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Data sharing statement: No additional data are available. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. BMJ Glob Health. Published online Jan Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Corresponding author. Correspondence to Professor Ben J Marais; ua. No commercial re-use.

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See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Summary box. Challenges and proposed solutions WHO delegates provided updates and analysis on progress and challenges with IHR implementation and the joint external evaluation JEE process in their respective regions. Table 1 Health security challenges and proposed solutions in the Asia-Pacific region.

Open in a separate window. Conclusion Given that the Asia-Pacific region is a recognised hotspot for disease emergence and spread, 15 every effort should be made to improve regional health security by strengthening and advancing adequate disease surveillance and response capacity. Footnotes Handling editor: Seye Abimbola Contributors: BJM conceptualised the manuscript, but all coauthors contributed to discussions, provided critical input and helped to refine the final version. References 1. Epidemiological determinants of spread of causal agent of severe acute respiratory syndrome in Hong Kong.

Lancet ; —6.

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Campbell JA, Second edn, Stocking B. Final report of the Ebola Interim Assessment Panel. WHO, 1— Will Ebola change the game? Ten essential reforms before the next pandemic. Lancet ; — WHO , Minister for Foreign Affairs , Indo-Pacific Centre for Health Security announcement. Post-Ebola reforms: ample analysis, inadequate action. BMJ ; :j Local, national, and regional viral haemorrhagic fever pandemic potential in Africa: a multistage analysis.

Encouraging rational antibiotic use in childhood pneumonia: a focus on Vietnam and the Western Pacific Region. Pneumonia ; 9 :7 Contributing to One World , One Health: a strategic framework for reducing risks of infectious diseases at the animal—human—ecosystems interface. Safeguarding human health in the Anthropocene epoch: report of The Rockefeller Foundation—Lancet Commission on planetary health. One world, one health: beyond the Millennium Development goals. A planetary health approach to emerging infections in Australia. Lancet ; Global trends in emerging infectious diseases. Nature ; —3.

Support Center Support Center. External link. Please review our privacy policy. Improve education and risk perception of leaders in all relevant sectors, as well as the wider community Health security to be given standing priority Regional funding mechanisms to sustain core activities Establish mechanisms to ensure lessons from EID outbreaks are critically reviewed and acted on.

Increased domestic investment in health systems in general Coordinated international assistance to build local capacity Commitment to universal health coverage. Subnational vulnerability not considered; all MEF tools rarely used. Misalignment of international donor and local priorities. International donor support should align with local priorities and strengthen health systems in general Discourage programme-specific investment that does not build sustainable local capacity.

Emergency infrastructure are expensive to maintain and often underused. The region has secured steady and relatively fast growth, continuing to lead the world in this respect. Regional integration has gathered pace, with booming sub-regional cooperation. Free trade arrangements in various forms have made steady progress, and a new phase has emerged for dynamic connectivity building.

However, the Asia-Pacific region still faces multiple destabilizing and uncertain factors. The nuclear issue on the Korean Peninsula is complex and sensitive; the reconciliation process in Afghanistan remains slow; and disputes over territorial sovereignty and maritime rights and interests continue to unfold. Some countries are increasing their military deployment in the region, certain country seeks to shake off military constraints, and some countries are undergoing complex political and social transformations. Non-traditional security threats such as terrorism, natural disasters and transnational crimes have become more prominent.

Asia's economy still faces significant downward pressure as a result of its structural problems as well as external economic and financial risks. As an important member of the Asia-Pacific family, China is fully aware that its peaceful development is closely linked with the future of the region. China has all along taken the advancement of regional prosperity and stability as its own responsibility. China is ready to pursue security through dialogue and cooperation in the spirit of working together for mutually beneficial results, and safeguard peace and stability jointly with other countries in the region.

First, we should promote common development and lay a solid economic foundation for peace and stability in the Asia-Pacific region. To enhance the convergence of economic interests is an important basis for sound state-to-state relations. Common development provides a fundamental safeguard for peace and stability, and holds the key to various security issues.

Considerable achievements have been made in economic cooperation. On this basis, we should accelerate the process of economic integration and continue to advance the building of free trade areas and connectivity as well as comprehensive economic and social development. We should implement the United Nations Agenda for Sustainable Development and narrow the developmental gap in the region, so that all countries and people of all social strata will enjoy the dividends of development, and the interests of countries will be more closely intertwined.

Focusing on common development, China has put forward and actively promoted the Belt and Road Initiative and initiated the establishment of the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank and the Silk Road Fund. We welcome continued participation by all countries for mutually beneficial outcomes. Second, we should promote the building of partnerships and strengthen the political foundation for peace and stability in the Asia-Pacific region. Asia-Pacific countries have unique diversities.

Countries may become partners when they have the same values and ideals, but they can also be partners if they seek common ground while reserving differences. The key is to remain committed to treating each other as equals and carrying out mutually beneficial cooperation. How major countries in the Asia-Pacific region get along with each other is critical for maintaining regional peace and development.

Major countries should treat the strategic intentions of others in an objective and rational manner, reject the Cold War mentality, respect others' legitimate interests and concerns, strengthen positive interactions and respond to challenges with concerted efforts. Small and medium-sized countries need not and should not take sides among big countries. All countries should make joint efforts to pursue a new path of dialogue instead of confrontation and pursue partnerships rather than alliances, and build an Asia-Pacific partnership featuring mutual trust, inclusiveness and mutually beneficial cooperation.

China calls for the building of a new model of international relations centered on mutually beneficial cooperation. China is committed to building partnerships in different forms with all countries and regional organizations. China has committed itself to working with the United States to build a new model of major-country relations featuring non-conflict, non-confrontation, mutual respect, and mutually beneficial cooperation. China is committed to deepening its comprehensive strategic partnership of coordination with Russia and establishing a closer partnership with India. It is also pushing for the improvement of its relations with Japan.

Chinese leaders have repeatedly elaborated on the concept of a community of shared future on many different occasions. Third, we should improve the existing regional multilateral mechanisms and strengthen the framework for supporting peace and stability in the Asia-Pacific region. All parties concerned should adhere to multilateralism, oppose unilateralism, further support the development of regional multilateral security mechanisms, push for close coordination between relevant mechanisms, and play a bigger role in enhancing mutual understanding and trust, and expanding exchanges and cooperation in the field of security dialogues.

Within various regional mechanisms, China has made a large number of cooperation proposals in the field of non-traditional security, which have strongly promoted relevant exchanges and cooperation. China will shoulder greater responsibilities for regional and global security, and provide more public security services to the Asia-Pacific region and the world at large.

Fourth, we should promote the rule-setting and improve the institutional safeguards for peace and stability in the Asia-Pacific region. To live together in peace, countries should follow the spirit of the rule of law, the international norms based on the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations, and the widely recognized rules of fairness and justice.

International and regional rules should be discussed, formulated and observed by all countries concerned, rather than being dictated by any particular country. Rules of individual countries should not automatically become "international rules," still less should individual countries be allowed to violate the lawful rights and interests of others under the pretext of "rule of law. China has firmly upheld and actively contributed to international law, and regional rules and norms. To practice the rule of law in international relations, China, together with India and Myanmar, initiated the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence in China has acceded to almost all inter-governmental international organizations and more than international multilateral treaties so far.

China is committed to upholding regional maritime security and order, and enhancing the building of institutions and rules. In addition, China has taken an active part in consultations on setting rules in new areas such as cyberspace and outer space, so as to contribute to the formulation of widely accepted fair and equitable international rules. Fifth, we should intensify military exchanges and cooperation to offer more guarantees for peace and stability in the Asia-Pacific region. China faces diverse and complex security threats and challenges, as well as the arduous task of safeguarding national unity and territorial integrity.

Building strong national defence and armed forces that are commensurate with China's international standing and its security and development interests is a strategic task in China's modernization drive, and provides a strong guarantee for its peaceful development. China's armed forces provide security and strategic support for the country's development and also make positive contributions to the maintenance of world peace and regional stability. China's armed forces have called for, facilitated, and participated in international security cooperation.

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China has followed the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence, conducted all-round military exchanges with other countries, and developed non-aligned and non-confrontational military cooperation not targetting any third party. It has worked to promote the establishment of just and effective collective security mechanisms and military confidence-building mechanisms. On the basis of mutual respect, equality and mutual benefit, and mutually beneficial cooperation, China has increased interactions and cooperation with the armed forces of other countries, and intensified cooperation on confidence-building measures in border areas.

China has promoted dialogue and cooperation on maritime security, participated in United Nations peacekeeping missions, international counter-terrorism cooperation, escort missions and disaster-relief operations, and conducted relevant joint exercises and training with other countries. Sixth, we should properly resolve differences and disputes, and maintain a sound environment of peace and stability in the Asia-Pacific region. Most of the hotspot and sensitive issues in this region have been left over from history. To handle them, the countries in the region should follow the tradition of mutual respect, seeking common ground while reserving differences, and peaceful coexistence, and work to solve disputes properly and peacefully through direct negotiation and consultation.

We should not allow old problems to hamper regional development and cooperation, and undermine mutual trust. For disputes over territories and maritime rights and interests, the sovereign states directly involved should respect historical facts and seek a peaceful solution through negotiation and consultation in accordance with the fundamental principles and legal procedures defined by universally recognized international law and modern maritime law, including the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea UNCLOS. Pending a satisfactory solution to disputes, the parties concerned should engage in dialogue to promote cooperation, manage each situation appropriately and prevent conflicts from escalating, so as to jointly safeguard peace and stability in the region.

China is committed to upholding peace and stability in the South China Sea, and working for peaceful solutions to the disputes over territories and maritime rights and interests with the countries directly involved through friendly negotiation and consultation. This commitment remains unchanged. China has actively pushed for peaceful solutions to hotspot issues such as the nuclear issue on the Korean Peninsula and the Afghanistan issue, and played its due role as a responsible major country.

Visions guide actions, and to solve new problems new visions are required. Old security concepts based on the Cold War mentality, zero-sum game, and stress on force are outdated given the dynamic development of regional integration. In the new circumstances, all countries should keep up with the times, strengthen solidarity and cooperation with openness and inclusiveness, make security vision innovations, work to improve regional security systems and explore a new path for Asian security.

At the Fourth Summit of the Conference on Interaction and Confidence-Building Measures in Asia CICA held in May , Chinese President Xi Jinping called for a concept of common, comprehensive, cooperative and sustainable security, and a path of security featuring wide consultation, joint contribution and shared benefits in the Asia-Pacific region. Common security means respecting and ensuring the security of each and every country involved. We cannot just have the security of one or some countries while leaving the rest insecure, still less should we seek "absolute security" of oneself at the expense of the security of others.

We should respect and accommodate the legitimate security concerns of all parties. To beef up a military alliance targeted at a third party is not conducive to maintaining common security. Comprehensive security means upholding security in both traditional and non-traditional fields.

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We should take into full account the historical background and reality concerning regional security, adopt a multi-pronged and holistic approach, and enhance regional security governance in a coordinated way. While tackling the immediate security challenges facing the region, we should also make plans for addressing potential security threats.

Cooperative security means promoting the security of both individual countries and the region as a whole through dialogue and cooperation. The countries involved should engage in sincere and in-depth dialogue and communication to increase strategic mutual trust, reduce mutual misgivings, seek common ground while resolving differences and live in harmony with one another.

We should bear in mind the common challenges and actively foster the awareness of meeting security challenges through cooperation. And we should expand the scope of and explore new ways for cooperation, and promote peace and security through cooperation. Sustainable security means that the countries involved need to focus on both development and security to realize durable security. All the parties should focus on development, actively improve people's lives and narrow the wealth gap so as to cement the foundation of security.

We should advance common development and regional integration, and push for sound interactions and the synchronized progress of regional economic and security cooperation in order to promote sustainable security through sustainable development. This security concept is in tune with globalization and the historical trend of the times featuring peace, development, and mutually beneficial cooperation. Rooted in regional integration, it has gathered the wisdom and consensus of the countries in the region, reflects the urgent need of all parties to cope with security challenges through cooperation, and opened broad prospects for regional security cooperation.

Improving the Regional Security Framework. The key to maintaining the long-term stability of the Asia-Pacific region is to build a security framework which is oriented to the future, accords with regional realities and meets all parties' needs. First, the future regional security framework should be multi-layered, comprehensive and diversified.

Countries in the Asia-Pacific region differ in their historical traditions, political systems, levels of development and security concerns. Given such a diversity, a consistent security framework in this region is not foreseeable in the near future, and it will be normal to see multiple mechanisms advancing together in the evolution of a regional security framework. All the countries involved should play their respective roles in safeguarding regional peace and stability. China promotes the building of a security framework in the Asia-Pacific region, which does not mean starting all over again, but improving and upgrading the existing mechanisms.

Second, building the future security framework should be adopted as a common cause by all the countries in the region. As multi-polarity is becoming a global trend, regional security affairs should be decided by all the countries in the region through equal participation.

The development of a regional security framework involves the common interests of all the countries in the region, and requires the active participation and contribution of all parties. The Asia-Pacific area is a region where major powers come into frequent contact and where their interests are concentrated. The major powers should jointly promote a regional security framework, so as to effectively deal with the increasingly complex security challenges in the region.

Relevant bilateral military alliances should be made more transparent and avoid confrontation, so as to play a constructive role in the sphere of regional peace and stability. Third, the future regional security framework should be based on consensus. It will be a long and gradual process to put in place such a framework, which cannot be completed overnight.

Serie: Critical Studies of the Asia-Pacific

All parties should continue to strengthen dialogue and cooperation, and steadily advance the development of a regional security framework on the basis of building consensus. At the current stage, the parties should continue to focus on non-traditional security cooperation, and start from the easier tasks before moving on to more difficult ones, so as to build trust and lay a solid foundation for the framework. Fourth, the development of a regional security framework should be advanced in parallel with the development of a regional economic framework.

Security and development are closely linked and mutually complementary. Equal consideration should be given to both a security framework and an economic framework - the main components of the entire regional structure - to ensure their parallel development. On the one hand, the improvement of the security framework will help ensure a peaceful and stable environment for economic development; on the other, faster regional economic integration will provide solid economic and social support for the development of the security framework.

Since the overall relationship between China and the United States has remained stable and even made new progress. The two countries have maintained close contacts at the leadership and other levels. In late March the two presidents had a successful meeting during the Nuclear Security Summit in Washington. In September they met again during the G20 Hangzhou Summit, and committed themselves to building a new model of a major-country relationship.

In addition, the two countries have made steady progress in practical cooperation in various fields, and maintained close communication and coordination on major regional and global issues like climate change, the Korean and Iranian nuclear issues, Syria, and Afghanistan. The two countries have maintained communication and coordination in the field of Asia-Pacific affairs through bilateral exchanges and relevant mechanisms at all levels, and agreed to build a bilateral relationship of positive interaction and inclusive cooperation in the region.

Moreover, the two sides have smoothly carried out trilateral personnel and agriculture training cooperation projects in Afghanistan and Timor-Leste.

China's Policies on Asia-Pacific Security Cooperation

China-US military relations have generally maintained a momentum of steady progress. Since the two militaries have continued to improve their two mutual-confidence-building mechanisms: the Mutual Notification of Major Military Activities and the Rules of Behavior for the Safety of Air and Maritime Encounters. China is willing to promote the sustainable, sound and stable advance of bilateral relations, and work with the new US administration to follow the principles of no conflict, no confrontation, mutual respect and mutually beneficial cooperation, increase cooperation in bilateral, regional and global affairs, manage and control divergences in a constructive way, and further bilateral relations from a new starting point, so as to bring benefits to the two peoples and other peoples around the world.

China and Russia are each other's biggest neighbor, and strategic partner of cooperation and priority in diplomacy. Over the years, China-Russia relations have gained healthy, stable and fast development, and made new achievements through joint efforts. In the two countries signed the Good-Neighborly Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation, which established the idea of a lasting friendship in legal form. In the bilateral relationship was upgraded to a comprehensive strategic partnership of coordination based on equality, mutual trust, mutual support, common prosperity and lasting friendship.

In the China-Russia comprehensive strategic partnership of coordination entered a new stage. This partnership has presented a more positive momentum of development at a high level. In September that year the two heads of state met for the third time, during the G20 Hangzhou Summit, and agreed to increase their firm mutual support on issues concerning each other's core interests, energetically promote the idea of a lasting friendship established in the Good-Neighborly Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation, actively promote their development strategies and their efforts to promote the Belt and Road Initiative and Eurasian Economic Union, hold a Year of Media Exchange, and maintain close coordination and cooperation in international and regional affairs, so as to inject strong vigor into bilateral relations.

China and Russia have maintained good cooperation in Asia-Pacific affairs. The two sides continue to strengthen their cooperation within regional multilateral frameworks, safeguard the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations and universally recognized norms governing international relations, uphold the achievements of World War II and international justice, advance the process of a political solution to regional hotspot issues, and contribute more positive energy to regional peace, stability, development and prosperity.

China-Russia military relations have made further progress. In the two militaries jointly commemorated the 70th anniversary of the victory of the World Anti-Fascist War, and sent high-ranking officers and teams to each other's commemoration activities and military parades. The two militaries successfully held joint maritime drills twice in a year for the first time. China participated in all events of the international military skill competition hosted by Russia, and the first Chinese Military Culture Week was held in Russia.

In the two militaries maintained positive interaction. China participated in the international military games in Russia and Kazakhstan. The two militaries have also maintained close coordination within the defence and security cooperation framework of the SCO. Since the China-India strategic and cooperative partnership for peace and prosperity has been further deepened.

The two countries have set the goal of forging a closer development partnership, made new progress in exchanges and cooperation in various areas and stayed in close communication and coordination on regional and international issues. The two countries have held frequent exchanges of high-level visits, and enhanced political mutual trust. Practical cooperation between the two countries has made solid progress in various areas.

Critical Issues Affecting Human Security in Asia: Respect for Common Humanity

They have cooperated on climate change, the WTO Doha Round of negotiations, energy and food security, reform of international financial and monetary institutions, and global governance. Such cooperation has helped safeguard the common interests of China, India and other developing countries. The relations between the Chinese and Indian militaries remain healthy and stable in general, with increasingly close communication and exchanges, and pragmatic cooperation in greater breadth and depth. Eight rounds of defence and security consultation and six joint military anti-terrorism training exercises have been held so far.

Sound cooperation in personnel training, professional exchanges and other fields is being carried out. The two sides have also conducted border defence cooperation, which plays a positive role in maintaining peace and tranquillity in the border areas between China and India. Military leaders of the two sides visited each other in and , and reached an important consensus on strengthening pragmatic cooperation between the two militaries and working together to maintain peace and stability in the border areas.

Since China-Japan relations have maintained the momentum of improvement which started at the end of The two sides resumed contacts at government, parliament and party levels in an orderly way. Three rounds of high-level political dialogue were held and exchanges and cooperation in various areas were steadily pushed forward. However, complex and sensitive factors still remain in bilateral relations. In response to Japan's negative moves concerning historical and maritime territory issues, China urges Japan to abide by the four political documents and the four-point principled agreement on bilateral relations, properly manage and control disputes and conflicts, and avoid creating obstacles to the improvement of bilateral relations.

Since the end of defence exchanges between the two countries have gradually resumed and developed. The defence chiefs of the two countries have met several times on other multilateral occasions. In the defence ministries of the two countries conducted working-level exchanges. Since , defence ministries of the two countries have held two expert panel consultations on the establishment of air and maritime contact mechanisms, with consensus reached on most matters. China has continued developing friendly and cooperative relations with other countries in the Asia-Pacific region, with enhanced political mutual trust, strengthened economic and trade relations, closer people-to-people and cultural exchanges, and enlarged defence cooperation, so as to jointly promote peace, stability, development and prosperity in the Asia-Pacific region.

Nuclear Issue on the Korean Peninsula. China's position on the Korean Peninsula nuclear issue is consistent and clear-cut. China is committed to the denuclearization of the peninsula, its peace and stability, and settlement of the issue through dialogue and consultation. Over the years, China has made tremendous efforts to facilitate the process of denuclearization of the peninsula, safeguard the overall peace and stability there, and realize an early resumption of the Six-Party Talks. In January and September this year the Democratic People's Republic of Korea DPRK conducted two nuclear tests and launched missiles of various types, violating UN Security Council resolutions and running counter to the wishes of the international community.

China has made clear its opposition to such actions and supported the relevant Security Council resolutions to prevent the DPRK's further pursuit of nuclear weapons.