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Close Report a review At Kobo, we try to ensure that published reviews do not contain rude or profane language, spoilers, or any of our reviewer's personal information. The target ship USS Utah also was sunk. At am, the second Japanese wave of the attack began with planes. Less successful than the first, it nonetheless inflicted heavy damage. The battleship USS Nevada had sustained a torpedo hit during the first wave, but its position at the end of Battleship Row allowed it greater freedom of action than the other moored capital ships.

It was attempting to get underway when the second wave hit. It was struck by seven or eight bombs and was grounded at the head of the channel. The battleship USS Pennsylvania was set ablaze by bombs, and the two destroyers moored near it were reduced to wrecks. The destroyer USS Shaw was split in two by a great explosion. Shortly after am, the Japanese withdrew back to their carriers. The damage to Pearl Harbor was great.

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A further 16 ships were sunk or written off as losses during the war. Of the American aircraft in Hawaii, were destroyed and were damaged, of them on the ground. The Navy suffered 2, deaths, along with deaths from other U. The Japanese lost 29 planes nine in the first attack wave, 20 in the second , five midget submarines, and 64 sailors. In spite of this, the attack failed to damage any American aircraft carriers, which had been providentially absent from the harbor. The Japanese focus on ships and planes yet spared fuel tank farms, naval yard repair facilities, and the submarine base, all of which proved vital for the tactical operations that originated at Pearl Harbor in the ensuing months.

American technological skill raised and repaired all but three of the ships sunk or damaged at Pearl Harbor.

U.S. Carrier Group tactics

Most importantly, the shock and anger that Americans felt in the wake of the attack on Pearl Harbor united the nation and was translated into a collective commitment to destroy the Japanese Empire and Nazi Germany. After Pearl Harbor, the Japanese Navy seemed unstoppable because it outnumbered and outgunned the disorganized Allies—U. London and Washington both believed in Mahanian doctrine, which stressed the need for a unified fleet.

However, in contrast to the cooperation achieved by the armies, the Allied navies failed to combine or even coordinate their activities until mid Tokyo also believed in Mahan , who said command of the seas—achieved by great fleet battles—was the key to sea power.

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Therefore, the IJN kept its main strike force together under Admiral Yamamoto and won a series of stunning victories over the Americans and British in the 90 days after Pearl Harbor. Outgunned at sea, the American strategy for victory required a holding action against the IJN until the much greater industrial potential of the U. The Battle of Midway, together with the Guadalcanal campaign, marked the turning point in the Pacific. The Japanese fleet lost four aircraft carriers to the U. Navy's one American carrier and a destroyer.

After Midway, and the exhausting attrition of the Solomon Islands campaign , Japan's shipbuilding and pilot training programs were unable to keep pace in replacing their losses while the U. Military historian John Keegan called the Battle of Midway "the most stunning and decisive blow in the history of naval warfare. Guadalcanal, fought from August to February , was the first major Allied offensive of the war in the Pacific Theater. This campaign saw American air, naval and ground forces augmented by Australian and New Zealander forces in a six-month campaign slowly overwhelm determined Japanese resistance.

Guadalcanal was the key to controlling the Solomon Islands , which both sides saw as strategically essential. Both sides won some battles but both sides were overextended in terms of supply lines. The rival navies fought seven battles, with the two sides dividing the victories.

Wreck of WWII US Navy aircraft carrier USS Hornet found in South Pacific - CNN

Each of the sides pulled out its aircraft carriers, as they were too vulnerable to land-based aviation. In preparation of the recapture of the Philippines, the Allies started the Gilbert and Marshall Islands campaign to retake those islands from the Japanese in summer Enormous effort went into recruiting and training sailors and Marines, and building warships, warplanes and support ships in preparation for a thrust across the Pacific, and to support Army operations in the Southwest Pacific, as well as in Europe and North Africa. The Navy continued its long movement west across the Pacific, seizing one island base after another.

Not every Japanese stronghold had to be captured; some, like the big bases at Truk, Rabaul and Formosa were neutralized by air attack and then simply leapfrogged. The ultimate goal was to get close to Japan itself, then launch massive strategic air attacks and finally an invasion. Navy did not seek out the Japanese fleet for a decisive battle, as Mahanian doctrine would suggest; the enemy had to attack to stop the inexorable advance. The climax of the carrier war came at the Battle of the Philippine Sea.

Taking control of islands that could support airfields within B range of Tokyo was the objective. The previous week an even bigger landing force hit the beaches of Normandy—by the Allies had resources to spare.

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The Japanese launched an ill-coordinated attack on the larger American fleet; Japanese planes operated at extreme ranges and could not keep together, allowing them to be easily shot down in what Americans jokingly called the "Great Marianas Turkey Shoot. Japan had now lost all its offensive capabilities, and the U.

It was entirely an air battle, in which Americans had all the technological advantages. It was the largest naval battle in history to date, surpassed only by the Battle of Leyte Gulf in October The American 5th Fleet covering the landing comprised 15 big carriers and planes, plus 28 battleships and cruisers, and 69 destroyers. Tokyo sent Vice Admiral Jisaburo Ozawa with nine-tenths of Japan's fighting fleet—it was about half the size of the American force, and included nine carriers with planes, 18 battleships and cruisers, and 28 destroyers.

Ozawa's pilots boasted of their fiery determination, but they had only a fourth as much training and experience as the Americans. They were outnumbered 2—1 and used inferior equipment. Ozawa had anti-aircraft guns but lacked proximity fuzes and good radar. Ozawa gambled on surprise, luck and a trick strategy, but his battle plan was so complex and so dependent on good communications that it quickly broke down. The Japanese ships would stay beyond American range, but their planes would have enough range to strike the American fleet.

They would hit the carriers, land at Guam to refuel, then hit the Americans en route back to their carriers. Ozawa counted heavily on the or so ground-based planes that had been flown ahead to Guam and other islands in the area. The invasion of Normandy, France, was the largest and most complex amphibious operation of all time. Casualties were remarkably light, with the Germans having hardly any airpower or seapower to combat it. The navies used , British, 53, American, and men from other allies.

In addition there were 25, sailors from the Allied merchant navies. Okinawa was the last great battle of the entire war. The goal was to make the island into a staging area for the invasion of Japan scheduled for fall Marines and soldiers landed on 1 April , to begin an day campaign which became the largest land-sea-air battle in history and was noted for the ferocity of the fighting and the high civilian casualties with over , Okinawans losing their lives. Japanese kamikaze pilots exacted the largest loss of ships in U.

Total U. The fierce combat and high American losses led the Navy to oppose an invasion of the main islands. The eventual bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki , along with the Soviet invasion of Manchukuo , led to the Japanese surrender in August Technology and industrial power proved decisive. Japan failed to exploit its early successes before the immense potential power of the Allies could be brought to bear.

In , the Japanese Zero fighter had a longer range and better performance than rival American warplanes, and the pilots had more experience in the air. High tech innovations arrived with dizzying rapidity. Entirely new weapons systems were invented—like the landing ships, such as the 3, ton LST "Landing Ship Tank" that carried 25 tanks thousands of miles and landed them right on the assault beaches.

Furthermore, older weapons systems were constantly upgraded and improved. Obsolescent airplanes, for example, received more powerful engines and more sensitive radar sets. One impediment to progress was that admirals who had grown up with great battleships and fast cruisers had a hard time adjusting their war-fighting doctrines to incorporate the capability and flexibility of the rapidly evolving new weapons systems. The ships of the American and Japanese forces were closely matched at the beginning of the war.

By the American qualitative edge was winning battles; by the American quantitative advantage made the Japanese position hopeless. The Kriegsmarine , distrusting its Japanese ally, ignored Hitler's orders to cooperate and failed to share its expertise in radar and radio. Thus the Imperial Navy was further handicapped in the technological race with the Allies who did cooperate with each other.

The United States economic base was ten times larger than Japan's, and its technological capabilities also significantly greater, and it mobilized engineering skills much more effectively than Japan, so that technological advances came faster and were applied more effectively to weapons.

Above all, American admirals adjusted their doctrines of naval warfare to exploit the advantages. The quality and performance of the warships of Japan were initially comparable to that of the US. The Americans were supremely, and perhaps overly, confident in Pacific commander Admiral Chester W. Nimitz boasted he could beat a bigger fleet because of " The American battleships before Pearl Harbor could fire salvos of nine 2,pound armor-piercing shells every minute to a range of 35, yards 19 miles.

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Only another battleship had the thick armor that could withstand that kind of firepower. When intelligence reported that Japan had secretly built even more powerful battleships, Washington responded with four Iowa -class battleships two of which were used a half-century later in the Gulf War. Their doctrine was utterly out of date. A plane like the Grumman TBF Avenger could drop a 2,pound bomb on a battleship at a range of hundreds of miles.

During the war the battleships found new missions: they were platforms holding all together dozens of anti-aircraft guns and eight or nine 14" or 16" long-range guns used to blast land targets before amphibious landings. Their smaller 5" guns, and the 4, 3" to 8" guns on cruisers and destroyers also proved effective at bombarding landing zones.

After a short bombardment of Tarawa in November , Marines discovered that the Japanese defenders were surviving in underground shelters.