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  1. Sonata for violin & piano, Op. 36 | Details | AllMusic
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This time, the octaves are in the two violins, and the first viola takes the previous first cello continuation, now in D minor instead of A minor. The first cello adds a new plucked bass support. The cadence gesture is repeated by the second violin. The second cello enters as expected, now exchanging its figure with the first viola.

The first cello then abandons its plucked bass to provide the full cadence in the sixth measure. But this time the halting reiteration does not follow. Meanwhile, the two violas and the second cello all pluck supporting notes, and the second violin continues with a gentle counterpoint. This entire sequence is then repeated. The first violin appears to begin it a third time, but, in alternation with the second violin, it works upward, building greatly in volume. The violins briefly pause at the high point. The descent is taken up by the first viola taking its bow as the violins drop out.

A seemingly final arrival on G is reiterated in the lower instruments. This addition is somewhat unexpected. As the first cello settles into a triplet-rhythm oscillation in broken octaves on G, the first violin leads a brief passage of imitation. Its yearning line gently arches and descends. It is imitated closely by the second violin, then even closer by the second viola. The imitation is broken as the first violin uses a dotted rhythm to fall to a cadence, supported by motion in the oscillating first cello and plucked notes in the second cello. It is followed by the second violin, then, at the same distance, by the first violin and second viola in octaves.

This time, these last instruments provide the cadence, with the first violin reaching very high. That top instrument reiterates its cadence twice, as the first viola takes over the oscillations from the first cello and the second violin adds a plaintive counterpoint alternating with the cadences. The lower three instruments are all plucked. Finally, all six instruments come together in a decisive, but quiet close, with the first violin leaping down from its height.

The top three are bowed, the bottom three plucked. Bursting out in bright major, it is presented by all six instruments in full, almost swaggering sonority. An upbeat from violins and first viola leads into the heavily syncopated theme in triple time. These three instruments play together in harmony.

The cellos and second viola provide the rhythmic accompaniment. Toward the end, all six instruments come together in a brief break from the syncopation and accompaniment patterns. The lead-in to the repetition of the theme easily moves back to G. The first half is unchanged other than the new two-note upbeat and continuous accompaniment from the first statement. The other instruments heavily emphasize downbeats of notes held for almost two measures five beats and the upbeats leading into them, also mostly in unison.

Again beginning on G major, the music moves in waves that gradually work upward. After three iterations, the downbeat-upbeat patterns speed up, reduced to one measure. The second violin sustains long notes. The first viola and second cello only briefly join at the halfway point between the two phrases.

The second viola is completely absent. Although the strong, overt syncopation is not present, Brahms does play with the meter on the back half of each phrase, making it sound like the notes are grouped in two rather than three. At the end of the second phrase, the first cello changes from undulation to heavily syncopated bass notes, the first viola enters to take over the undulating accompaniment, and the key again turns to B minor.

The rushing figures are now only played by the first violin, which now shoots upward after long notes. The other instruments, except first cello, play the longer upbeat-downbeat patterns, again speeding up after three iterations. Finally, the first violin, joined an octave below by the second violin, rushes upward and the volume rapidly builds. The first cello also enters here, joining the others on sustained chords.

This upward surge merges into the return of the main dance theme. Part 3 [m. Under the former, the violas have a surging pulsation. Fragments of both elements are twice exchanged. After the second exchange, the main theme takes over and expands upward, reaching high in the first violin.

At the top, a note from the minor key, E-flat, becomes prominent, signaling the beginning of the transition to minor and the scherzo section reprise. All of a sudden, the violins and cellos drop out, leaving the violas with a hushed, skeletal phrase derived from the main theme, played in octaves and in minor. But this is quickly cut off by the violas, who play their ominous minor-key fragment again.

They are interrupted by the ominous octaves again. This time, they are played by second viola and second cello, and are plucked. They also begin a fourth lower. As they conclude, the violins and first viola suddenly come in with the first three harmonized notes of the scherzo theme, one to each bar. One measure of the fast triple time trio is equated to one half-measure of the slower duple-meter scherzo. Opening gavotte melody, as at the beginning and at In preparation for the new coda, the first viola does not play the last reiteration of the G.

The original coda is replaced by a variation with completely altered character. All instruments are bowed. The previous straight rhythms are changed to agitated triplets. The outlines of the original are still present. The second violin doubles and harmonizes the imitations, while the second viola and second cello provide pulsating motion replacing the previous oscillations. The imitations rise up from first viola through second violin and finally first violin, reaching very high.

A fourth imitation is added in the second viola. The triplet rhythm is still in force, and the cellos provide the pulsating background. The reiterations of the cadence are in the violins and cellos, the violas continuing the feverish triplet motion in octaves. The ending, with the decisive downward leaps, incorporates long-short rhythms and is extended by a measure for a longer descent and a forceful finish.

For most of the theme, the cellos and second viola are absent. In this first part, the first violin presents the expressive melody. The second violin adds descending three-note figures beginning after the strong beats, and the first viola contributes winding five-note figures in triplet rhythm, also beginning off the strong beats. The whole two-measure gesture is then stated a step lower. It slows at the end, and the wide closing leap is replaced by a third, with the two lower instruments briefly holding up.

The two violins begin the phrase harmonizing in thirds. The first viola still adds its winding triplets. After the first yearning notes, which turn to B minor, the violins vary them by adding triplet rhythms. These build in volume, and then the first violin erupts into a passionate outburst of shorter sixteenth notes as the second violin descends chromatically and the first viola abandons its triplets in favor of isolated falling octaves. The first violin rises with the leaping fourths, then falls, also with leaping fourths. The second viola enters here for the first time as a mildly syncopated bass support.

The cellos are still silent. In the last two measures, the first violin plays a cadence phrase in E minor, derived from the main rising line, and the lower instruments add notes on strong beats. The first viola still plays in triplets, but adds wide downward-arching leaps. The second violin and first viola trail chromatically, in thirds, slowing after the cadence. The cellos now make their entrance.

Sonata for violin & piano, Op. 36 | Details | AllMusic

In fact, an upbeat in long-short triplet rhythm from the second cello begins the variation. In the first part, the first violin and first viola, in octaves, play two long, somewhat foreboding chromatic descents separated by the leap of the sixth from the middle of the phrase. The second violin rests. The first cello and second viola play an accompaniment in rising plucked arpeggios, passing them back and forth. The second cello provides bass support, emphasizing the long-short rhythms on the upbeats.

Sonatina Opus 36 No. 1 1st Movement - Muzio Clementi [Piano Tutorial] (Synthesia)

The turn to B minor follows as expected. The same patterns from Part 1 continue, with chromatic descents in the first violin and first viola, plucked arpeggios in second viola and first cello the latter adding descents in the last two measures , and a bass with long-short upbeats in the second cello. There is a buildup to the midpoint, then a receding, as expected. Halfway through, the first viola breaks from its octaves with the first violin, then reverses direction, harmonizing the first violin line.

It is doubled by the second viola, who leaves the plucked arpeggios to the first cello alone. One long chromatic descent in the first violin and first viola, turning to E minor and moving through F, as in the theme, is followed by a soaring cadence gesture in E minor. The accompanying instruments trail after the cadence, slowing as in the theme. This variation is based on close neighbor-note motion. The second cello leads in again with the long upbeat, and all the other instruments except second violin enter together in harmony right before the downbeat.

All except the first cello play the close, largely chromatic neighbor-note figures. The first cello has more leaping motion. The first violin holds some notes while the others move. They all continue to alternate with the second cello. The initial three-note figures expand halfway through the phrase, and the second violin enters there. The second cello continues to play its three-note figures, but adds a mild syncopation under the other instruments. At the turn to B minor, the violins and violas with the second viola pausing for half a measure play the close neighbor motion in triplet rhythm.

The second cello plays wide octaves, but also adds upbeats in the triplet rhythm. The instruments wind up and down, the second violin dropping out halfway through. Everything remains quiet, and Brahms adds a dolce marking, but there is some agitation. At the end, a first violin descent slows to straight rhythm. The second violin remains absent through the phrase.

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The second cello follows in alternation, and the first cello, which was absent for the first half of Part 2, joins the first violin and violas after their initial lead-in. The highly chromatic first violin, which again includes some held notes including across bar lines , moves steadily downward.

The violas and especially the first cello have some wider motion. The return to E minor and the pass through F follow as expected, and as usual, the instruments slow for the last cadence in E minor. This forceful variation is fugal in nature, with dense imitations. The second cello begins, as in the previous variations, now with a repeated-note upbeat in dotted long-short rhythm. It leaps up an octave, then breaks into stepwise triplet figures that wind down and up. The second viola imitates it a half-bar later and an octave higher, and the first cello, a fourth higher, a half-bar after that.

It is followed an octave higher by the first viola. All the entries begin with the repeated notes and octave leap. Meanwhile, the second cello introduces arpeggios as it closes its phrase. The first cello adds leaps and reaches a closing point. Finally, a full measure after the second violin, the first violin enters a fourth above it. For the first time, Brahms indicates that each part of the variation is to be repeated.

The imitations are less prominent in the second part. In the quieter contrasting B-minor bars, they are reduced to the two cellos, with the second following the first, then the first beginning another statement a step higher and the second quickly breaking the imitation. Above them, the violins present an arching line in thirds. This is immediately repeated, with a wider opening reach and with the two violas doubling the violins.

A similar pattern follows, with the second violin adding mild syncopation. The repetition with viola doubling is a step higher, and the volume builds. The two violas and the first cello begin a statement in harmony at the return to E minor. The second cello adds bass support using the repeated-note dotted-rhythm upbeat figure. The violins follow the lower instruments, also in harmony. The imitation quickly breaks at the passage through F now clearly minor , and the top five instruments, still in their previous groups, play arching lines, largely with the groups in contrary motion.

The second cello continues to provide a dotted-rhythm bass line to all of this. The first ending quickly moves away from the cadence to lead back to B minor and the repetition. First four bars in B minor. The second ending has a more solid cadence, but it is immediately followed by the upbeat leading into Variation 4. This vigorous variation also uses imitation, but this time two separate ideas are presented at the same time. The violas lead with the dotted-rhythm upbeat, but they each present a different idea.

The first viola leaps down to a rapid arching figure in sixteenth-notes. The second viola plays a detached line in broken thirds. The imitation is consistent through two bars, as the leading violas briefly pause. The first ending has the violas returning to their initial upbeat. The second ending has a new upbeat in the first viola leading to the contrasting passage in B minor. For maximum contrast, it is marked pianissimo and dolce.

The imitation is reduced to leaping octaves an octave apart passed between the violas on the dotted-rhythm upbeat. The violins and the cellos play descending lines in harmony, the cellos taking over for the violins. The second leads, and the first follows, initially a third lower. The violas, in harmony, play a variant of the detached figure that was previously used in imitation. The first cello reiterates the dotted-rhythm upbeat and downward-leaping octave, and the second cello, plucked, provides a bass line, also with leaping octaves.

The turn to F minor occurs while the violins are playing in imitation. This breaks, with the first violin reaching high and emphasizing the dotted-rhythm figure. The second cello takes the bow at the approach to the cadence. The opening first viola upbeat is omitted. The second ending has a very short upbeat leading into the transition passage. This quiet, intense transition, still in the faster tempo, helps to set up the final variation.


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It is five measures long. The second violin and the violas have the short upbeat, which leads into a harmonized downward slide that uses the dotted rhythm and is highly syncopated. At the same time, the first cello plays a rising line that is none other than the initial gesture of the original theme.

It plays this gesture twice in succession, with a continuous rise. Neither of these is at the original pitch level the first suggests A minor, the second B minor. Finally, the first violin enters with a longer, slowed down version of the gesture on the original pitches, harmonized by the other instruments, including isolated plucked notes from the second cello.

All except first violin pause on a suspended half-close. The slow tempo returns. The rising upbeat in the violas is notated in eighth notes still in the last measure of the fast tempo , but the continuation is in sixteenth notes, indicating that this variation is twice as slow.

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That viola upbeat is heard as the first violin holds its suspended note. The key signature changes to E major. The violas lead into the gentle final variation, supported by plucked notes in second violin and the cellos. They play arching harmonized lines, in the soothing major key. The first violin and second cello bowed enter with brief imitation, then continue, the first violin taking over the lead role. The second violin provides a plucked background throughout, as does the first cello, although the latter twice takes the bow to continue and harmonize the second cello line.

The viola upbeat is now notated as sixteenth notes in the first ending. The contrasting passage is now in B major, still using the gentle arching lines. The violas again lead in harmony, with the first violin following and taking over. The second violin drops out for two measures. The passage is more chromatic than Part 1. The second violin enters in the last two measures, adding an additional line of counterpoint that harmonizes the first violin.

At the end of the phrase, the cellos take the bow, still on the F-sharp, but the second cello holds it and plays, as a double-stop, a dissonant leaning motion into the fifth above it. The passage through F is now major and is prolonged. The second violin is again plucked, but now adds double-stop and triple-stop chords. The violas sustain the arching lines, and the first violin again takes over the lead. The variation reaches a full close in E major with chromatic tinges and a brief first violin trill. The viola upbeat is different, continuing as a descent at the end of the variation.

The second violin upbeat is now a two-note harmony, still plucked. After the cadence, the violas continue with a new upward-moving upbeat instead of arching downward leading into the coda, which is in the character, major mode, and slow tempo of Variation 5. The violas, at first, continue with the arching arpeggios, although the second adds syncopation.

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The first violin takes the lead with its own slower, expressive line, which is also syncopated. The first cello plays two-note, then four-note upward arpeggios before slowly descending. Finally, the second violin enters, harmonizing with the first on descents. The first viola breaks from the arpeggios, moving to halting downward octave leaps. The second viola harmonizes the first cello, then drops out. The volume builds toward a climax. Now the second violin and first viola join on the arpeggios.

They work upward under the soaring first violin. The second viola re-enters with the halting downward octave leaps. The instruments change roles again. Now the first viola supports the first violin with straight notes about an octave below. The second violin joins the second viola on an oscillating motion. The first cello continues to slowly descend. Finally, the first violin works downward, and the volume begins to recede. The first viola and first cello are in contrary motion with each other as the latter turns upward again. The second violin abandons the oscillations, leaving them to second viola, and now doubles the first cello.

The other instruments come together under this cadence. The second cello finally abandons its long-held low E pedal point. Trailing after the cadence, the violas play a tender reminiscence of the harmonized arching motion typical of Variation 5. At the same time, the first cello plays the rising fourth from the opening gesture of the theme. The arpeggios are then played by the two cellos under the rising fourth from the first violin. The violas and cellos, moving down and up an octave respectively, exchange the arpeggios again, with the rising fourth in the second violin, then both violins in octaves.

The cellos extend their arpeggio down to the final cadence. The violins have reached the high E from their rising fourth, and the violas enter to complete the harmony on the serene, sustained final chord. With quiet intensity, the violins and first viola begin the harmonized measured tremolo -like figures that dominate the first part of the theme. The rapid repeated notes reach up to outline a melody.

The key is ambiguous, suggesting A minor or E minor rather than G major. The violins break from the tremolo for a descent, and the other three instruments enter. The cellos, in succession, come in with the tremolo figures, including the upward leaps, in a sort of imitation. Finally, all six instruments build up and essentially join together on the tremolo figures with their melodic leaps, and G major is established.

Scales are heard in the lower instruments. The volume recedes and quickly builds again. This continues for a measure after the violins drop out. The volume rapidly diminishes. This is really the principal melody, and the tremolo motion could be seen as introductory except for its huge role in the development section. The warm, noble melody is presented by first violin and first cello in harmony. The pulsing motion continues in first viola and second cello. Beginning with repeated notes, these pulsations gradually move, including leaping octaves in the first viola. After two measures, the first cello joins the pulsations, leaving the melody to the first violin, which adds a trill-like ornament.

The end of the first phrase overlaps with the beginning of the second. The trill decoration is heard again. Longer notes are introduced in the swaying motion, gradually rising. At the end of the phrase, the second viola finally enters, joining the pulsations, and the first viola slips away from the first violin to join them as well. The second violin is absent for this entire initial presentation. It also turns to the minor key. The violins the second entering and first viola pass the gestures to the second viola and cellos.

The entry of the lower instruments overlaps with a new closing gesture in second violin and first viola decorated by a brief trill. The overlapping exchanges continue through a second statement at a higher level that briefly suggests A minor. The lower instruments do not have the decorated closing gesture a second time, as the overlapping entries are cut off at this point. The violins and cellos return to the character of the gently swaying melody from the main second part of the theme. In pleasing harmony and in alternation, they undulate down and back up.

The violins then reach up in long-short rhythms as the cellos play a harmonized ascending scale with mild syncopation. The roles are then reversed as the violins descend in harmony. The cellos convert the long-short rhythm to a syncopation. The second viola is still absent. The epilogue begins very gently. After two measures, the first violin reaches up another octave, as does the second cello pedal point. Suddenly, the intensity builds and the epilogue is extended by two measures. The violins reach high with mild syncopation. The second cello abandons the pedal point, joining the motion of the first.

It begins in B major and is based on the tremolo first part of Theme 1. The tremolo gestures themselves return in the second violin and two violas, complete with the accented melodic leaps from the beginning. The first violin joins above with the melody. Scale descents are passed from second violin and first viola to the two cellos, then back to the previous instruments, who ascend.

This last exchange with the cellos is repeated, with the second violin moving up an octave. The second viola joins the first cello on a descent, then the second violin and first viola join the first violin. They key moves toward D major, the expected secondary key, and the volume builds. The violins establish a high, decorative leaping motion for one measure.

Then the first cello enters with the new melody itself, a swinging, boisterous tune in its upper register. The first violin continues with the high decorative leaping motion. The violas play plucked two-note descents, and the second cello adds a solid bass D major. It begins like a repetition. The first violin abandons the high leaping figures for scale descents, and the first viola and second cello play the now-ascending two-note plucked figures.

Suddenly, the second violin melody falters as the second viola joins with a plucked descending arpeggio. The first violin plunges further downward. The second violin attempts to re-establish itself a third lower, but it falters in the same way and the first violin falls even more as the volume once again builds. Finally, the first violin takes the lead with its plunging descent and is joined by the first viola.

The second violin joins the plucked arpeggio in second viola and first cello. The effect, with its sudden quietness, is like the bottom dropping out. Over held notes in first viola and second cello, the first cello, then the first violin play downward arching figures in the character of Theme 2. These suggest a motion back to G major. These continue through another measure as second violin and second viola join in slow harmonies. The colorful chromatic note E-flat is introduced.

This time, the melody is transferred from second violin to first violin, and the scales are in the first viola. The first cello briefly pauses. After the two statements, wherein D major is again asserted, the volume builds, and the huge descent is heard again, even more fully scored, with all instruments bowed. This time, it does in fact herald a full motion back to G for the exposition repeat. The second violin and second viola hold the C-natural. A mysterious open fifth on A and E is heard in the first viola, then the first violin. The second viola drops out, while the second violin continues to hold the C.

This creates an A-minor chord. In the first ending m. The A-minor chord confirms the suggestion of A minor at the very beginning of the movement, and smoothly leads into the repeat. Warm, noble melody, as at The second ending m. The second violin emerges from the chord, playing the opening melodic line on its own. It quickly diverges into arching figures derived from the scale descents.

The first violin then enters above it. It adds a wider leap a fifth instead of a fourth to the initial melodic gesture, then continues as had the second violin, a fifth higher. Under this, the second violin continues its figuration, then moves to slower leaping gestures. The violins continue above with figuration. The slower leaping gestures pass to the first violin. The harmony moves quickly, though A minor and B minor and toward D major.

The violins and first viola come together, and the second viola enters, taking over briefly from the first cello. These two instruments also come together, the first cello taking the bow. There is a buildup, and the expected arrival on D major is highly unstable as the music keeps pressing forward. The other instruments play the bare short-long rhythms, contributing to the harmony the second cello doubling the tremolo bass of the first an octave below.

The first violin reaches high, and other instruments, the second violin and second viola, join the tremolo motion. A series of alternations in these pairs follows in two descending waves of three alternations each. The two violins typically alternate with another pair. The alternations are similar, but in the second and third, the first cello is replaced by the second, and in the third, the second violin by the first cello. It is harmonized in second violin and first viola. It appears to be played in a mixture of D minor and D major, but G minor asserts itself in the second measure.

The melody is decorated by octave tremolo interjections in first violin and second viola. After two measures, while the second violin holds a note, the first viola is joined by the second in a brief arching, modulating bridge. The second cello adds a brief tremolo on a fifth, and the first violin tremolo shadows the viola bridge.

The entire three-measure pattern is then stated in B-flat major relative to G minor. It winds its way downward. The first violin has two octave tremolo interjections, then drops out. The second cello has four such interjections on a fifth, then fourths. The second viola adds brief answers to the downward-winding lines in the second violin and first viola.

The first cello, which has been relatively inactive through this re-transition, only plucking at key points, continues that role. The fourth measure of this passage is a repetition of the third. It emerges so naturally from the preceding re-transition that it is almost unnoticeable. The change from G minor to G major is also subtle. The first part of the theme, with the tremolo figures, was prominent in the development, and it is omitted here. The first four measures and most of the fifth measure follow the exposition without change.

At the end of the fifth measure, the first violin leaps down to the lower octave. The entire transition passage based on Part 1 is omitted. Theme 2 is stated in the home key of G major. It is now given to the first viola instead of the first cello. The other instruments largely maintain their previous roles from and [m. The first violin has the leaping decoration, the second cello the solid bass. The plucked two-note descents are now in the second violin and second viola. The first cello plays in the rhythm of these, doubling the second cello bass an octave above.

The scoring is changed. While the second violin still has the thematic material, it is skeletal in nature. Downward arpeggios are plucked. The two-note plucked figures, now repeated notes, are in the two violas and second cello. The first violin still has the scale descents. The second violin continues with plucked arpeggios. The climactic plunging descent is scored largely as in the exposition. The scoring is similar to the exposition, except that the arching figures that were in the first cello are now in the first viola.

The faltering melody is in the first violin, as in the exposition, but the scales are in the second violin instead of the first viola. The first cello now participates in the plucked notes. The climactic plunging descent is again very similar, but the second violin and first viola again reverse roles and the second cello does not participate.

The second viola and first cello are plucked, making it less assertive than before. G major is reasserted. The previous transition, either to the exposition repeat or to the development, is replaced by an extension of the plunging descents. Two more are played, over a bass in the second cello that descends by half-steps, building on the drop from F-sharp to F-natural heard before. In these descents, the first violin is the only instrument playing the scales. All the other instruments are bowed except the second viola, who plays plucked chords.

The first viola also plays chords instead of arpeggios, but they are bowed.

In the first descent of the extension, the first violin begins a third lower, and the suggested key is D minor. In the second, the first violin reaches high, above where it was before, and the suggested key is C minor. The home key of G is again asserted, but it is the minor-key version.

The violins meander narrowly, supported by the second cello bass. The second viola continues its plucked chords, supported by the first cello. The first viola meditates on the downward-arching figures. Against this, the first viola continues its arching triple-division figures. G major is once again established. It now begins on the downbeat, and is extended by a full third of a measure, resulting in a more precipitous plunge.

The second viola and first cello take the bow here. The meditations follow, with the narrow meanderings and arching figures, but the roles are reversed. The violas and cellos take over on the former, and the violins, second followed by the first, play the arching figures. It is now greatly extended, forming the basis of a buildup toward the coda.

The vast majority of Mozart 's unnumbered symphonies are in D major, namely K. The symphony evolved from the overture, and "D major was by far the most common key for overtures in the second half of the eighteenth century. Famous symphonies written in D major include Mozart 's symphonies No. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The D major scale is:. See also: List of symphonies in D major. I Symphony No.

I "The Miracle" Symphony No. I "The Clock" Symphony No. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Diatonic scales and keys. Categories : Musical keys Major scales Compositions in D major. Hidden categories: Commons category link is on Wikidata. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history.