- Cromwell (drama)/Act third
- Oliver Cromwell; a drama, in five acts [and in verse]. - William Henry Leatham - Google книги
- Cromwell: A Drama in Five Acts
The Queen and her brother stood trial on Monday 15 May, while the four others accused with them were condemned on the Friday beforehand. The men were executed on 17 May and, on the same day, Cranmer declared Henry's marriage to Anne invalid, a ruling that illegitimised their daughter, Princess Elizabeth. Two days later, Anne herself was executed. On 30 May, the King married Jane Seymour. On 8 June, a new Parliament passed the second Act of Succession, securing the rights of Queen Jane's heirs to the throne. Cromwell's position was now stronger than ever.
On 8 July , he was raised to the peerage as Baron Cromwell of Okeham.
Cromwell orchestrated the Dissolution of the Monasteries and visitations to the universities and colleges in , which had strong links to the church. This resulted in the dispersal and destruction of many books deemed 'popish' and 'superstitious'. This has been described as 'easily the greatest single disaster in English literary history'. Oxford University was left without a library collection until Sir Thomas Bodley's donation in In July , the first attempt was made to clarify religious doctrine after the break with Rome. Bishop Edward Foxe tabled proposals in Convocation, with strong backing from Cromwell and Cranmer, which the King later endorsed as the Ten Articles and which were printed in August Cromwell circulated injunctions for their enforcement that went beyond the Articles themselves, provoking opposition in September and October in Lincolnshire and then throughout the six northern counties.
These widespread popular and clerical uprisings found support among the gentry and even the nobility; they were collectively known as the Pilgrimage of Grace. The rebels' grievances were wide-ranging, but the most significant was the suppression of the monasteries, blamed on the King's "evil counsellors", principally Cromwell and Cranmer. One of the leaders of the rebellion was Thomas Darcy, 1st Baron Darcy of Darcy , who gave Cromwell the prophetic warning just prior to his execution "others that have been in such favour with kings as you now enjoy have come to the same fate you bring me to".
The suppression of the risings spurred further Reformation measures.
Cromwell (drama)/Act third
In February , Cromwell convened a vicegerential synod of bishops and doctors. The synod was co-ordinated by Cranmer and Foxe, and they prepared a draft document by July: The Institution of a Christian Man , more commonly known as the Bishops' Book. By October, it was in circulation, although the King had not yet given it his full assent. However, Cromwell's success in Church politics was offset by the fact that his political influence had been weakened by the emergence of a Privy Council , a body of nobles and office-holders that first came together to suppress the Pilgrimage of Grace.
The King confirmed his support of Cromwell by appointing him to the Order of the Garter on 5 August , but Cromwell was nonetheless forced to accept the existence of an executive body dominated by his conservative opponents. In January , Cromwell pursued an extensive campaign against what was termed "idolatry" by the followers of the old religion.
Statues, rood screens , and images were attacked, culminating in September with the dismantling of the shrine of St. Thomas Becket at Canterbury. Early in September, Cromwell also completed a new set of vicegerential injunctions declaring open war on "pilgrimages, feigned relics or images, or any such superstitions" and commanding that "one book of the whole Bible in English" be set up in every church.
Moreover, following the "voluntary" surrender of the remaining smaller monasteries during the previous year, the larger monasteries were now also "invited" to surrender throughout , a process legitimised in the session of Parliament and completed in the following year.
The King was becoming increasingly unhappy about the extent of religious changes, and the conservative faction was gaining strength at court. Cromwell took the initiative against his enemies. All were executed in the following months. Cromwell persuaded the King of France to release the unfinished books so that printing could continue in England.
The first edition was finally available in April The publication of the Great Bible was one of Cromwell's principal achievements, the first authoritative version in English. The King, however, continued to resist further Reformation measures. A Parliamentary committee was established to examine doctrine, and the Duke of Norfolk presented six questions on 16 May for the House to consider, which were duly passed as the Act of Six Articles shortly before the session ended on 28 June.
The Six Articles reaffirmed a traditional view of the Mass, the Sacraments, and the priesthood. Queen Jane had died in , less than two weeks after the birth of her only child, the future Edward VI. In early October , the King finally accepted Cromwell's suggestion that he should marry Anne of Cleves , the sister of Duke Wilhelm of Cleves , partly on the basis of a portrait which Hans Holbein had painted of her. On 27 December, Anne of Cleves arrived at Dover. On New Year's Day , the King met her at Rochester and was immediately repelled by her physically: "I like her not!
Henry said that he found it impossible to enjoy conjugal relations with a woman whom he found so unattractive. The King's anger at being forced to marry Anne of Cleves was the opportunity Cromwell's conservative opponents, most notably the Duke of Norfolk, needed to topple him. During Cromwell had proven himself an adept political survivor. However, the gradual slide towards Protestantism at home and the King's ill-starred marriage to Anne of Cleves , which Cromwell engineered in January , proved costly.
Some historians believe that Hans Holbein the Younger was partly responsible for Cromwell's downfall because he had provided a very flattering portrait of Anne which may have deceived the king. When Henry finally met her, the king was reportedly shocked by her plain appearance. The Franco-Imperial alliance had failed to materialise, and Henry had therefore been subjected to an unnecessary conjugal difficulty which loosened his Principal Secretary's control of events.
In early , Cromwell's conservative, aristocratic enemies, headed by the Duke of Norfolk and assisted by Bishop Gardiner colloquially known as 'Wily Winchester' , saw in Catherine Howard an opportunity to displace their foe. Cromwell was arrested at a Council meeting on 10 June and accused of various charges.
He was imprisoned in the Tower. His enemies took every opportunity to humiliate him: they even tore off his Order of the Garter , remarking that "A traitor must not wear it. A Bill of Attainder containing a long list of indictments, including supporting Anabaptists , corrupt practices, leniency in matters of justice, acting for personal gain, protecting Protestants accused of heresy and thus failing to enforce the Act of Six Articles , and plotting to marry Lady Mary Tudor , was introduced into the House of Lords a week later and passed on 29 June He was also connected with ' sacramentarians ' those who denied transubstantiation in Calais.
Hoping for clemency, Cromwell wrote in support of the annulment, in his last personal address to the King. Cromwell was condemned to death without trial, lost all his titles and property and was publicly beheaded on Tower Hill on 28 July , on the same day as the King's marriage to Catherine Howard.
Oliver Cromwell; a drama, in five acts [and in verse]. - William Henry Leatham - Google книги
Many lamented but more rejoiced, and specially such as either had been religious men, or favoured religious persons; for they banqueted and triumphed together that night, many wishing that that day had been seven years before; and some fearing lest he should escape, although he were imprisoned, could not be merry. Others who knew nothing but truth by him both lamented him and heartily prayed for him. Henry came to regret Cromwell's killing and later accused his ministers of bringing about Cromwell's downfall by "pretexts" and "false accusations".
There remains an element of what G. Elton describes as 'mystery' about Cromwell's demise. In April , just three months before he went to the block, he was created Earl of Essex and Lord Great Chamberlain. The arbitrary and unpredictable streak in the King's personality, which more than once exercised influence during his reign, had surfaced again and washed Cromwell away in its wake.
During Cromwell's years in power, he skilfully managed Crown finances and extended royal authority. In , he established the Court of Augmentations to handle the massive windfall to the royal coffers from the Dissolution of the Monasteries. Two other important financial institutions, the Court of Wards and the Court of First Fruits and Tenths , owed their existence to him, although they were not set up until after his death. He strengthened royal authority in the north of England, through reform of the Council of the North , extended royal power and introduced Protestantism in Ireland, and was the architect of the Laws in Wales Acts and , which promoted stability and gained acceptance for the royal supremacy in Wales.
He also introduced important social and economic reforms in England in the s, including action against enclosures , the promotion of English cloth exports and the poor relief legislation of Although Cromwell always maintained a primarily political outlook on general affairs, there is consensus among scholars that at least while he held power he was a Protestant, with a Lutheran mindset.
For him, the Henrician Reformation was certainly more than a jurisdictional revolution masquerading in religious garb. For instance, in the mids, he promoted Protestant ideas to forge an alliance with German Lutheran states, but his support for the Protestant cause is too general to be accurately explained in narrow political terms. In Cromwell succeeded in having clearly identified reformers, such as Hugh Latimer , Edward Foxe and Nicholas Shaxton appointed to the episcopacy.
He encouraged and supported the work of reformers, such as Robert Barnes and obtained the license to publish the Matthew's Bible , provided significant funding for the printing of this English translation of the Bible and sent one to all parishes in England. When Cromwell fell from favour in , his alleged support for Anabaptism was cited. Although the charge was spurious, the fact that it was levelled at all demonstrates the reputation for evangelical sympathies Cromwell had developed. Until the s, historians discounted Cromwell's role, calling him a doctrinaire hack who was little more than the agent of the despotic King Henry VIII.
Elton wrote that Cromwell had been responsible for translating royal supremacy into parliamentary terms, creating powerful new organs of government to take charge of Church lands, and largely removing the medieval features of central government. Subsequent historians have agreed with Elton as to Cromwell's importance, though not with his claims of "revolution".
They had five children:  . Cromwell's illegitimate daughter Jane had a daughter Alice with her husband William Hough. Thomas More and Anne Boleyn. In the New York Frick Collection , two portraits by Holbein hang facing each other on the same wall of the Study, one depicting Thomas Cromwell, the other Thomas More, whose execution he had procured. Cromwell has been portrayed in a number of plays, feature films, and television miniseries , usually as a villainous character. More recently, however, Hilary Mantel 's two Man Booker Prize -winning novels Wolf Hall and Bring up the Bodies twisted facts to show him in a more sympathetic light.
In the fiction, he his imbued with family affections, genuine respect for Cardinal Wolsey, zeal for the Reformation, and support for a limited degree of social reform, while the villainous character is Thomas More.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Thomas Cromwell disambiguation.
This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Site of the ancient scaffold at Tower Hill where Cromwell was executed by decapitation. Plaque at the ancient scaffold site on Tower Hill commemorating Thomas Cromwell and others executed at the site. Holbein portrait believed to be Gregory Cromwell, 1st Baron Cromwell. Collins English Dictionary. Retrieved 18 December Donald Logan July The English Historical Review.
Herman Thomas Cromwell: A Life. Penguin Books Limited. Retrieved 26 November Jane' on 23 May Random House Publishing Group. Retrieved 14 January — via Google Books. The Creation of Anne Boleyn. Oneworld Publications. Mediaeval Education and the Reformation. Retrieved 17 November England Under the Tudors. Cambridge University Press. Andrews UK Limited. Thomas Cromwell: Tudor Minister. Yale University Press. Lexington Books. The Historical Journal Matthew's Bible: A Facsimile of the Edition. Hendrickson Publishers. Thomas Nelson. Retrieved 14 January Orion Publishing Group.
Scarecrow Press. The New Yorker. Retrieved 23 March Retrieved 9 February Internet Movie Database.
Cromwell: A Drama in Five Acts
In the Agreement of the People , , they asked for a more representative and accountable parliament, to meet every two years; a reform of law so it would be available to and fair to all; and religious toleration. They wanted a more democratic society, although their proposed franchise did not extend to women or to the lowest orders of society. Levellers saw the Rump as little better than the monarchy it had replaced, and they showed their displeasure in demonstrations, pamphlets and mutinies.
While their numbers did not pose a serious threat to the government, they scared the Rump into action and a Treasons Act was passed against them in Led by Gerrard Winstanley , Diggers wanted an even more equal society than the Levellers. They advocated a lifestyle that bore many similarities to later understandings of communism and anarchism , with communal ownership of land, and absolute equality for males and females in law and education. They existed in only very small numbers and faced a very strong opposition, even from the Levellers.
The breakdown of religious uniformity and incomplete Presbyterian Settlement of enabled independent churches to flourish. The main sects see also English Dissenters were Baptists , who advocated adult re baptism ; Ranters , who claimed that sin did not exist for the "chosen ones"; and Fifth Monarchy Men , who opposed all "earthly" governments, believing they must prepare for God's kingdom on earth by establishing a "government of saints".
Despite greater toleration, extreme sects were opposed by the upper classes as they were seen as a threat to social order and property rights. Catholics were also excluded from the toleration applied to the other groups. Conservatives were still dominant in both central government and local government. In the former, the Rump was anxious not to offend the traditional ruling class whose support it needed for survival, so it opposed radical ideas.
In the latter, that ruling class dominated through the influence of traditional regional gentry. The Interregnum was a relatively short but important period in the history of the British Isles. It saw a number of political experiments without any stable form of government emerging, largely due to the wide diversity in religious and political groups that had been allowed to flourish after the regicide of Charles I.
The Puritan movement had evolved as a rejection of both real and perceived "Catholicisation" of the Church of England. When the Church of England was quickly disestablished by the Commonwealth Government, the question of what church to establish became a hotly debated subject. In the end, it was impossible to make all the political factions happy. Edward Sexby , previously a supporter of Cromwell's, felt disenfranchised by Cromwell's failure to abolish the aristocracy. Sexby was captured when he returned to England and attempted to carry out the assassination described in Colonel Titus' book.
Cromwell coerced Sexby into confessing authorship of the pamphlet and then imprisoned him in the Tower of London , where Sexby was driven to insanity, dying there less than a year later. High taxes required by the large standing army , kept due to the constant threats of Scottish and Irish rebellion, added to public resentment of Cromwell. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Periods in English history. Prehistoric Britain until c. Main article: Commonwealth of England.
Main article: Resettlement of the Jews in England.
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