome sight of unshepherded cattle and goats. But as Aeneas' introduction of the episode warns us when they kill some and try to eat, they are repeatedly attacked by the Harpies, a flock of bird-like monsters, one of whom eventually utters a dire prophecy. Anchises prays that the gods alleviate the foreseen disaster, and they hurriedly depart. Though one significant model here is Odyssey Despite Apollonius' different explanation, the two names are obvious synonyms: the islands move and shift shape, presumably because they are volcanic n.

Ovid's portubus infidis, Met. Against this background, stant is a significant choice of diction: like Delos of which they are a hellish equivalent the islands are now fixed, and so is their name. The 'Ionian Sea' lies between the Peloponnese and Sicily see Map 3 ; mari is understood, hence the neuter form. There are thirty-five instances of dirus in the whole poem, but Vergil harps on it in this short episode , , , ; dira Celaeno again in Aeneas' brief recapitulation at ; the word thus characterizes the ominous horror of the events on the Strophades, and of Celaeno in particular.

Moreover, at she describes herself as the 'greatest of the Furies', who are sometimes identified with the Dirae n. Phineus is there a seer, punished by Zeus for revealing too much of his intention: he has lost his sight, and, every time he tries to eat, the Harpies descend on his home and destroy his meal.

He then makes a carefully limited prophecy about the Argo's journey to Colchis, including an encounter with the aggressive Birds of Ares n. Phineus is thus an important precursor of the theme of partial prophecy that is essential to this book, with its series of revelations, sometimes incomprehensible or misleading, not least the speech of Celaeno at —57; cf. As a blind man, Phineus implicitly continues the theme of darkness from the storm — At Arg.

On monstrum , see 26 n. Another group of monsters depicted with the faces of maidens and the bodies of birds are the Sirens 'they were partly like birds, and partly like maidens to look at', Ap. The picture here and in the encounter itself —46 is a frightening mixture of realism and mythological fantasy. The Harpies are both malevolent spirits from the underworld, with human faces and voices, and a frighteningly persistent flock of hungry and aggressive seabirds, whose attacks spoil the food they do not take themselves , On the 'half-line', see Introduction, p.

However, there is an ominous note even to this, for the scene recalls Thrinacia, the island on which the cattle and sheep of the Sun, Helios, are pastured in the Odyssey Despite the warnings of Tiresias and Circe, Odysseus' companions force him to land, and, when contrary winds maroon them for a month, in their hunger and desperation, while he sleeps, they sacrifice and eat some of the cattle.

Zeus responds to Helios' anger by sending a storm that destroys all of the crew bar Odysseus himself. Vergil imitates the Odyssey by placing this evocation of Helios' cattle between a storm and a prophecy related to the killing of the cattle Horsfall on — ; but the Trojans do not break a direct injunction and their storm comes first, and is simply unpleasant, not fatal.

The echo of ubere laeto 95 might briefly suggest that the Trojans have found a potential home. But the phrasing suggests the violence of marauders, and for a moment we get an alternative glimpse of the Trojans as an aggressive invading force: cf. Tables are part of the equipment of the feast there 1.

Apollonius 2. They thus try again, sensibly retreating under an overhang for protection. He conceals the fleet in a bowl amid the woods, under a hollowed out crag, encircled by woods and shivering shadows. The recurrence of the phrase sub rupe cauata in provoked a reader or scribe to add 1.

This is shown by the presence of clausam in MP, the two antique manuscripts available here, as well as some of the ninth-century copies; for clausam has no grammatical reference, and must be drawn from 1. We might wonder whether the Harpies are coming from the sky ex diuerso caeli , the woods , or from the underworld Varro, Ling. Latin poets are happy to match neque with nec e.

Her perch on a rock is natural for a bird, and suited to her address of the people. The violence of the utterance is likewise stressed at Paris stole Helen and property: Iliad 3. The next question also looks ahead. Because of Laomedon's breaking of his promises to reward Apollo and Poseidon for building the walls of Troy Iliad Wills 64 notes too the echo of bellum … bellum in the Sibyl's prophetic speech at 6.

Again V. The importance of the announcement is conveyed by the formal insistence on attention, as when the same line is repeated by Jupiter requiring divine non-interference in the battle Macrobius, Sat. See Panoussi 83—90 for further discussion of the equation. Modern editors generally put a strong stop after uentisque uocatis , but the phrase extends the previous clause awkwardly, as it does not form a proper pair with cursu. With punctuation after petitis the two clauses are balanced; and uocatis is echoed at aderitque uocatus Apollo in a matching announcement of Trojan success.

In displaying knowledge of the winds, Celaeno perhaps evokes the Harpies' old Greek identity as wind deities n. Mention of Italy confirms the prophecy of the Penates , and establishes the speaker's reliability before the grim revelation that follows. Read so, these lines and the phrasing of may help explain how Dido and perhaps even Aeneas come to believe that the Trojans are not fated to wall a city in Italy: they reach Italy and enter a port, at —47 ; but if they are never to be given their own city, why not stay in Carthage?

Alternatively the lines might function as a prophecy of hunger so grim that the foundation will be a goal reached only with regret. However, the omen turns out to be a riddle with a paradoxical solution n. The omen is a traditional part of the Aeneas legend, mentioned by Cassandra at Lycophron —2 'There he will find a food-laden table, which will be eaten later by his companions; this will remind him of old oracles' Hornblower's translation , Varro cited by Servius , Dionysius Hal.

Attributing the prophecy to Celaeno is apparently a Vergilian innovation, and one that adds to the dread as well as exploiting the Harpies' association with hunger. Celaeno seems to collapse into one offence the killing of the cattle caede boum , and the assault on the Harpies themselves ; but note —3. The addition of malis stresses the physical consumption of the tables as at Geo.

The word recurs at 7. Servius suggests that we supply usi sunt in the first clause, Williams petere salutem ; but the sense is clear and a decision is not needed. There is a similar effect at 1. The sentence thus suggests as alternatives to 'goddesses' that they may be gods, or infernal deities—or unpleasant sea-birds. But as Servius notes, birds were habitually seen as conveyers of omens in the ancient world, to such an extent that in both Greek Aristophanes, Birds —21, and N. Dunbar Oxford, , ad loc. Though V. The close association of placidus and pax e. Oakley on Livy 6. Turnus' prayer to Faunus and Earth at Servius compares 7.

See Akbar Khan, Prometheus 22 , —44 for further discussion of Trojan piety here. Anchises' prayer will prove efficacious cf. Helenus at —5 : though Celaeno's threats come true, Jupiter 7. Aeneas immediately spots the fulfilment of the omen and recognizes that they have found their patria He attributes the prophecy to Anchises himself, with no mention of the Harpies. This silence seems odd, and might be regarded as a symptom of the poem's lack of finish or a deliberate inconsistency, but some interpretations give it thematic or narrative coherence: Harrison PLLS 5 , —62 sees a pointed removal of sinister associations , dictu nefas ; and West CQ 33 , —4 points out that Anchises could have received such oracles from Cassandra —7.

Horsfall on 7. From the helmsman of Aeneas' boat is known to be Palinurus; his guiding hand and the use of gubernator looks ahead to his thematically significant role in Book 5 n. The fleet heads north up the coast of Greece, past the Ionian Islands Map 3 , including Ithaca, home of Odysseus, the Greek leader who had travelled furthest to reach Troy. Beyond that the Trojans feel that they have escaped their enemies.

They cleanse themselves from the pollution of the encounter with the Harpies and offer sacrifices to Jupiter: after tension and chaos comes the relaxed activity of civilized peoples, first with games at Actium—Aeneas anticipates the commemoration of Augustus' naval victory of 31 bc , a victory that will be depicted on the shield made for Aeneas by Vulcan 8. The equivalent chapter in Dionysius of Halicarnassus Rom. Then, at the end of a winter spent in this geographically perplexing safe haven, Aeneas dedicates a shield he had taken from a Greek warrior, and they continue north, eventually arriving at Buthrotum, now Butrint in Albania.

While marking progress on the voyage and the passage of time, the section continues the weaving together of Odyssean —3 and Argonautic —83 material, and takes us from the horrific mythical world of the Harpies to the Actium of Vergil's own day. There are some remarkable moments of Trojan self-assertion: they hold their own games reminiscent of the Panhellenic Games, such as the Olympics, or those held by Achilles in Iliad 23 , and Aeneas dedicates a shield with an inscription that both acknowledges and questions the totality of Greek victory —8.

I am Odysseus , son of Laertes , who am well known to men for all kinds of tricks, and my fame has reached heaven. I dwell in far-visible Ithaca ; on it there is a conspicuous mountain, Nerit um where the leaves quiver, and round it are many islands very close to one another, Dulichium and Same and wooded Zacynthos. For Aeneas the culmination is a curse, far from the Homeric hero's proud self-identification. Ovid has a similar list for the journey of his Aeneas Met.

The ancient name is still used for the southernmost of the major Ionian islands, nearly thirty miles north of the Strophades, and thus naturally the first to be seen by the Trojans. At Iliad 2. Same a name now borne by a port is usually identified as the large island Cephallonia or a town on it. Some have thought that Dulichium also refers to Cephallonia, or part of it; while others especially W.

The genitive of the name is found in three forms: the third-declension Vlixis , the quadrisyllabic Vlixei e. Horace, Odes 1. Achilli , Leucas is the northernmost of the group; the central mountains rise to over 1, metres. Ovid, Ep. Moreover, there is evidence to suggest that the cult statue carried a warning beacon Butrica ; LIMC When Jason prays to Apollo as the Argonauts pass through their dark storm, the god responds quickly Apollonius 4. However, there was another temple of Apollo, at Actium n.

It has been shown that the two names Apollo Leucadius and Apollo Actius are used interchangeably, as if the cult were regarded as one Butrica ; besides Ep.

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Aelian, de Natura Animalium Casali, 'Terre mobili. La topografia di Azio', in C. Stok eds , Hinc Italae gentes Pisa, , 45— It looks as though V. We may compare what Callimachus does at Hymn 1. Does V. Stahl argues that the Trojans are to be imagined as coming up the inland side of Leucas and putting in at the city Leucas where the island was joined to the mainland by sandbanks over which boats were hauled ; Cicero, e. Or are we rather to think of a city on the site of Augustus' foundation at Nicopolis, north of the inlet to the Ambracian Gulf?

For this is where the Actian Games —2 were held after Augustus re-established them the earlier version featured in a work of Callimachus on Games: fr. We may admire the poet's ambiguity without feeling it necessary to make a decision. The stress on naval activity fits the proximity of Actium; but the beaching of the ships means there is no hint of a naval battle, nor will there be a ship-race as part of the games—that waits till Book 5 Goldschmidt —3.

Jupiter has been involved in the pollution on the Strophades , and the Trojans know his overarching importance for what they are engaged in , ; 2. In narrative terms, then, offerings to Jupiter cf.

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Lloyd AJPh 75 , suggested that V. Butrica ; cf. The sacrifice and games is equivalent to what the Argonauts do for Apollo on Anaphe Apollonius 4. Anchises ; Actia implies that Apollo is the recipient of the games n. The line then brings out the complexity of cultural transmission when it ends with the quintessentially Greek notion of the palaestra , here 'styles of wrestling', but regularly referring to the central area of the gymnasium, the symbolic gathering place of Greek manhood, but one that V.

The realistic note is revisited at times in the athletics of Book 5 e. The nakedness was presumably a major reason for the exclusion of women from athletic games, despite the encouragement Augustus generally gave to such activities Suetonius, Aug. The picture will be complicated in the next episode, however: Buthrotum turns out now to be controlled by Priam's son Helenus, but it had till recently been the home of Neoptolemus, the most savage enemy in Book 2; and Helenus will warn that further 'bad' Greeks lie ahead, in Italy — Another complexity emerges for the reader whose attention has been caught by the reference to Actium, for the battle featured a famous flight to temporary safety through the midst of opposing forces—but by the ships of Cleopatra Plutarch, Antony The Actian Games of Augustus were apparently held on the anniversary of the battle, 2 September; and Aeneas' sequence invites us to see his games as coinciding with this.

Aeneas' narrative is rarely so explicit in marking the passage of time 8 n. Miller, CQ 43 , , summing up his persuasive argument for returning to the old view that V. Just as the games look ahead to Book 5, so the dedication is a brief precursor of the trophy Aeneas sets up at On the archaeology of Nicopolis, see W. The dedicatory inscription has provoked recent attention as a manifestation of the Roman epigraphic habit e. Nelis, ' Furor epigraphicus : Augustus, the poets, and the inscriptions', in P. Low eds , Inscriptions and their Uses in Greek and Latin Literature Oxford, , —47, at —7, with further references.

The poem has quasi-sepulchral epigrams at 5.

Text, Translation, and Commentary

The phrasing recalls a verse cited by Herodotus 5. As a Latin hexameter, it figures Aeneas as the founder of Roman poetry epigram, and perhaps also epic as well as the Roman state. A line beginning Aeneas and ending arma recalls the Aeneid 's opening words Arma uirumque , and hints at a potential turning of the tables on the Greeks, a repeated theme of the poem e.

The phrasing perhaps calls to mind paradoxical language such as Cicero, Brutus uincebamur a uicta Graecia 'we [Romans] used to be conquered by conquered Greece', discussing rhetoric , a phrase later imitated by Horace Sillett —2 , at Epistles 2. Rome was overcome by Greek literary art. An accusative is easily understood as the subject of the infinitives: cf.

Scherie, the island of the Phaeacians, who finally escort Odysseus back to Ithaca, was regularly identified with Corfu, ancient Corcyra implicitly at Apollonius 4. But he is more interested in marking the swift passing of a location that has delayed the heroes of earlier epics Od. Buthrotum itself. Chaonius is an important epithet to introduce the episode, evoking the oracle of Zeus at Dodona, some distance inland, where the priests interpreted the cooing of doves in the oak trees cf. Aeneas will not visit Dodona, as he did in the traditions reported by Dionysius Rom.

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Now that they have passed beyond the territory of hostile Greeks cf. Buthrotum was a city that mattered in the Augustan age: veterans of Julius and Augustus were settled there. Dionysius 1. This is an episode where it is especially valuable to consider the effect of Aeneas' narrative on Dido, another exile, also widowed by the sacrilegious killing of a husband: is it a model when Andromache casts herself as an ever-mournful uniuira n.

After the emotional reunion of this opening section, Aeneas requests prophetic insight from Helenus and receives it, in a long speech — ; the departure from these old friends and reminders of Troy is also emotional and drawn out. Both the rumour and the events are incredible: whereas English tends to put the adjective with the dependent word in such cases, in Latin the genitive can be the noun left unqualified: cf. As well as a warrior Il. He has become Andromache's husband after the death of Neoptolemus, as is prophesied at Euripides, Andr.

Called Pyrrhus because of his red hair, he also bore the name Neoptolemus 'New-war' : O'Hara Aeneas has portrayed him as repulsively violent and sacrilegious in his murder of Priam in Book 2 — After the fall of Troy, Andromache and Helenus became his captives, the former serving as his concubine and bearing him a son and the latter proving helpful to him as a prophet. When he was killed, Helenus gained a part of his kingdom —4. Anchisen 82 n. At Iliad 6. Who is this woman offering funeral gifts in a grove? It's Andromache! Andromache laments Hector's death already at the end of Iliad 22 when, poignantly late, she at last discovers the fact To Vergil's contemporaries, after 23 bc , it is likely that the depiction recalled also the behaviour of Octavia, sister of Augustus, after the death of her son Marcellus described at 6.

Seneca, Dial.

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  6. Desafíos a la ponderación (Spanish Edition).

The connexion is enhanced by the story of her weeping and fainting at the Marcellus passage Servius on Aen. At Fasti 2. There is a hint of necromancy in Vergil's passage: cf. Aeschylus, Persians — , where the Queen offers libations at the tomb of Darius, her dead husband, while the Chorus summon up his spirit; and his ghost appears. We might think that deliberately barbarian, but in a famous scene from Aeschylus' Libation Bearers , Orestes, Electra, and the Chorus summon up the spirit of Agamemnon — ; such scenes are a repeated feature of later epics e.

Parkes Oxford, , ad loc. Trees were often planted round tombs, but lucus regularly implies a sanctified area, e. However, the surprising addition of falsi 'pretend' seems to imply a criticism of this and other such attempts to replicate Troy. For the use of turf, cf. Commemoration of the dead with cenotaphs lit. Panoussi —7 remarks that 'the excess and futility of Andromache's actions permeates the passage … with the adjectives falsus fake and inanis empty … poignantly underscoring the ironic contrast between the individual's desire to dwell in the past and the harsh necessity of adjusting to the future'.

Servius suggests that they are to Dis and Proserpina; or that one is for Astyanax; but Book 5 strongly implies that both are for the dead hero himself: first Aeneas mentions a plurality of altars by Anchises' burial mound 5. The altars have been constructed as the focal point for her grief because she wishes like Octavia, discussed above to continue to weep. The opening scene of Euripides' play is dominated by Andromache's weeping at the altar of Thetis, e. She will cry again at 3. Elsewhere in the book monstrum refers to some of the real and horrifying wonders that Aeneas encounters blood from a plant, 26, 59; the Harpies, ; Etna, ; Polyphemus, , but here it denotes the shocking coincidence of meeting a friend in distant parts.

The phrase calor ossa reliquit is used again of Euryalus' mother when she hears of her son's death at 9. Those passages are about death—the shock here is that Aeneas, thought dead, is actually alive: the world has been turned upside down. Andromache, who has been summoning the ghost of Hector, suddenly finds his cousin before her; little wonder that she asks Aeneas if he is real or a spirit.

If he is a ghost, he may bring true news of Hector from the underworld. The repetition uera … uerus , and the brokenness of the following lines, suggest her distress. After uiuisne Andromache wonders whether Aeneas is dead; but the lack of personal pronoun leaves open the possibility that she wonders whether she is dead too she has just fainted. Her elliptical thought process and her breaking off of her speech in the second foot of the line communicate her intense concentration on her former husband: his name will be the last word of her second speech , while her final speech ends with the memory of her dead son Astyanax — This sets Aeneas himself in contrast to those who are dead.

For the half-line, see Introduction, p. The interrogative adjective quis instead of qui more common in prose seems to have been preferred by V. Hector is a great warrior and an admirable man in the Iliad , and his marriage to Andromache represents an ideal relationship as opposed to that of Paris and Helen and those of the Greek commanders with their concubines. Most editors attach this to the end of the previous sentence, but Horsfall sees that the contrast with Pyrrhi is more pointed if the vocative leads into the rest of Before naming the impious Greek she is known to have married, Aeneas asserts her true identity: whatever fortune has come now, in his mind as in her own: she will always be the wife of Hector.

For the scansion of. Priam's maiden daughter is defined by what follows as Polyxena, sacrificed on Achilles' tomb as his share in the booty from the sacked city; contrast her sister Cassandra Priameia uirgo 2. The play does not take place beneath the walls of Troy but on the Thracian Chersonese: 13—68 n.

Love and its Critics

In an eloquent speech —78 Polyxena tells her mother and Odysseus that she longs to die. She has been a great princess and does not wish to be degraded in slavery; she wants to meet her death as a free woman. As a slave, she says —66 , 'I may perhaps have a cruel-hearted master who … will force on me the task of making bread in his home, and impose the daily drudgery of sweeping the house and standing by the loom.

And a slave bought from I know not where will defile my bed, which was once thought worthy of princes. Here the reference is to the scene in Euripides, Trojan Women —77 in which the Greek herald Talthybius announces to the captive Trojan women that each has been allotted to a different Greek.

The women specified are Hecuba allocated to Odysseus , and Cassandra and Andromache, both in fact excluded from the ballot, as chosen by Agamemnon and Neoptolemus respectively. The echo of this in , together with the general similarity of sentiment, locates Andromache's speech firmly in the world of Greek—and specifically Euripidean—tragedy even though stories about the aftermath of the Trojan War were a staple of Roman tragedy.

After the grand uictoris 'Andromache's use of the everyday word emphasizes her anger and contempt' Williams. We may compare what rumour says of Dido's lover at 4. Compare in particular Aeneas' words to the disguised Venus at 1. The omission of an object draws attention to Andromache's failure to acknowledge the existence of a new son. This is particularly striking because of the importance of the boy in the plot of Euripides' Andromache : she announces the hopes connected with the child in the Prologue 24—5 : H a ; one of the main themes of the play is the wish of Hermione and her father Menelaus to kill the boy; and Thetis, as deus ex machina , reveals that he will be the founder of a dynasty of Molossian kings: though the baby's name is never revealed, this implies that he is called Molossus as in other sources, e.

The word enixae that here implies his existence takes the metrical shape called 'molossus'. Leda gave birth to Helen as a result of her union with Jupiter in the form of a swan. Helen married Menelaus and Hermione was their only child: her marriage to Neoptolemus is being celebrated when Telemachus visits Menelaus in Sparta Odyssey 4. The mannered form of the line culminates in the unusual foursyllable word, of Greek origin, as at Henry helpfully relates this to Euripides, Andr. The expression of this line, with its prosaic gerundive, identifies the operation as a business transaction, a passing on of property cf.

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The men of Troy were butchered by the Greeks; we are not told why Helenus survives as a slave, but may surmise that his status as a seer has protected him: Servius on tells a story in which he is useful to Neoptolemus, advising him to return to Phthia overland, thus avoiding the storms that wreck and disperse the Greek fleet. In Ovid, Heroides 8, Hermione, in writing to Orestes, follows the account here and talks as if they had already been married before Neoptolemus seized her. Orestes had killed his mother Clytemestra on Apollo's instructions in requital for her murder of his father Agamemnon.

Since all letters in ancient manuscripts were capitals, V. See Introduction, p. Within Aeneas' narrative, however, it is harder to see quite how the epithet functions: perhaps 'of his home country', i. Greece, in contrast to the murder he committed at Troy.

Servius refers to a tradition that Pyrrhus had set up an altar to his father Achilles in the temple; or we might think the killing has been moved to Phthia, or Epirus so Rebeggiani 61—5. The expression here also associates him with Pygmalion, Dido's brother, in his slaughter of her husband Sychaeus, whom, as Venus has told Aeneas 1. Pyrrhus' end is grimly appropriate. Orestes, a shifty character in Euripides' Andromache , is portrayed here as an out-and-out villain. In the play he contrives the murder by spreading rumours among the people of Delphi about Neoptolemus' threat to the shrine. One effect is to bring Dodona to mind n.

For the expression here, cf. Andromache is thinking of her own son Astyanax when she asks about Ascanius. Here, as elsewhere in Books 2 and 3, we may remember that it is not Ascanius whom Dido is cradling in her lap as Aeneas tells his story, but Cupid in his guise. This instance is the only one in the poem where the sense is incomplete so already Vita Don. Andromache was in Troy after Aeneas had fled; it is not hard if we wonder to imagine how news of Creusa's fate had reached her.

In thinking of the boy and the mother, she is again relating his loss to her own, and she perhaps echoes Hecuba, asking about Polydorus at Euripides, Hec. Servius quotes 9. Line is repeated at The speech that began with praise of death ends with thoughts of Ascanius—but even this is cast in terms that look to the past antiquam , ; Hector , , and another member of the future generation, the son who will rule over Buthrotum, is totally elided n.

The arrival of Helenus precludes any response to Andromache's questions, and so avoids the repetition of information already known to Aeneas' audience and V. The adverbial multum is found emphatically placed also at Presumably these are tears of mixed emotion at the sight of fellow Trojans: joy to see them now , but pain too at the reminder of what they have all lost. He recognizes the reproduced Troy and notes how small it is. Colonists at all times have used the names of their former homes in their new settlements; but whereas this is journey's end for Helenus and Andromache —9 , Aeneas must found a city of the future.

His response to this theme-park Troy is not entirely negative , but it is surely significant that the swirling streams of the Trojan river Xanthus, so eddying and active in Homer see above all Iliad 21 where the river rushes over the plain , are reduced in Aeneas' mind's eye to a dry watercourse arentem … riuum. Hinds 8— In the Iliad , it was by this very gate that Hector and Andromache had their deeply loving exchange in the presence of their son Astyanax 6. For the embrace of doorways, cf.

This genitive occurs three times elsewhere in Aen. A note of solemnity is struck. Though libabant could mean 'were drinking' as at Ecl. More important still are the echoes of 1. In the central section of the central episode of the book Aeneas asks Helenus for clarification of the conflicting prophecies he has heard, and receives a long prophecy in response see on — This consultation takes the place of a trip to the oracle of Zeus at Dodona, mentioned as part of the Aeneas legend by Dionysius Hal. As when the Argonauts linger on Lemnos Apollonius 1.

Love and its Critics

There are explicit markers of delay at , Though it is the sail that is billowing, not the wind, Latin poets like the expressive usage that applies such epithets to what causes the effect, e. Items particularly associated with the worship of Apollo at Delphi 81 , 91 are here transferred to another of the god's oracular centres, Claros, near Colophon north-west of Ephesus , and thus not far from Troy. Statius imitates this passage in turn at Thebaid 7. The text we print is a recent conjecture by Silvia Ottaviano MD 62 , —7. The text in late antiquity was tripodas Clarii or Clari laurus , which lacks the conjunction required by the context.

Later manuscripts read Clarii et , and Mackail suggested tripoda Greek acc. Hymn 2. Attitudes to astrologers in Rome were utterly inconsistent, hence Tacitus' later account of them as something perpetually banned in Rome, and perpetually retained et uetabitur semper et retinebitur, Hist. Santangelo, Divination, Prediction and the End of the Roman Republic Cambridge, , —58; and 26, 70 on ornithomancy. Ovid, Fasti 1. This recalls the description of Helenus as 'by far the best of the bird-readers' Iliad 6. For a similar list of prophetic qualifications, cf. Asilas at Aen. On the application of prospera to subject not object, see n.

Italiam petere recalls Celaeno's phrasing at Helenus responds to this at —5. On the adjectival use of dictu nefas , see Wackernagel Beginning from 1. The long parenthesis ends on this grim note. We might expect the prophet about to speak to be the one affected by divine power cf. However, V. Three lines of oracular grandiloquence—Aeneas is crossing the deep under higher protection; thus is Jupiter arranging the fated future—introduce the prophet's wish to make the journey to Italy safer. He begins with a summary of the long voyage ahead, and quickly gets the Trojans to the west coast of Italy: the forecast of the favourable omen of the fecund sow and her thirty young —93 outweighs Celaeno's threat about hunger and the eating of tables —5.

He then returns to more immediate matters: the Trojans should avoid the nearer parts of Italy because of the hostile Greek population — and should sail round Sicily rather than passing through the narrow channel between Sicily and the mainland and thus encountering the dangers posed by Scylla and Charybdis — Interspersed with instruction about the journey is important religious advice: the Trojans are to cover their heads during sacrifice, as the Romans will —9 , and Aeneas is to win over Juno with worship: that, Helenus surprisingly says see below , will ensure arrival in Italy — Finally he combines the geographical and the sacred in telling Aeneas to consult the Cumaean Sibyl — The prophet says nothing of a the Cyclops, b the death of Anchises Aeneas complains about this omission at —13 , c the storm, the arrival in Carthage, and Dido, d the return to Sicily and the burning of the ships.