He was a retired gangster in A Man Named Rocca , then had a massive hit with the swashbuckler Cartouche , directed by Philippe de Broca. He had a cameo in the Italian comedy The Shortest Day There was some controversy when he was arrested for insulting a policeman, when the policeman was charged with assaulting Belmondo. Banana Peel was a popular comedy with Jeanne Moreau.
Even more successful was the action-adventure tale That Man from Rio , directed by Le Broca - a massive hit in France, and popular overseas as well. A profile compared him to Humphrey Bogart and James Dean. A later manifestation of youthful rejection His disengagement from a society his parents made is total. He accepts corruption with a cynical smile, not even bothering to struggle.
He is out entirely for himself, to get whatever he can, while he can. The Belmondo type is capable of anything. He knows he is defeated anyway He represents something tough yet vulnerable, laconic but intense, notably lacking in neuroses or the stumbling insecurities of homus Americanus. He is the man of the moment, completely capable of taking care of himself - and ready to take on the girl of the moment too. Belmondo's own tastes were Tintin comics, sports magazines and detective novels.
He said he preferred "making adventure films like Rio to the intellectual movies of Alain Renais or Alain Robbe-Grillet. Belmondo made Greed in the Sun with Lino Ventura for director Henri Verneuil , who said Belmondo was "one of the few young actors in France who is young and manly".
After a cameo in Male Hunt he played the lead in Weekend at Dunkirk , another big hit in France. Belmondo dominated the French box office for - That Man from Rio was the fourth most popular movie in the country, Greed in the Sun was seventh, Weekend at Dunkirk ninth and Backfire 19th. Crime on a Summer Morning was less successful, though it still performed well on the strength of Belmondo's name. Up to His Ears was an attempt to repeat the popularity of That Man Rio, from the same director, but did less well. There were Hollywood offers, but Belmondo turned them down.
He had small roles in two predominantly English speaking films, Is Paris Burning? So I stopped. Then one day I felt like starting again. So I started. Belmondo spent three months of that time off in Hollywood but did not accept any offers. He did not want to learn English and appear in English language films:. Every Frenchman dreams of making a Western, of course but America has plenty of good actors.
I'm not being falsely modest but why would they need me? I prefer a national film to an international film.
Something is lost. Look at what happened to Italy when they went international. Belmondo returned to filmmaking with the crime movie, Ho! Love Is a Funny Thing was a romantic drama. He had a big hit in a gangster movie with Alain Delon , Borsalino The latter produced and Belmondo ended up suing Delon over billing. Inspired by the success Alain Delon had producing his own films, Belmondo formed his own production company, Cerito Films named after his grandmother, Rosina Cerrito , to develop movies for Belmondo.
Popaul , with Mia Farrow , the biggest hit to date for director Claude Chabrol. The Inheritor was an action film as was Le Magnifique He produced as well as starred in Stavisky Then he made a series of purely commercial films: Incorrigible ; Fear Over the City - one of Belmondo's biggest hits of the decade and the first time he played a policeman on screen; Hunter Will Get You ; Body of My Enemy Animal cast him as a stuntman opposite Raquel Welch.
He was a policeman in Cop or Hood , then made a comedy, Le Guignolo He was secret service agent in The Professional and a pilot in Ace of Aces These films were all very popular at the French box office but damaged Belmondo's critical reputation.
If I'm nude in a film, that's fine for the intellectuals. But if I jump from a helicopter, they think it's terrible. The last of these was a notable box office disappointment. In he returned to the theatre after a 26 year absence in a production of Kean, adapted by Jean-Paul Sartre from the novel by Alexander Dumas. In he played the title role in Cyrano de Bergerac on the stage in Paris, another highly successful production. Belmondo claimed there were "several reasons" why he made less films in the s. We have serious writing problems here.
And I'd prefer to do theater for a long time than take on a mediocre film. He suffered a stroke in and was subsequently absent from the stage and the screen until when he appeared in A Man and His Dog. Belmondo and Constantin separated in She filed for divorce in September , and it was finalized on January 5, He had relationships with Ursula Andress from to ,  Laura Antonelli from to ,  Carlos Sotto Mayor from to ,  and Barbara Gandolfi from to In , Belmondo was in his mids when he met year-old dancer Natty Tardivel. The couple lived together for over a decade before marrying in Belmondo and Tardivel divorced in Belmondo at the Cannes Film Festival.
Belmondo is saluted in a episode of the U. In a Yugoslavian quartet " Kvartet 4M " recorded a song "Bebel"  about him. The book "Youth in Revolt" by author C. Payne and its sequels refer to Belmondo several times and at one point feature the main character going to Mexico and getting plastic surgery in order to resemble Belmondo. The Horror-Platformer series "Castlevania" Prominently features the Belmont family, which could be a reference to Belmondo, given their Japanese last name is also Belmondo.
Belmondo's father, Paul Belmondo, was a Pied-Noir sculptor who was born in Algeria of Italian descent, whose parents were of Sicilian and Piedmontese origin. In he joined the March F1 team as a pay driver, getting a ninth place at the Hungarian Grand Prix, but only qualifying 4 more times before he ran out of money and was replaced by Emanuele Naspetti. Two years later he became a member of the uncompetitive Pacific Grand Prix team, where he only qualified for two races and was usually behind teammate Bertrand Gachot. He is the father of the actor Jean-Paul Belmondo.
Passionate about art and design, he began carving at the age of 13 years. He was gassed at the Battle of Saint-Mihiel, and was then demobilized. Thanks to a grant from the government of Algeria, he continued his studies in Paris where he became the student, then the friend, of Charles Despiau and Jean Boucher. Belmondo is a surname. It was Godard's first feature-length work and represented Belmondo's breakthrough as an actor. Breathless was one of the earliest, most influential examples of French New Wave nouvelle vague cinema.
At the time, the film attracted much attention for its bold visual style, which included unconventional use of jump cuts. A fully restored version of the film was released in the U. When originally released in France, the film attracted over 2 million viewers. Plot Michel Jean-Paul Belmondo is a youthful dangerous criminal who models himself on the film persona o. It was the first film in seven years featuring Jean-Paul Belmondo due to him having had a stroke. He is forced out onto the street with his dog after the widow breaks off the relationship, as she decides to marry again.
With no home nor way to make money, they wander the streets of Paris. It tells the story of a woman trying to protect her young daughter from the horrors of war. The story is fictional, but based on actual events of July in Rome and rural Lazio, and during what the Italians call the Marocchinate. In July , following the Allied bombing of Rome, mother and daughter flee to Cesira's native Ciociaria, a rural, mountainous province of central Italy.
The night before they go, Cesira sleeps with Giovanni, a coal dealer in her neighbourhood, who agrees to look after her store in her abse. He rose to prominence as a pioneer of the s French New Wave film movement. Along with s. Laura Antonelli 28 November — 22 June was an Italian film actress, who appeared in 45 films between and Antonelli had a childhood interest in mathematics, but as a teenager, she became proficient at gymnastics. In an interview for The New York Times, she recalled, "My parents had made me take hours of gym classes during my teens They felt I was ugly, clumsy, insignificant and they hoped I would at least develop some grace.
I became very good, especially in rhythmical gym, which is a kind of dance. She moved to Rome, where she became a secondary-school gym teacher and was abl. However, before he manages to accomplish his mission, the political situation changes drastically and the French secret service resorts to handing over Beaumont to the Malagawian authorities. After a long, unfair trial, during which Beaumont is injected with drugs, he is sentenc.
Henri Verneuil, born Ashot Malakian 15 October — 11 January , was a French-Armenian playwright and filmmaker, who made a successful career in France. According to one obituary: For exactly 40 years, the prolific Verneuil made movies as mainstream and commercial as any to be found in America or Britain. In his best period — the s and s — he delivered films in the "tradition of quality" so despised by the Nouvelle Vague. The film is based on the novel Obsession by Lionel White. The film was the 15th highest-grossing film of the year with a total of 1,, admissions in France.
After attending a mindless party full of shallow discussions in Paris, he feels a need to escape and decides to run away with ex-girlfriend Marianne Renoir Anna Karina , leaving his wife and children and bourgeois lifestyle. Following Marianne into her apartment and finding a corpse, Ferdinand soon discovers that Mar. It was entered into the 20th Berlin International Film Festival. The film would be interrupted one more time in the following hour for another update about the crash.
It is a tribute to American musical comedy and associated with the French New Wave. It is Godard's third feature film the release of his second, Le Petit Soldat, was delayed by censorship , and his first in color and Cinemascope. This proves that she will do what she must to have a child. It is based on the novel Ho! The film recorded admissions of 1,, in France. Other members of the gang — the Schwartz brothers, treat him with contempt but work with him because without a good getaway driver their plans are doomed to failure.
During preparation for the next robbery the leader of the gang is killed, and Ho intends to take his place to carry out the robbery. As usual, the first part of the plan is carjacking which is entrusted to Ho. But the police manage to seize him and he is sent to prison. There he sits in a cell with a bum who has received a mere 1,5 months sentence and begins to impersonate him. After 1,5 months pass the guards can. The death of a wealthy patriarch in sets off an interfamily power struggle. Son Ferdinando buys out his other relatives in order to gain full control over the dead man's property.
But Ferdinando's country-bumpkin nephew Amerigo holds out. Amerigo's stance is weakened when he heads for the city and meets prostitute Bianca. To support her in the manner in which she is accustomed, Amerigo steals from his uncle. Disgraced in the eyes of his family, Amerigo decides to stay near his beloved Bianca by becoming a bouncer in her brothel.
Plot In a town in the French Alps during the Occupation, Barny Riva  is a young, wayward, sexually frustrated widow, living with her little girl. She is also a communist militant who long ago decided that the easiest way was the best. One day she enters a church, randomly chooses a priest Belmondo  to confess to and, while in confessional, attempts to provoke him by criticizing Catholicism.
Instead of being affronted, the priest engages her in an intellectual discussion regarding religion. The priest is Leon Morin, young, handsome, smart and altruistic. He invites Barny to continue the conversation outside of confessional. She begins regularly seeing him a. Plot As the film opens, Henri's father, a chauffeur, is falsely accused of having murdered his boss. During his trial and imprisonment, Henri's mother finds a job in a tavern on a Normandy beach. His father dies attempting to escape from prison, and upon hearing the news Henri's mother commits suicide.
Henri grows up an orphan and learns boxing. Jean-Paul is a French given name. She came to Metropolitan France when aged eight. Jobert debuted as an actress on stage and television. In , she achieved stardom by playing starring roles in the successful comedies Faut pas prendre les enfants du bon Dieu pour des canards sauvages and L'Astragale. During the s, Jobert was one of France's popular movie actresses. But during the next decade, she gradually withdrew from film work and concentrated on a new career in children's literature.
She also has written a series of books which cautiously lead on to the appreciation of classi. The film was also known as Hunter Will Get You. Released in and considered as a typical French thriller from the s, it is one of many Belmondo's movie where he is playing the title role. Like in Le Magnifique, L'Incorrigible or Le Marginal, Belmondo is the real star of the show, playing a solitary character and pursuing bad guys. The score from Michel Colombier is typical from this period, mixing piano, modern rhythms and brass instruments. The alpagueur is a head hunter, a mercenary, a marginal.
The alpagueur is a trick made up by a state employee to be above the cop's rout. It is based on the novel by David Goodis and revolves around a team of four burglars chased by a corrupt policeman in Athens. It's a remake of the film The Burglar with Jayne Mansfield. The movie is known for its spectacular car chase and Belmondo's incredible fall from a construction truck down a steep, rocky hillside.
The movie was shot twice, once in French and once in English, by the same cast. Tasco, when the latter is away on vacation. The thieves break into the house, manage to open the safe, and escape with the jewels. Azad chats with the detective telling a cover s. Ursula Andress born 19 March is a Swiss film and television actress, former model and sex symbol, who has appeared in American, British and Italian films. Life and career Early life Andress, the third of six children, was born in Ostermundigen, Canton of Bern, Switzerland to a German couple, Anna, a landscape gardener, and Rolf Andress, a German diplomat who was expelled from Switzerland for political reasons.
He disappeared during World War II. She went to school in Berne until she was 16 and. He is known as one of Europe's most prominent actors and screen sex symbols from the s. He acquired Swiss citizenship in His paternal grandmother was Corsican, from Prunelli-di-Fiumorbo. Seberg died at the age of 40 in Paris, with police ruling her death a probable suicide. Gary claimed that Seberg "became psychotic" after the media reported a false story. It was distributed in the U. However minutes before their long planned marriage they are called to perform a car stunt for a movie but it goes wrong, as a brake problem causes their car to fall and they end up in a hospital with bruises and broken legs.
After his recovery Mike is no longer able to find work in the movie business and is forced to simulate mental retardation and to invent a family to receive Social Security benefits. One day his stuntman friend Santos asks him to replace him from time to time at his job which involves dressing up as a gorilla for advertising pasta at a supermarket.
Mike's luck begins to improve as he gets offered a high salary to do the stunt. An argument and subsequent fistfight about who is to be whose prisoner is rudely interrupted by an artillery barrage, forcing both to stick together in order to survive. In a humorous side scene, corporal Adolf Hitler Meisner is berated by his frustrated First Lieutenant Rosenblum for his clumsiness. When his grandfather doesn't show up at the.
Jean-Paul Rappeneau born 8 April is a French film director and screenwriter. The first film that he both wrote and directed was A Matter of Resistance in Since , Rappeneau has written only for his own films, including Le Sauvage, starring Yves Montand and Tout feu, tout flamme , again with Montand, who co-starred with Isabelle Adjani.
Rappeneau's film version is the most elaborate film version of the play. The film was a huge success with a total of 4,, admissions in France, becoming the 5th highest earning film of the year. The story has been inspired by the series of comic albums The Adventures of Tintin. Catalan was the companion of A. It recorded admissions in France of 1,, It was the first time Belmondo played a police officer.
Plot Policeman Jean Letellier is under pressure because the infamous gangster Marcucci escaped from him publicly. Moreover during the pursuit an innocent bystander was killed by a stray bullet. Letellier is investigated for having fired the deadly bullet. Before Letellier is cleared, a serial killer begins to murder young women, each time leaving a weird message at the site of crime.
He calls himself "Minos", referring to the Divine Comedy. The murderer always declares he had punished his victims for what he considers their impure life style. While Letellier still has no trace of "Minos", he comes across Marcucci's current whereabouts. Just as before, Marcucci tries to escape in a spectacular manner when Letellier confronts him. But this time Marcucci dies. The music for the film was composed by Ennio Morricone.
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He intercepts the delivery of a shipload of heroin by jumping out of a helicopter onto a speedboat and throws all drugs into the sea. Drug lord Mecacci is desperate to get rid of Jordan and arranges an incident which leads to Jordan's disciplinary transfer. Jordan continues to fight against the drug cartel after all. He finds a valuable witness named "Freddy, the chemist" but Mecacci has Freddy killed before he can testify. When Mecacci's henchmen also murder Jordan's old friend Francis Pierron, Jordan retaliates immediately.
Now Mecacci tries to lure him into a deadly trap. After Jordan has outsmarted Mecacci's killers he confronts their boss. The time for the final showdown has come. He hides out from Malichot and joins the army where he and his two new friends survive by hiding out on the battlefield. Together, they rob the general of his gold. Fleeing, they stop at an inn where they meet Venus, a beautiful gypsy who has been taken prisoner. He rescues her and she joins his gang. Returning to Paris, Bourguignon creates his own gang, acting under the name of Cartouche with most of Malichot's gang joining him.
They make audacious robberies of the rich and distribute the loot to the poor. Thus, Cartouche attracts the people's sympathies, Venus's love, and hatred from Malichot and the authorities. Malichot goes to the police to betray Cartouche but Cartouche can escape all the traps they set for him - except the entrapments of love. Plot Hugo Cordell, media and industrial tycoon, dies when his plane explodes between Geneva and Paris.
Examination of the plane's debris cannot establish the cause of the crash. In Paris, the directors of 'Globe', the Cordell empire's flagship French weekly, anxiously await the arrival of Hugo Cordell's heir Bart Jean-Paul Belmondo , who wishes to read the last issue before it goes to press. On the flight back from the United States Bart flirts with the seductive Lauren Maureen Kerwin , who slips a baggage claim-check into his pocket.
At the airport Bart is welcomed by 'Globe' management and television reporters. The claim-check is found by a customs agent to correspond with a briefcase full of illegal drugs, and Bart is accused of drug trafficking. He understands perfectly that his arrival to head the Cordell empire does not meet with universal approval. Aided by his faithful friend, David Charles Denner , he decide. This gave rise to a political scandal known as the Stavisky Affair, which led to fatal riots in Paris, the resignation of two prime ministers and a change of government.
Stephen Sondheim wrote the film's musical score.
Plot The core narrative of the film portrays the last months in the life of Serge Alexandre Stavisky , from late to January No matter how hard he tries to make it, he and his French partners are hard pressed to get away as the fight is getting harder and the Germans closer and closer. It is a higher education institution run by the French Ministry of Culture and, with an acceptance rate of two to three percent and an average graduating class of thirty students, is widely considered the most selective acting conservatory in France.
It is consistently regarded as a top world-class performing arts institute, renowned for its excellence in theatre education. The novel was filmed again, as Quick Change , with Bill Murray starring and co-directing. Plot Dressed as a clown, the clever rascal Grimm holds up the most secure bank of Montreal and takes 30 hostages. IJ Through Boris Golitsyn he heard that the tsars would receive him "in four days time," but when the day came, the tsars had departed on a pilgrimage, and when they returned La Neuville was informed that his audience had been postponed to Epiphany.
Clearly Peter did not wish to receive him, either because Ukraintsev had aroused his suspicions or, as La Neuville also heard, because he had not. La Neuville thereupon determined to depart, leaving Moscow on 18 December, escorted in the same way as a Polish envoy, and arriving in Warsaw on 3 January On his return to Poland, La Neuville was again sent off in the character of a Polish envoy, but, according to his account, at the request of Bcthune, to report read spy on the meeting between the Elector of Saxony and the Duke of Hanover at Carlsbad in Bohemia. Kastorski was the bearer of a Polish reply to the French communication of the death of the dauphine, and La Neuville was given despatches, and passes to the various courts about which he allegedly already knew his way, i.
Hamburg and Hanover. Clearly La Neuville was well known in Paris, and there is evidence that he travelled frequently between Warsaw and the French capital. Asfcld had concluded a secret treaty of neutrality with the Duke of Hanover in the war of the League of Augsburg, and with other North German principalities. The ratifications of these treaties had to be sent from Paris to Asfcld in an extremely secret way, so that Louis XIV's enemies should not discover their existence or content.
The method proposed was to forward only the first and last formulas of the treaties, and to send a special commis of the French foreign office, one Clair Adam, to travel to Germany where he could fill in the missing parts of the treaties in the same hand. The two left France on 20 December and arrived in Hamburg on 10 January But they were both so careless as to leave the precious French papers in a case which, by mistake, was placed in a luggage coach, travelling several days behind them. Only in Hamburg did the two agents realize that the papers were lost. Fortunately Colbert de Croissy had sent duplicates by another hand, and the treaty with Hanover was ratified on 17 January.
As for the case and the papers, they were eventually found on a Rhine barge, according to an account by the Polish envoy in the Netherlands, and handed to the Grand Pensionary of Amsterdam, who could make little use of them. The last reference I have been able to find to La Neuville is scarcely flattering. In the entry for 19 October , Sarnecki notes that :. When he asked why, they replied because he tended to gossip and slander people.
There are various suppositions as regards those involved, but it is not known. It suffices to say that one of the magnates ordered it to be done. The footnote to this entry states: Undoubtedly this is La Neuville, the author of the Relation curieuse. On 28 October Sarnccki added that :. He had learnt his lesson for he no longer holds forth so lively and safely. The Poles have taught him a great deal of modesty which he would not have learnt so well in France. Thus the presence of La Neuville in England in , in France and in Russia in , and again in France in , seems fairly well attested, and lends credibility to his account of himself.
The question arises : whose agent was he? M These arguments are not convincing.
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On all the evidence it seems that in fact Neuville was "un gentilhomme du roi de Pologne. The fact that he had already acted as a Polish emissary to England and possibly elsewhere explains why Jan Sobicski did not hesitate to give him credentials as a Polish envoy to Russia. He was certainly regarded as a Polish envoy, or courier, by Colbert de Croissy, and it is clear that therein lay his utility to France, since he could carry secret French papers under Polish cover. When did La Neuville write his Relation curieuse1! In one passage he speaks of the birth of the tsarevich, Aleksci Pctrovich, "last February".
Alcksei was born in February , which suggests that La Neuville wrote his account in the course of What is striking is the number of marginal notes, presumably representing afterthoughts by the author, which he had no time to integrate into the next, and which were added after the fair copy had been made. Most of these marginal notes arc incorporated without indication or break in the printed versions in French and Dutch, though sometimes with minor divergences.
They include some of the most important remarks made by the author. For instance the well-known description of V. Golitsyn as "un des plus spirituels, des plus polis et des plus magnifiques Was La Neuville still alive when the Relation curieuse was printed? I doubt it. According to Ancillon he was dead by He may well have died much earlier. We have no indication at all as to his age. There are certainly discrepancies between the manuscript and the printed texts which suggest that the author did not supervise publication.
La Neuville did not know Russian — one wonders if he ever learnt any Polish — and his transliteration of Russian words is often very peculiar. But in the printed texts it is even more peculiar. For prikaz, for instance, the Ms gives "prekachc" or "precache" ; the printed text has "prctachc" or "prerache", obviously a misreading of the hand.
Indeed all the w in the manuscript are reproduced as rr in the printed tcxL "Les estrcles" is a rather neat transcription of strel'tsy. But "Dommith diak" for "domini diak" dumnyi d'iak is a caricature. Perhaps the funniest of La Neuville's genuine misunderstandings is his calm statement that "La Stolitz [ Finally, what were La Neuville's sources of information and how reliable is he? This is an extremely important question in view of the fact that he is the sole source of some of the statements made about the views of V.
Golitsyn, notably his alleged desire to emancipate the serfs. Charykov devotes pages to an extremely careful analysis of what he had to say about Mcnzics, and concludes that though he was a poor stylist and in some cases ignorant of geography, he was on the whole reliable as regards what Menzics might have told him. Ustrialov, M Pogodin, " and A. Braudo a all regard him as reliable. Yet it is worth pausing on some details of what he says and how he says it.
The highly unflattering description of the tsarevna Sofia has frequently been quoted. It appears incidentally in a marginal note in the Ms p. It is just possible that he was in the Kremlin and heard her appeal to the strel'tsy in September, but his description of her sounds second hand, and may very well have come from A. Matveev, who had every reason to be hostile to the Miloslavskie. What were in fact La Neuville's main sources? Clearly he was an enterprising man who used his eyes and cars.
He says that he occasionally went about the streets disguised, in the company of the German physician attending on Mazcppa, when he called on the hetman whom he was not officially allowed. By far his most important source, however, must have been A. Matvecv, who was extremely well-placed to know what was going on at the Russian court thanks to his family connections. Matveev was now twenty-two years old ; he had been fifteen when his father was massacred under his eyes in the strel'tsy revolt of which had allowed Sofia to seize the regency.
The Russians accepted, provided that they could choose the other guests — the Danish resident and some German read foreign — nemtsy merchants. Both Russians were so pleased with the fare that they sent several dishes to their wives and walked off with all the dried preserves. Matveev returned the hospitality, allowing one a glimpse of another Westernized household. Half Scottish himself his mother was a Hamilton he had adopted some Western ways, and his wife, as La Neuville remarks, was the only woman he saw who did not paint her face. Matvecv knew no French at this time, though La Neuville assured him that he would easily learn it, and by the time he became Russian envoy to Paris he was clearly perfectly fluent.
To sum up : La Neuville was never a high-ranking or a low-ranking French agent. He was a servant of the king of Poland, for whom he carried out a number of missions. On the occasion of his second visit to Russia in , he clearly acted both in French and in Polish interests. In the former, he discovered the object of the missions from Brandenburg and Sweden, though to Bcihune he did not report on Czaplic's instruction to seek Russian permission for the settlement of Huguenot refugees in Russia.
In Polish interests he discovered that the Brandenburg envoy's aim was to persuade Russia that Poland was betraying her allies of the Holy League. And it was also certainly in Polish interests that he extended an offer of Polish protection to Mazcppa.
All his other known missions were undertaken as agent of the king of Poland, at whose court he was still to be found in Further details of his career must surely be sought in the Polish not in the French archives. The Relation curieuse reveals a mixture of perceptive observation, common sense, good information, and frequent wild prejudice. Some of this may come from A. Matveev ; some comes from La Ncuville's undoubted sense of Western superiority. He expresses a deep-rooted contempt for all Muscovites as "cruels, sodomistes, avares, gueux et poltrons. This sweeping generalization is countered by the fact that elsewhere he speaks of Prince Jacob Dolgorukii as "de la plus ancienne famille.
The above examples show that La Neuville could make wildly inaccurate statements. How can we be sure that his crucial observations about V. Golitsyn are not also the product of a sudden "engouement" with an exccptionnally attractive figure? He quotes Golitsyn as dreaming of enfranchising the Russian peasantry.
But again, let us come down to earth. The only common language between the two men was Latin. Can such an exceptionnally important and unique statement of the views of a leading Russian statesman of the period be accepted on the sole word of a rather second-rate French agent in Polish service, when it is unconfirmed by any other source, and by any actions? The Dutch edition, doubtless intended to benefit from the interest aroused by Peter I's visit to the Netherlands, was published as Reisebeschryvinge van Polen na Muscovien door de Hcer N.
Niewstad, in Utrecht in This seems to be the version actually written for presentation to Louis XIV, though I have not been able to discover anything about its provenance. It often makes more sense than the printed French versions, and all quotations in the present article have been taken from it. The attribution to Adrien Baillct is rejected in the latest study of V. Golitsyn, by L. Hughes, Russia and the West.