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There is also a marked proximity in time, for the first poems of Calligrammes were written in December and early , im. Yet these affinities do not prevent most readers being struck-and rightly so-by considerable differences in tone, style, and theme between the two volumes. Calli- grammes, particularly the first section entitled "Onde,s,'' reveals a novelty of acc-ent and composition which clearly rests on aesthetic assumptions dif- ferent from those underlying the main poems of Alcools, assumptions that can conveniently be drawn together under the concept of modernism. Although a modem note is.

The shadowy and obsessive nature of the poet's states of mind is reflected in elliptical, elusive, and sometimes herxnetic expression. Like the great Symbolist poets, ApoUinaire finds deep aesthetic satisfaction in the beauties of obscurity and allusiveness of utterance. The force with which an urge. But, with som. This is so even in "Zone, " the opening poem but the last to be written, which in its early lines makes the first forceful statement of the new enthusiasm for the modern world which was to burst out in Calligrammes.

The initial optimism, how- ever, is not sustained. The final mood that is established is one of anguish and suffering, and the poem ends with the poet assuming what is his most charact:e ristic role throughout the volume, that of the lonely wanderer in the hostile and ominous environment of the modern city. In,Calligrammesl on. In the first part of ' Liens'' and ''Les Fenetres" 1 the poet is no longer posited a. The shadowy, claustrophobic atmosphere of earlier poems now gives way to urgent, syn- copated r hythms and to the play of sensuous color and light. It is not only in Apollinaire that this remarkable change in outlook is encountered.

His ability to manipulate his environment, and his capacity for experience, had been infinitely increased. Now he seemed the triumphant master of his own destiny. AU the prewar move.. Apollinaire stands out as the most masterly innovator in an avant-garde hectically devoted to experiment, n. Central among these aesthetic ideas was. To be able to mirror such a multiple fornt of consciousness the work of art had to abandon linear and discursive structures, in which events are arranged.

Essentially this conception led Apollinaire to a radical dislocation of poetic structure. To create an impression of multiple and simultaneous con- sciousness, perceptions and ideas are abruptly juxtaposed in. Many poems of Alcools had already been characterized by elliptical syntax and collocations of disparate im. It was this effort of synthesis that, for Apollinaire, produced the "simultanisr' vision, insofar as it short..

What he admired above aU in Picasso was the sheer imaginative boldness with which the painter had broken with all previous conceptions in Western painting. C'est un nouveau-ne qui met de rordre dans l'univers pour son usage personnel, et aussi afin de faciliter ses relations avec ses semblables. Ce denombrement a la grandeur de l'epopee. His cataloguing has an epic grandeur. The process of reordering the world according to the artist's own vision testifies not only to his global, aU-embracing consciousness bu. The different emphases in. OL,u ndi The intention seems to be to face the reader 1.

PC, p. In this poem, therefore, simultanist forxn is directly expressive of the creator's personality and power of vision. Here the emphasis falls on the autonomy of the work of art that has been created: it stands out as an arbitrary but fasci- nating construction whose existence is justified by its status as a deliberately fabricated object.

The distinction, however, is not absolute. A similar judgment can be made of the use of language in the conversa- tion poems. The question of language is as central to modernism as the notion of simultaneity. One of Apollinaire's principal convictions. This amounts to the destruction. In this sense Apollinaire can be said to have stripped the remaining ornaments. But here also there are implications that are formal and internal. It is because he is defeated in his attempt to find an. The poem thus becomes a self-reflexive object, in which it is the internal ech.

The range of Apollinaire.

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Where th. The language remains the casual speech of everyday life, but, as against the elliptical juxtapositions of 2. TS, p. Again, ln. LM, p. See note on "Les Fen tres. This is, to an extent, a rehabilitation of mimesis as a literary mode, a confidence in the power of literature to render the essence of unadorned reality through attentive observation.

It was at this time that he began to formulate the concept of surprise as a key element in a modernist aes- thetic and to suggest, in "Sur les Propheties," that. There does seem to be some influence of Chagall behind ApoUinaire's first attempts in "A Travers rEurope" to use the kind of apparently unmotivated imagery that points in the direction. The 4. The term was applied to Apollinaire's poetry in a note in. OC, Ill, : ' 0rphisme ou surnatu.

The second is no less so in. Apollinaire's conflicting emotions within the framework of a na,r rative fable, set in the heart of modern Paris. The past and the present, fatalistic obsession with the loss of love and delight in the multiplicity of the modern world, are all brought together, in perfect balance, in what is indeed a new fonn of twentieth-century merveilleux: a sense of the real suffused with per- sonal vision.

M erry. For all the novelty of accent and outlook of Calligrammes, Apolli- naire's sensibility remains one haunted by uncertainty and doubt. This is what dis. Where they were condemning subjectivity as outmoded and self-indulgent, he declares only partial loyalty to the bright new world of extrovert energy and admits. Far from seeking to mini- mize his inner cont.

His instinc- tive gravitation toward images of sadness and pain, and the melodious incantatory phrases in which they naturally seek expression, are not to be explained solely in terms of the unhappiness that followed his separation from Marie Laurendn in although echoes of the suffering that pro.. Beyond that, there is a more gene. Xiety in the face of experience which seeks refuge in the comfort of the past and fears, rather tha. This explains why, on occasion, even the modem world, and the future itself, can lose their dynamic associations for the poet and become equivocal and ominous.

In "Arbre'l it is a barren and comfortless world that is about to be born. Les Mamelles de Tiresias and to the ballet Parade, but for him it was a synonym of orphism and sumaturalism, rather than what the surrealist movement later made of it. Every dynamic theme in '! Ondes, '' the,refore, has its antithesis which reverses the mood and the associations. Despite the apparent assertion of "'Liens," this rep. Melancholy and confidence are each so instinct.

H1s lyricism derives all its power and rich ambiguities precisely from this resolution of inner contradictions into a complex but profoundly unified state of senst. It was. Not written 11 untill, after the poet had gone through the maturing tutmoil of war, thjs poem presents, more powerfully than any other in the section, the com- mitment to modemis.

The picture it gives of the modern poet as an innovator and a prophet radically enlarges that notion as it was expressed in "Sur les Propheties. His famous lecture in , ''Lesprit Nouveau et les Poetes'; [The New Spidt and the Poets J, leaves no doubt that he saw visual or spatial poetry as an important new development, and had he lived he would probably have pursued it much further. In a phra. While Apollinaire was certainly encouraged in his thinking about this concept by a desire to emulate his painter friends, as is demonstrated by his original intention to pubUsh tbe poems separately under the title "Et Moi Aussi Je Suis Peintre'' 1, too, am a painter], the calligram remains indisput..

Yet, intriguingly, his implementation of his bold plan has served to obscure the originality of his thought and has led to some misunderstanding of the poems. The confusion arises from what seems like a dramatic change of 11 heart between the publication of the first caUigram, Lettre-Ocean," and those that followed. Arbouin6 welcomed the poem as a revolutionary innovation but expressed the important reservation that the new technique 5. The phrase is from the article by G. Arbouin on ''Lettre-Ocean'' published in.

Les Soirees de Pa. Most commentators have assumed errone, usly that Arbouin was a pseudonym of Apollinaire's. See note 5. One must assu. He must, there- fore,. Arbouin' s argument that the calligram. Inwardly he must have felt that. That is indeed what happened. After "Lettre-Ocean," in which a global view of the modem world is imprinted on the page in an exploded structure of radiating lines and pulverized language, the calligrams that imm. Any intention of expressing a simultane- ous consdousness seems to have disappeared, so that som. But to do so is to misunderstand t.

This significance must be considerable when, as in most of Apollinaire's poems, the language is richly lyrical. Whether in compact or languor-ous form-in '"Paysage" or in "Il Pleut" -the calligrams encapsulate much of his most incantatory writing. In a nonfigurative poem like ''Lettre--Oc,e an," the eye ca.

Provided that one under.. Such a manner of operation gives particular satisfaction when the picture itself carries immediately as much impact as the words. If in. La Ma. Since ant:iquity pictorial poetry had confined itself to a relatively small number of elementary. Departing from this stati. The shape of the lovers in nPaysage" can 'b e interpreted pictorially in different ways, with considerable consequences for the overall meaning of the poem,.

The same is true in many other poems. Nor are the visual implications necessarily restricted to those associated with the object that is pictured. In calligrammatic compositions, no less than in visual art gen- erally, graphic form itself can be directly expressive. It is instructive, from this point of view, to compare the three different typographical representa..

It is observable that Apollinaire becomes increasingly sensitive to the pos- sibilities of spatial expression. In th. Again, if a figurative intention is present in the later works, such as " "Aussi Bien Que les Cigalesll and "Eventail des Saveurs, '' these poems also make an impact as a pleasing pattern.

A freer approach to layout is to be found e,ve,n in conventionally,. Apollinaire realized that one of the most potent features of the calligram is the heightening effect it has on the W'Ords from which it is made, and that it thus lent itself to his constant endeavors to restore high expressiveness to language. One of the ways. The one-line poem "Chantre," which he added at the la. Poems such as uVisee" and uEventail des Saveurs,n however, not only multiply the power of "Chantre'' tenfold, by accumulating a succession of such "autono- mous" lines, but confer visual as well as auditory eloquence on the state- ments by the beauty of their graphic composition.

More boldly, the expres- sions that are encapsulated in other calligrams are in a much lower poetic ,register. These can be prosaic, repetitive slogans "Au. Nothing could be more mistaken than to think of their shape, whether pictorial or more abstract, as incidental or merely decorative. The vast poetic output only part of which found its way into Calligrammes of the flftee. The drama o. Throughout its evolution the commanding feature of Apollinaire's atti- tude is his desire to respond to these events as a new dimension of experi- ence. The general social climate at the outbreak of hostilities- which was, curiously, one of eager anticipatjon-togethe.

The patte. Aragon's belief that "ce seratt.. From an article in which Aragon is highly critical of Apo1linaire1s attempt to find beauty in war : "Beautes de laguerre et leurs reflet-s da. The synthesis was perhaps easiest to achieve in the period covered by ''Etendards" and "Case d'Annons. He was proud that, as an intellectual and a poet, he could prove the equal of the other recruits mostly much younger than himself in becoming a man of action, and he derived immense satisfaction from mastering the pragmatic skills of soldier- ing.

The sense of being part of a vast collective effort and the experience of comradeship, brought. Echoing the proud statement of a liber- ated personality in "Le Musicien de Saint-Merry' '-'Tal enfin le droit de saluer des etres que je ne connais pasn-the enlisted poet can say with equal force but more literal truth, "Me void libre et fier panni mes compagnons. The loneliness and the apprehension that could afflict him are strongly expressed in "La Colombe Poignardee et le Jet d'Eau, " while the reinforcement of the basic polarities of his nature, under pr-essure of the war situation, is densely fonnulated in one line of 'Visee".

The sense of purpose felt in his life spills over into his creative activity. As in the prewar period, his self-confidence is expressed equally in vigorous simplicity of expression and lively fonnal innovations, represented on the one hand by the easy dis- cursive verse of.. It is a fact that Apollinaire's battery was stationed during this period April-June in a small wood.

His letters are full of delighted accounts of its plant and animal life and the hours of leisure he enjoyed within it, in relative , safety, writing and making rings out of shell cases. But the poems-''Echelon" especially, with the white wound of the trenches seen beyond the wood and Death dangling at the perimeter-heighten this real-life situation by a process of fabulation in which the wood takes on the associations of a privileged, almost magic, sanctuary.

A sense of security, therefore, spreads throughout t. This is not escapism or obliviousness 1 of death and danger, whose presence is acknowledged in the background and occasionally filters into the poems. At this and aU subsequent stages love is, of course, one of the major ways in which Apollinaire tried to sustain his vision. The significant group of poems here are those written for Madeleine Pages. The dying loves for Marie laurendn and Louise de Coligny' add to the singular richness of love themes in the volume, generating elegiac poems in that vein of condensed and evocative lyricism of which he was a consummate master.

The sequence of quatrains in uLueurs des Tirs" which he wrote for Marie conceal ambiva- lent depths of meaning beneath a limpid surface with a skill that he rarely. What is special about the poems to Madeleine, however, is the way in which they are deliberately made to fulfill a vital need for spiritual replenishment and creative stimulation. Particularly in the a. In a real sense, as ''Dans 8. His passionate erotic lia. She inspired most of the love poems in "Etendards'' and "Case d Armons," but after ApoUinaire left Nlmes for the 1 front there was a rapid cooling off on her side-hence the growing notte of melanc.

There followed a rapid courtship by letter, culminating in a proposal in.

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During this time he continued to correspond with Lou as well as Madeleine, but the majority of his love poems from May are inspired by Madeleine. The metaphoric connections that are woven so persistently between the battlefield and the distant object of the poet's dreams draw together two widely different realities and, by enlarging the poet's awareness of both, allow him to t:ranscend his immedi- ate situation.

Remarkably, the escalating erotidsm of the poems is made to fulfill a sim- ilar function. The whole violence of war is colored by the poet's sexual long- ing and becomes the expression, not of a destructive aim, but of a fierce cel- ebration of passion. This is not a Freudian hypothesis about the link between sex and aggression, but rather an attitude of quasi-religious awe at the convulsion which shakes humanity. It is an attempt to humanize and make sense of violence by see- ing it as an expression of a vital urge which ultimately transcends its death..

Undoubtedly the greatest challenge to his powers as a poet was that of finding a convincing form and style in which to convey his epic vision of the war, without insen. The solution is found in a constant striving to elevate events to a mythic dimension; beyond the notions of death and destruction. In other poems "Chant de! There is ample evidence in the poems from the last months of Apolli- naire's service that he was aware of the real horrors of war.

The poems writ,.. In the artillery the dugout had been, like the wood, a sym.. It is at once a definitive expression of the anarchy of war and yet, in the way the wild sweep of event:s is artistically channeled, a demonstration of the poet's control over disorder. War for him was a total and complex experience whose contradictions can be reconciled only within a heightened poetic vision. His achievement is that his war poetry as a whole successfully embodies that vision. The domi-.

They are most fully elabotated in his famous lecture ''l'Esprit Nouveau et les Poetes" in November , whose central theme is the need for constant experiment and innovation if poetry.

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The miracles achieved by contemporary science and technology are so staggering, according to Apollinaire, tha. To rival the achievements of the scientist. Through prophecy the artist will constantly be able to look into the unknown. This radical commitment to innovation is qualified by the statement that a modernist aesthetic should nevertheless seek to retain the finest elements of the past. U the new spirit inherits from Romanticism its restless quest for novelty, it must draw from classicism certain traditional qualities.

Limits are se. These concessions to tradi- tion, however, strengthen rather ,t han weaken a paean of praise which per- fornts the considerable rhetorical feat of bestowing on the avant-garde spirit both a cloak of heroic glamour and a mantle of authority. The ideas of ,.

L'Esprit Nouveau" form the very stuff of the last great poems of Calligra. Whereas the lecture was enthusiastic and confident, anxiety and uncertainty again invade the poems. More strikingly still, where the allian. It is sometimes said that this note of self-doubt is attributable to personal difficulties a. His head wound , had left him debilitated and frequently.

He also suddenly found himself elevated to the status of a recognized master for a whole new generation of poets, but he was uneasily aware that some of his disciples were prepared to be more radically iconoclastic than himself "hence some veiled criticisms in the lec- ture. As in the The moving. He can rightly claim to be the one poet above all others who unites the virtues of a long poetic tradition and those of a new phase of bold expertment and change. In the depth of his vision and his consummate mastery of poetic language he is in complete continuity with the great poetry of the past.

It is fitting that his poetic testament should be so lucid and poignant a recognition of his unique position. University of Stirling S. Rails binding the nations We are only two or three men Free of all chains Let's join hands Violent rain combing the smoke Cords Woven. II y a un poem. Les Chabins chantent des airs a mourir Aux Chabines marronn. High over Paris one day Two enottnous airplanes fought One was red and one was black Meanwhile in the zenith flamed The eternal solar plane One was all my youth And the other was the future They raged against each other So struggled with Lucifer The radiant-winged Archangel Thus calculation reckons with the problem Night strives against the day Thus what I love.

From all natural t. Emanations et splendeurs Unique douceur hannonies ]e m'arrlte pour regarder Sur Ia pelouse z:ncandescen te Un serpent erre c'est moi-meme Qui suis Ia fla. We'll watch them ripe. A nd I go with you along a road near Lyons I haven't forgotten the long-ago sound of a licorice vendor's bell Already I hear the shrill sound of that future voice Of the. A lors c'est vrai La serveuse rousse a ete enletJee par un libraire Un lournaliste que je connais d 'ailleurs tres vagueme.

Six mirrors keep staring at one another I think we're going to get into an even worse mess Dear sir You are a crummy fellow That dame has a nose like a tapewonn Louise forgot her fur piece Well I don't have a fur piece and I'm not cold The Dane is smoking his cigarette while he consults the schedule The black cat crosses the restaurant Those pancakes were divine The water's running Dress black as her nails It's absolutely impossible Here sir The malachite ring The ground is covered with sawdust Then it's true The redheaded waitress eloped with a bookseller A journalist whom.

Postage Tout est ca. Sin ce the travckrs on the Espagne arc supposed j u. Postage Everything is qui e t here and we are awa iting eve nts. Que je lis assez bien dans la main Car je ne crois pas mais je regarde et quand c'est possible j'ecoute Tout le monde est prophete mon cher Andre Billy Mail il y a si long temps qu 'on fait croire aux gens Qu 'ils n'ont aucun avenir qu'ils sont ignorants a jamais Et idiots de naissance Qu'on en a pris son parti et que nul n'a meme l'idee De se demander s'il connaft l'avenir ou non Il n'y a pas d'espri.

Bonn to Beuel and disappears across Ptitzchen At the same moment A young girl in love with the mayor In another neighborhood Emulate poet the labels of perfumers In sum oh laughers you haven't gotten a great deal from men And scarcely have you obtained a little grease from their misery Bu. I'heureux musicien Corteges 6 corteges C'est quan:d jadis le roi slen allait a Vincennes Quand les ambassadeurs arrivaient a Paris Quand le maigre Suger se hJltait vers la Seine Quand l'emeute mourait autour de Saint-Merry Corteges 6 corteges Les femmes debordaient tant leur nombre etait grand Dans toutes les rues avoisinantes Et se htUaient raides comme balle Afin de sui'tJre le musicien Ahl Ariane et toi Paqu.

A Saznt- I.. All of t. A vec de la fourrure aux poignets et aux chevilles n poussait des cris brefs Et saluait en ecartant gentiment les avant-bras Mains ouvertes a Une Iambe en arriere prlte Ia genuflexion 11 salua ainsi aux quatre points cardinaux Et quand i1 marcha sur une boule Son corps mince devint une musiqu.

Panado Et nous sommes tranquilles de ce cote-la Qu'est-ce que tu vois mon vieux M. Panado And we're not worried in that respect What do you see my old M. A rteres 1errov'lalres ou ceux qu. Batir et aussi agencer un univers nouveau Un marchand d'une opulence inoule et d'une ta'ille prodigieuse Disposait un- eta. Ooga s: ""0 0 ;.. Ira u. Vous n. Regiment d'artillerie de campagne devant l'ennerni, et le tirage a ete acheve le 17 juin The 1st edition of 25 copies of "Case d'Armons" was polygraphed on graph paper, in violet ink, by means of gelatin, at the battery of heavy guns 45th battery, 38th Regiment of field artillery facing the enemy, and the printing was completed June 17, Un seul bouleau crepusculaire Paut au seuil de thorizon Otl fuit Ia mesure angula.

A single twilit birch tree Pales on the horizon's sill Where flees the measured angle ,Of heart to soul and reason A blue gallop of mernories Traverses the lUac of eyes And the cannons of indolence Fire my dream. A -t'dMk. Shells popping Ehl Oh! Glint in turn v. Quelque alumrnzum ou tu t tngenaas A Umer jusqu 'au. Ia guerre C'etait un temps beni La. Edairent des formes de rive E.

Et des pms manttmes Mais le c. Et puis il y a aussi un. Ia beaute est-il done aussi vain Existes.. A green mouse darts off through the moss The rice has scorched in the camp cooking pot The meaning of that is you h. D es1r Mo. Nuit violente et violette et sombre et pleine d'or par momen. Qui est Ia mere de la civilisation R. Plus doux que n'est le miel et plus simples qu'un peu de t:erre Nous te tournons benignem. Never and the heart alone is winner But do you see my memory As blindfolded she prepares t.

L'heure est sr. H ,f t:U. U U ,t ,H U , La sentinelle au long. The sentinel with the long gaze the sentinel with the lingering gaze Come in the sow So so many scarlet poppies Where did all that blood come from He's not half chugalugging God bless the skunk he's rotten drunk With no vino and no brandy Just with wate. UTS visages etaient pales r. M on amour est puiSsant 1 atme JUSqu '.

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De nos ruches d'acier sortons a tire.. Provient de ce jardin exquis l'humanite A. You must be tired of startling the sky. Having lost my best friends in the frightful conflict I know of old and new as much. Critical works listed in the bibliography are referred to by the name of the author or, when m. Full references are given for works. The italic type suggests that the poem. I'd' f h. When one re. The assault of the modern world on the senses is suggested through clamorous sound 1. Apollinaire sometimes referred to this style as "telegraphic.

Suggest t:he simultaneity of both space and time in the modern world. Bells have been ringing for centuries and thus concentrate past time in themselves, as well as sounding out to one another over frontiers. Line Bridges between countries swarm with people of every tongue.. The vertical made horizontal occurs also in ''Les Fenetres"; "Les Tours ce sont les rues. A sexual im. Although lines seem to sum up the theme of the poem as a celebration of the bright new world of the senses. Far from having turned his back on melancholy and elegiac introspection, he declares himself to be as.

The real theme of the poem. A corrected proof of the catalogue, exhibited at the Galerie Louis Carre, December 17, January 17, and reproduced in Vriesen and lmdahl, p. Adema and Decaudin resolve these conflicting stateme. Whether its point of departure be scraps of cafe witticisms or an atelier backdrop, all such external matter is digested in the finished poem, which is an undoubted creation of the poet's. This same point is made by Adema, pp. Indeed, it was one of Apollinaire's favorites, an example, in his own.

In November Les Soirees de Paris published an article by him which consists mainly of quotations from the painter's. A phrase in the condusion is particularly significant : j'l. The statement as a whole. Collage, anonymous voices, fragmentation, juxtapositions between space and time, are not new in Apollinaire's work, but in 1. Lockerbie has, in addition, pointed out parallels with Picasso',s early cubism [GA 51 pp. More convincing, as an indication of Delaunay' s relationship to the poem, may be the role of color words in lines 1 and 34; always chosen by Apollinaire for their rhyth- mic and emotional effects, they are, in the opening line of "Les Fenoetres,'' directly related to Delaunay' s ideas about color and about nin,eteenth-cen- tury color theories Greet.

But see also Lockerbie, The poet seems atypically absent from his own poem, except at the end when he shares in or takes over the painter's powers and the poe:m itself becomes a window opening onto new forms and colors. The notion that the poem derives exclusively from external stimuli, however, has not as yet been satisfactorily clarified. Lockerbie points out. The title, for example, sugg. Fragxnented lines may evoke Delaunay's atelier or his art 1, , ; the same and other lines may be interpreted as snatches of conversation overheard by the poet; and the role of place-names or of adjectives derived from place..

It is, however, Apollinaire's own overwhelming reaction to a painter's work, and not that work as such, which dominates this poem as well as the other two major poems. Here, the poem expresses a lyrical apprehension of space and time-and becomes a triumphant form of simultaneity. A poetic transformation of the kind of nineteenth-century color theory Delaunay attacked discussed by Imdahl, in Vriesen and Imdahl, pp. Despite these conceptual implications, colors float.

The style of these lines, while not so rhythmic and sonorous as that of line 1, can hardly be called prosaic when one considers the role of phonemes in lines , the imagery in lines , the mysterious tenninology of line 6, and its control over line 7. Line 2 offers an immediate appeal to faraway places, which later on becomes at once more dominant and more p:redse.

The unspecified rain forest. They are associated, in turn, with the pihis of lines An association between a magical bird of some kind and telegrams emerges in calligraphic forrn in ''Voyage" OP, p. In 'ILes Fenetres.. For J. Clark, trau:matisme suggests the color red p. One can say that the pihi, the telegram, the con. Lines Two disconnected observations of a type familiar to readers of uz " one.

Line 8 might refer to either present or past but, in the context of line 9, it probably refers to the past. The use of the past, in line 9, is significant because it fuses two possibilities -a fragment of conversation and a fragment of memory. The image of the window, here and at the end of the poem, evokes the series of window pictures by Delaunay, possibly one painting in particular. The use of the future 10 , present 11 , and imperfect 12 creates a sense of temporal simultaneity. Spatial simultaneity may be stressed by the ambiguou. One thinks of an artist whose mediurn is paint rather than words.

From the light created in line 12, the whole -o f 'line 13 seems to emerge. In the final version, beauty, paleness, and color are in ambivalent apposition.

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  • Thus one sees how, w. Lines 14,- Another interjection, in familiar language. The theme of time may have been triggered by the play on wo. Le Temps and La Liberte were newspapers. The puns juxtapose journalistic and poetic effects: at once ephem- eral, banal objects, limited by time and space, and abstract but very sugges- tive concepts, they may also comment on the underlying theme of artistic.

    Much has been written about this line. On one level it may con,- jure up objects in Delaunay's atelier, but its evocative power has other sources. The dominant impression created by these changes is that Apollinaire wanted to avoid the image of boots probably because of the shoes in I.

    One might counter that lotte comes from Iota which is also Hindu for a globular water jug and thereby circular Grand Larousse. The only likely reference in this line to Delaunay's paintings, however, is multiples Soleils some of the Fonnes circulaires were Soleils. In the same way the three- dimensional puits ''wells'' are transposed into two-dimensional places "city squares" and then back to three.. By contrast the same pun, ten years earlier, in uLa Tsigane, '' has an effect of 1yridsm and condensed ambiguities.

    Unes Capresses, Chabins, Chabines are terms used in the Antilles mentioned in Here, l'oie "goosei' becomes the trumpeting cry of geese on their way northward and evokes enormous mysterious migrations. This line has caused much comment. An image of faceted sur- faces is seen simultaneously as reflecting light and also providing at least an illusion of depths. Not only is it associated with poem, poet, the globe itself, as well as the city lights of Vancouver and the glitter of the hurrying train, but it is n.

    Aïe Aïe Aïe !

    Apollinaire's modernism differs from that of his futurist friends by its lyricism. Trains always fascinated him. Here the image of tbe train emphasizes the flight of time. And this fading of yellow may be related to the setting sun. Thus Une 34 has mo. The refrain that changes meaning with its context is a favorite technique of Apol- linaire's. Line 35, This line w. The place-names are spread out over two continents and, by impli. The original austere modernism of line 35 is so.

    Apollinaire's poems inspired by the war were to reveal an increasing transformation of modem objects into poetically cha. Delaunay's own observation that color is the fruit of light Vriesen, in Vriesen and lmdahl, p. ApoUinalre seemingly resolves conflicting color theories by offering Delaunay and u.

    On a deeper level the whole poem, with its colors, its noises and voices, its far.. Numerous editions since and a Disney movie which does not include the Poodle, alas , including a much-praised recent translation printed page by page opposite the Italian text: The Adventures of Pinocchio: Story of a Puppet , by Carlo Collodi, English translation by Nicholas James Perella University of California Press, , pp. ISBN , The fairy with turquoise hair claps her hands; this brings a large Poodle named Medoro who stands on his hind legs and is dressed like a coachman; he is sent to rescue Pinocchio from bandits.

    Here's a first-edition illustration of Medoro by Enrico Mazzanti. Condillac, Etienne Bonnot de ; M. Geneva: F. Dufart, Craig, L. Story of two boys, Michele and Alexandre, members of a travelling performance troupe, who were saved by their Poodle, Menelik, from the Messina earthquake, which began approximately a. We suspect this story comes from a children's annual for example, Blackie's Children's Annual , and will be very grateful to anyone who can give us the source.

    Deimier, Pierre de pub. Paris: J. Delille, Jacques French poet, celebrated in his own day for translations of the Georgics , the Aeneid , and Paradise Lost , and for his own poem, Les Jardins. Dostoyevsky, Fyodor The old man [Grigory, a servant] has been honest all his life and as faithful to my father as seven hundred poodles. Draner pseud. Elegant wasp-waisted young cavalry officers apply rouge while a Poodle observes Also in " Eckartshausen, Carl von, Der Pudelhund. Ein Lustspiel in einem Aufzuge. Munich: , 51 pp. An event-filled romance suitable for very young ladies, showing the intelligence, trusting nature, and devotion of the Poodle, as well as the feat of retrieving his master's wallet, left behind at an inn.

    Elmslie, Theodora C. Mini-sized Poodle named Black Puppy has adventures with small boy wearing golden shoulder-length curls and bangs and a short dress. In the tradition of Frances Hodgson Burnett's Little Lord Fauntleroy NY: Scribner's, , about which, when the editor of the Poodle History Project was young, an older person remarked, "was a bit much even when it was first published.

    Rhymes; "depicted by R. Flaubert, Gustave Madame Bovary: moeurs de province , ed. Claudine Gothot-Mersch Paris: Bibliopolis, ; reprod. Paris: Bordas, ; Madame Bovary was originally published in Paris: Garnier, , "[Un] coeur simple" Fables de M. Paris: P. Il faut partir. Fontane, Theodor This is an historical novel: the following Poodle-scene from the beginning of Chapter 3, pp.

    Elizabeth [a young girl coming to call with her grandfather] was picking up small pieces of wood and bark and throwing them into the sea so that Schnuck, a splendid black poodle, could retrieve them I rather like that poodle, what's his name? More a name for a character in a comedy than for a dog, don't you think? He has already been up and down here three times. He's obviously enjoying himself immensely. And now tell me, Asta, what is he pleased about--you or the tricks he is going to show off or the sugar you are going to give him for doing them?

    Everyone had retired to the drawing-room The drawing-room was richly furnished but there was still space to move freely about. Asta and Elizabeth were sitting At last, however, tired by its efforts, it overbalanced and its paw struck one of the piano keys Or, was the author oblivious: subject to male chauvinism in relation to saving presumably female energy? Or, had the author never owned a Poodle-by-the-sea? Perhaps the answer s may be found in Gordon A. France, Anatole, pseud.

    Loyer fut mis au colonies. Gatty, Margaret aka Mrs. Alfred Gatty; Paris: S. Chappelet, Paris: Fasquelle, I, Nouvelles. Michael Crouzet, ed.

    Susan Crosby

    Paris: Bibliopolis, ; reprod. Paris: Bordas, Paris: Garnier, II, Romans. Michel Crouzet, ed. Gay, John See Pope, Alexander, below. Cease, Celia, cease; restrain thy flowing tears, Some warmer passion will dispel thy cares In man you'll find a more substantial bliss, More grateful toying, and a sweeter kiss. He's dead. Oh lay him gently in the ground And may his tomb be by this verse renown'd Here Shock, the pride of all his kind, is laid; Who fawn'd like man, but ne'er like man betray'd.

    Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von In Faust , part one, lines , the learned Faust first encounters Mephistopheles disguised as a black Poodle; the great teacher is tempted by the dog's trainability. Wonderful sketch of a German Poodle in the early 19th century. See particularly only because the rest of the book is tremendous fun, although frustrating because under-referenced : The Dog Lover's Literary Companion , ed. Unfortunately, the section quoted does not include the Poodle Mephisto turning himself into a hippopotamus part one, lines Finally, see Companions Goncourt, Edmond and Jules de.

    Madam Gervaisais. Romans de Edmond et Jules de Goncourt , 2. Paris: Charpentier, Ses mains se Gouraud, Julie pseud. Sale Barker, etc. Either much was edited out in the translation, or the translators were very economical, because the meaty French original is nearly pp. Adventures of Poodle brought up in sheltered well-to-do circumstances, rescues baby from drowning, lost in forest, experiences slum life, involved in romantic intrigue, when restored to comfort, writes his memoires.

    Grimms' fairy tale, "The Pink", which "features a man who is turned into a Poodle and fed hot coals until flames come from his throat. Ranke, Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, Includes material on the "Poodle motif. Also in connection with Grimm and for your convenience, we'll list here two other German folktales with Grimms'; translations are on line at a University of Pittsburgh site: Beauty and the Beast, Folktales of Type C.

    On the way home without the gift he meets a Poodle who makes a bargain with the king: if the dog lets him have the leaf, in a year and a day, the king will give the dog the first thing he sees upon his return, which, of course, turns out to be his youngest daughter; after ups and downs--mostly downs--the Poodle turns into a handsome Prince. On the way home, he finds such a twig, from which is hanging a cluster of golden nuts, but is threatened by a bear, who says he may take the twig if the bear may have the first thing he sees on his return home.

    Expecting that the first thing he sees will be his Poodle, as usual, he agrees; alas, the first thing he sees is his youngest daughter, and so on until the bear turns into a Prince. ISBN: ; shelfmark: Mic. Hamerton, Philip, Chapters on Animals , 88 pp. Early reader containing story about troupe of performing French Poodles. Illustrated with engravings. Hamilton, Antoine pub.

    Geneva: Barde: Manget, Er war ein wahres Hundejuwel! So ehrlich und treu! Two children adopt a Poodle named Patter who knows many tricks so they put on a show; lots of dog training; lots of adventure. One of a series of Bunny Brown books written by the author of the Bobbsey Twins books. Hugo, Victor Marie, Viscount Hugo was a Poodle-owner see Companions Hugo wrote Poodle literature: "Chelles" for the full text of the poem see Chelles Michel: Ollendorff, , you'll find "Barbet" is a surname; Hugo makes a joke: "m'attaque par le jappement de ce Barbet.

    Huysmans, J. Paris: G. Huysmans ; 6. James, Henry , Roderick Hudson. Larger orchestras mean extra cost, and there must be a limit to what the public will pay to hear good music. It looks, then, as if the impossibility of increasing the power of the strings. Cinquante violons sont, je pense, deux fois plus sonores que vingt-cinq. Mais je doute que cent violons donnent deux fois plus de son que cinquante. At the beginning of the 18th century there was a rough sort of organisation of the orchestra, but it was less organized than is generaly realized.

    The orchestra as we know it begins with Haydn, and owes its development mainly to the new style of composition in which form was all important and counterpoint left to musty professors, a style which originated with the Italian composers of the early eighteenth century. The development of the orchestra in the 19th century cannot be dissociated from the other developments of music which went on at the same time. Thus it has come about that in our day the orchestra has come to be the vehicle for the expression of the most complicated musical thought. No composer at the present day, it may safely be said, has attained the perfect balance of sensuous and emotional beautv which we find in Mozart.

    With regard to modifications in the composition of the orchestra, it seems more desirable to reduce its size than to augment it. Both players and composers ought to realize that an instrument only justifies its existence by having a tone and a style of execution which no other instrument possesses. The last question is one for the student of literature rather than the musical historian.

    Mais je nommerai Swinburne et G. Il serait utile de poursuivre ces recherches. Je suis surpris que les imperfections de nos quatuors ne frappent pas davantage. Rimsky-Korsakow fait usage du pianino. Elle va devenir une cause. Berlioz romantique est un gluckiste. Son Requiem proportionne la clameur au drame de la mort. Et le grand Wagner lui doit beaucoup, sur ce point…. Depuis deux cents ans? Que cela prouve-t-il? Cela est un signe. Je ferai, M. Croyez, M. Schubert et Schumann sont pour le dessin, Gluck et Berlioz pour la couleur. Mais on craint un peu que toute cette reprise ne soit artificielle.

    La ville des trois mages et de Stollwerck est trop fameuse, M. Ainsi va le monde. Mais que la gloire ne le grise point. Pour M. Jean Rameau. Novicow qui chante la grandeur de la France comme il convient. Cette phrase de M. Mademoiselle Colette va partir. En France la masse du peuple ignore encore toutes les victoires japonaises. Pour 1. Le directeur M. Il dirigea la Revue franco-allemande qui fit du bruit en son temps.

    La Presse nous apprend que M. Boni de Castellane est un homme jeune, brillant et divers. A Channel Passage and other Poems. Un abord difficile. Mais M. Regnault ne nous a rien dit de tout cela. Cependant, El Mokri croit la nouvelle fausse. Il ne sait pas combien Je temps il y demeurera. Il a une mission. Des petites gens incendient leur maison pour toucher le montant de leur assurance, et la femme du cordonnier Fielitz meurt subitement au dernier acte.

    Tous ces cordonniers et forgerons parlent pour ne rien dire. La France garde, en Allemagne du moins, le prestige de sa richesse. Les Berlinois applaudissent La Dame de chez Maxim. Non seulement ses livres se vendent dans toutes les librairies, mais encore dans tous les bazars. La petite salle des Scharfrichter contient une centaine de places. Il ne joue jamais sauf dans les pantomimes. Hans Richard Weinhoppel est le compositeur infatigable de la troupe. Elle est le type pour eux de la femme moderne. Le talent de Robert Randau est puissant, tentaculaire comme un monstre marin.

    Leur langue est riche, souple, originale et exactement consciencieuse. Pierre Baudin mis en avant comme celui du prochain gouverneur de la colonie. Il serait alors heureux que M. En M. Ensuite M. Baudin au lieu du chapelier Faberot. Le passage de M. Au point de vue social, diverses mesures prises par M. Baudin a repris sa place au Palais. Baudin de faire partie du cabinet actuel. Pierre Baudin ne soit pas parti. Mais, allez, je ne demande pas autre chose! Quels sont vos souvenirs de cette lecture? On paria trois bouteilles de champagne pour corser la chose.

    Si MM. Le plus jeune. Ni Boccioni ni Severini ne sont sans talent. On se demande ce que viennent faire en cette affaire les experts artistiques commis par le juge. Bernheim de nous adresser. Jourdain se tourna alors contre un paysage. Il a beau dire et beau faire, il ne sortira pas du moignon.

    Frantz Jourdain fit des restrictions. Il voyait le compotier en biais. En revenant vers les sous-sols du Grand Palais, M. Dans les sous-sols, M. Je suis en train de me le demander et je ne puis le croire… Que diable peut-on faire avec une bouche pareille! Frantz Jourdain vient de faire graver son nom sur tous les piliers de la Samaritaine dont il construit sans cesse de nouveaux magasins. Il aimait raconter des histoires sur sa peinture. Ils trouvaient le tableau horrible.

    Abel-Truchet a de remarquables aptitudes commerciales. Je suis franc, au moins.

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    Le fauve des fauves. Lorsque M. Les tableaux de M. Gropeano expose un Portrait de S. Le jury les admit. Frantz Jourdain passa. Il chancela. On le soutint. Frantz Jourdain. Nous avons appris que M. Le Bargy, les cravates de M. Le cas de M. Comment MM. Quel jardin! Charles Maurras est devenu un homme important.

    Chantera-t-il encore ou restera-t-il muet pour toujours? Je le regrette. Vous avez vu un frac bleu. En fait de chansons, vous en avez entendu une des plus populaires et dont la musique est belle comme celle au largo de Haendel. Toutes les expositions se ressemblent. Chaque exposition dure six mois. Est-ce un mal?

    Je ne le pense pas. En France, on fit parfois du modern Style un emploi fort judicieux. Je me trompais. Mais on ne voit pas ces demoiselles. Elles sont en vacances. Pierre Bonnard, Vuillard et K. Grands dieux! Il est moins audacieux que moderne. Manguin est un peintre voluptueux. Et il est interdit de se laisser aller. Granzow expose un Triptyque. On les recueille en Angleterre, en Allemagne et ailleurs. La peinture moderne est, dans la plupart de ses tableaux, comme le disait Buonarotti, de la peinture flamande.

    Mais, je me demande encore si cela vaut bien la peine. Je les trouve trop peu femmes. Je me mettrai au courant pour la prochaine fois. Cruelle Aurel! Quelle ambition! Comme elle respecte la grammaire! Mais de nos jours le travail du docteur Mardrus ne pouvait avoir aucun effet. Il y a plus. Fernand Gregh, par exemple. On confond le Gange avec le Gave, Bagdad avec Orthez. Imitant M. Clemenceau serait impuissante. Lequel sait parler comme elle du douloureux amour? Ce monsieur signe A. Un soir il tombait beaucoup de neige, les omnibus, les voitures ne roulaient plus.

    Il demeura ensuite un peu de temps dans la salle. Il me parla de Verlaine et nous nous entendions fort bien. Pour MM. En somme, les investigations de M. Jean de Bonnefon, lui, est plus futile que M. Jules Bertaut, mais plus intelligent.