- The Word Made Self: Russian Writings on Language, – - Thomas Seifrid - Google Livros
- 8. ’How Women Should Write’: Russian Women’s Writing in the Nineteenth Century
- Essays for Olga Crisp
- Account Options
- Essay from Russia!: From Realism to Symbolism, 1860-1900
Indeed, parallels can be drawn between his use of textual and artistic sources, his interest in spiritual ideas, and the role of his own religious faith and those of artists in subsequent decades, in ways that are well illustrated by this volume. Corruption in the Orthodox Church had incited public debate since the s, but it was not until this moment that artists would openly criticise the church in paint, provoking hostile reactions.
The Society acquiesced, and the censor banned its reproduction in print form until I want them, not to sigh gently, but to howl to the heavens! Tolstoy had broken away from Orthodoxy to found his own belief system, one so controversial that by he would be excommunicated. Tretyakov Gallery — a bold image of Christ and Pontius Pilate — was exhibited at the Peredvizhnik exhibition in St Petersburg, only to be removed and banned from further display. Disapproval might be directed at the choice of imagery or, more broadly, the spiritual ideas which underpinned the work.
Indeed Ge, whose work often fell outside the Orthodox and academic canons, can be seen as a precursor of those modernist artists whose unconventional spirituality led them to a new artistic approach, but one that was destined for a difficult reception. Such concerns emerged even among the most committed of realist painters: witness the unsettling scenes of deep forest and desolate snowy wildernesses of Ivan Shishkin. Abramtsevo Estate and Museum Reserve. In so doing, they moved beyond conventional modes of representation — the verisimilitude and linear perspective of the Academy and the realists.
The germ of these innovations first took root at Abramtsevo, a country estate some sixty kilometres outside Moscow owned by the industrialist Savva Mamontov. An aspiring artist himself, whose passion found its outlet in patronage rather than practice, Mamontov urged the artists in his circle to try their hand at theatre design, ceramics, and mosaics in an environment free from restrictions.
But, as Maria Taroutina argues in Chapter 2, a more likely catalyst for his new approach was his interest in the tradition of medieval Russian icon painting and frescoes inherited by the Orthodox Church from Byzantium. These new aesthetic considerations, which had shaken off the last vestiges of academic tradition and, unlike realism, no longer depended on the external world for representation, thus mark the beginning of the narrative of modernism in Russian art.
Other artists associated with the circle who were forging new paths in this direction included Maria Vasilevna Iakunchikova and Mikhail Nesterov.
The Word Made Self: Russian Writings on Language, – - Thomas Seifrid - Google Livros
Iakunchikova, who spent her formative years at the estate before moving her main home to Paris in , painted elegiac, muted landscapes of rural chapels and deserted fields, in which mood and meaning predominate. Likewise, Nesterov often depicted the surrounding Russian landscape, but prioritised religious figures and spiritual themes, as in his famed Vision of the Youth Bartholomew —90, Tretyakov Gallery fig.
Critical in this respect was Viktor Borisov-Musatov, an artist from Saratov who, like Iakunchikova, was exposed to Symbolism while studying in Paris. They worked on several commissions to paint the interiors of churches of the early s, the most notable of which was the project executed by Pavel Kuznetsov, Petr Utkin, and Kuzma Petrov-Vodkin in to decorate the Church of the Kazan Mother of God in Saratov.
Their bold frescoes were so far from the Orthodox canon that they provoked public outcry and were destroyed. The application of new developments in secular painting to church design reflected the important place religious art had come to occupy in Russian modernism. This gave rise to subjective and imaginative renderings of church design that were anathema to its strict codes of representation.
Most influential of all was Solovev, whose Spiritual Foundations of Life Dukhovnye osnovy zhizni had been published in the early s. They inaugurated a new breadth to the notion of the spiritual in art and literature, exploring theological ideas outside of Orthodoxy such as Sophiology. In this respect, the new research on Symbolism presented in several chapters of this volume is of especial importance, and has highlighted the lack of a comprehensive monograph on the Symbolist movement in Russian art. His vividly coloured canvases often portrayed mystical landscapes and figures, and reflected a preoccupation with rites and rituals fig.
As reproduced in International Studio , 70, June , facing p. Until the late nineteenth century, icons had no place in the fine arts in Russia — they were not considered artistic objects.
8. ’How Women Should Write’: Russian Women’s Writing in the Nineteenth Century
With their meaning intrinsically linked to the context of the Church, they served as a physical medium through which believers could access the Holy Spirit. Their creators were often unknown, and they were re-painted time and again over the years; often they were blackened from the accumulation of dust and soot from incense and sometimes were encased within an oklad — a metal, ornamental casing that covered much of the painted surface.
The icon historian Nikodim Kondakov discussed by Wendy Salmond in Chapter 8 blamed the vogue for western culture from the reign of Peter the Great onwards for this widespread neglect of icons among Russians. Restoration of medieval church frescoes began, while icons started to be removed from churches and placed in museums. Prominent art collectors, such as Ilia Ostroukhov and Stepan Riabushinsky, hired hereditary icon painters ikonniki to work on their private collections. Other ecclesiastical objects such as embroideries and medieval manuscripts were also on display.
Sponsored by the state, the display served to legitimise the icon as a symbol of Russian national culture. Mudrak discuss, the first generation of modern artists mainly responded to religious art in situ, such as church architecture and mural painting. Western artistic influences needed to be cast off, in favour of crafting an intrinsically national culture. This approach found little favour with the press and public, and exhibitions of the avant-garde were met with hostility and controversy.
As with earlier artists such as Vrubel, this was especially the case when artists applied experimental approaches to religious themes. Nowhere have I ever seen such a wealth of colour, such purity, such immediacy of expression. Tempera on wood, x cm.
Essays for Olga Crisp
The Soviet government stripped the Orthodox Church of its property rights and launched campaigns to seize, sell, or destroy its art and valuables. Yet amid the destruction of churches and ecclesiastical objects appeared prodigious efforts to save them. The secular context of the museum was seen as a safe space where the centuries-long damage that icons had endured in the hands of the Church, such as overpainting and failure to clean layers of black soot from candles and incense, could be rectified. Figures such as priest and scholar Pavel Florensky, restorer and art historian Iuri Olsufev, and art historian Nikolai Punin, whose work on the link between the icon and the avant-garde is discussed by Natalia Murray in Chapter 10, were arrested and executed.
Yet, despite the attempts of the authorities to undermine the Russian spiritual tradition, it would survive in art in a number of ways. The instinct to practise religion could not, of course, be completely quashed, and artists continued to engage with religious and spiritual themes. In some cases this practice moved underground, in others, abroad; in yet others, echoes of pre-Revolutionary spiritual approaches could be found at the periphery of the Union, as Jennifer Brewin testifies in Chapter The mass exodus of approximately 1.
For many, the rejuvenated Orthodox Church abroad became a symbol of sustaining pre rituals and traditions, especially those facing eradication in the Soviet Union. The practice of icon painting, for example, gained new-found interest abroad, and, in , the Icon Association — a new school of icon painting — was established in Paris with artists such as Ivan Bilibin and Stelletsky among its members.
- Women in Nineteenth-Century Russia.
- Prime Time. Mis mejores años (Spanish Edition);
- Instrumentation and Metrology in Oceanography.
- D is for Donkey: An A to Z of Donkey Facts and Stories.
- A First Course in Graph Theory (Dover Books on Mathematics).
This continuation of Russian religious art in emigration symbolises the broader endurance of spiritual values — and even modernism itself — in the face of its suppression in the Soviet Union. The spiritual dimensions of Russian modernism thus ultimately transcended borders, and evaded any political efforts to curtail their lasting power.
Arranged in roughly chronological order, the ten essays rethink existing interpretations of spiritual themes and influences in the oeuvre of an individual artist or artists Chapters 2, 4, 6, and 11 by Taroutina, Mudrak, Gurianova, and Brewin and enhance our understanding of how mediating figures were instrumental in shaping perceptions, whether of spirituality and nationality Chapters 3, 7, and 9 by Hardiman, Borkhardt, and Kozicharow , or such fundamental questions as the role of icons in, or as, art Chapters 5, 8, and 10 by Tarasov, Salmond, and Murray.
Our objective is to illustrate precisely the diversity of approaches among modern artists to the notion of spirituality, and document their soul-searching, exploratory quests, which are so characteristic of the period. These essays illustrate more clearly the ways in which some painters for example, Kandinsky and Malevich assumed the role of artist as prophet.
At the same time, though modernism has been associated with a sense of individuality and artistic freedom, age-old practical considerations remained, such as responding to the desires and requirements of patrons and consumers. In this volume, we seek to extend and deepen this analysis in several ways. A number of our authors expand the discussion of Orthodox artistic tradition to include other media such as mosaic, fresco, and Old Believer icons.
While the significance of avant-garde artists such as Malevich remains a central focus, experiments by artists who have typically been excluded from scholarly discussions are here brought to the fore.
Under the broad banner of Russian modernism, the book includes such figures as Vrubel — an early practitioner of more radical approaches to painting — and Stelletsky, whose work the Russian avant-garde criticised for being too reliant on the formal characteristics of religious art. Moreover, it re-emphasises how modernising tendencies spanned a wide range of artistic movements across the late Imperial era; for example, it adds weight to the case for integrating the Arts and Crafts movement, in its Russian guise, into the longer history of Russian modernism. Vrubel found his inspiration mostly in national sources; drawing from the Byzantine Orthodox tradition, he interwove fresco, icon, and religious or mythological symbolism in his oeuvre, for example, in his use of the recurring motif of the demon.
Hardiman suggests that the beliefs espoused by the Theosophical Society, of which Pogosskaia, and later Roerich, were members, correlated strongly with the pagan traditions inherent in Russian folk belief.
This led to a scenario in which unconventional belief systems and neo-nationalist trends in art could naturally intersect. Mudrak in Chapter 4 extends existing accounts of the relationship of Kazimir Malevich with religion and spirituality, by concentrating on his early Symbolist work and its relation to Ecclesiastic Orthodoxy. In this sense his chapter, reflecting the extensive scholarship that led to his groundbreaking texts, Icon and Devotion and Framing Russian Art , acts as the centrepiece of this book. Nina Gurianova adds new depth to existing analyses of these artists, contending that their religious influences should be viewed in the context of the Old Belief movement, rather than contemporary Orthodoxy.
In a detailed account of sources and art works, the chapter traces how national identity and past spiritual traditions were inextricably linked.
Specifically, they illustrate how the notion of a Russian spiritual tradition in art Chapter 7 and the Russian icon itself Chapter 8 were received outside Russia. Salmond suggests that his reputation as an expert would have endured far longer, had it not been judged retrospectively through the lens of subsequent developments in conservation and the more recent scholarship of younger intellectuals such as Pavel Muratov and Aleksandr Anisimov. In literature, the distorting impact of translation and associated intrusion of the mediating point of view are long-established truths; likewise, in the reception of art, the effects of this process lead to equally surprising consequences.
By contrast, in the case of Minns and Kondakov, it had been the foreigner who sought to reclaim — for the international audience — the reputation of the national whose theories had become discredited through changes in political ideology. His radical approach to church design, which continued the late nineteenth-century revivalist or neo-Russian style in emigration, pushed the boundaries of what was deemed acceptable within the Orthodox canon.
Natalia Murray continues to restore the important historical legacy of Nikolai Punin in Russian modernism, a process which she began in her biography of The account ends poignantly with the personal suffering of Punin under Stalinist repression, after he refused to compromise his modernist and spiritual principles and was incarcerated as a result, dying in a Gulag camp in Jennifer Brewin concentrates upon a single artist, Ucha Japaridze —88 , in Georgia.
Essay from Russia!: From Realism to Symbolism, 1860-1900
Though existing scholarship has cast Japaridze as a staunch exponent of socialist realism, Brewin recognises his formative influences as the Symbolist poetry group, the Blue Horns, and the Georgian Symbolist painter, Lado Gudiashvili. In her close readings of several of his paintings, she seeks to overturn a realist reading and emphasises the enduring legacy of spiritual influence in the secularised artistic space of Soviet Georgia even as late as the s.
In addition, Brewin raises the issue of how modernist trends were interpreted by artists at the periphery of the Union. This engagement is, we contend, the driving force behind some of the most significant artistic innovations of the period. Coming from within and beyond the ranks of the Russian avant-garde, artists are instead located within the wider picture of modernism in Russia, and reflect a number of institutional positions and associations. The geographical and chronological scope of the intersection between the spiritual and the arts is also expanded, showing that the story extends far beyond Moscow and St Petersburg, and lasts far longer than has previously been claimed.
Within this more widely framed discussion, the relationship between the spiritual and modernism in Russian art deserves proper study, and revisiting its well-trodden histories and exploring its uncharted corners becomes all the more valuable. Brumfield and Milos M.
Lindsay and Peter Vergo Boston: G. Also see John E. Bowlt, Nicoletta Misler, and Evgeniia Petrova exh. The Rough Guide to Moscow is the definitive guide to one of Europe's most fascinating and rewarding cities. The full-colour introduction covers the awe-inspiring Kremlin and The Red Square and includes the essential list of 'what not to miss'. There are lively explorations of all the sights, from Moscow's lavish palaces to world-class museums, as well as detailed accounts of Russian history and politics that have formed this intriguing city. You'll find two full-colour sections that highlight the New Moscow Style - contemporary art, design, fashion, galleries, boutiques, bars and clubs - and the magnificent art-deco metro, famous for its arts, murals, mosaics and ornate chandeliers.
With updated and easy-to-use maps, expanded listings of nightlife, restaurants and hotels in Moscow for all budgets, The Rough Guide to Moscow is the must-have item to this colourful and spirited city.