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Contents:
  1. 9. November bis 22. Dezember 2013
  2. Performing Terrorism
  3. Neue Kunst. Hahnenstraße 6. D-50667 Köln
  4. Theorie der sozialen Reproduktion: Zurück zu (welchem) Marx? – International Socialism

Noch wirkt das Nazi-Bashing durch die Medien. Es ist alles angerichtet. Alles richtig, goodnight The bright lure of freedom diminishes your life's joy in a mad scramble for power Don, in der Politik geht es immer nur um Macht. Keiner will nicht Minister sein, keiner will Opposition. Aber das ist mein blinder Fleck, dass ich nicht verstehe, dass es in den Medien diesen Grad an Reflexion nicht gibt, d.

Ahh - Goodnight - erfrischend! Es wird keinen Aufschrei geben. Irgendwas passt in der Politik irgendwem immer nicht. Warum engagieren Sie sich dann nicht selbst in einer Partei? Und wo die Proleten und Ewiggestrigen stehen hat der Slomka-Proleps polem. Tut sie aber nicht. Besonders beeindruckt wirken all die Demokratiefreunde an der Staatsspitze jedenfalls nicht mehr. Das war schon mal anders. Alles begleitet von allgemeinem Hauen und Stechen. Dass ausgerechnet die afd die letzte Option war um den Sozialstaat zu bewahren ist ein Treppenwitz.

Bin auf Ihre Antwort gespannt. In jeder Schule, in jeder Disco, im Stadtpark…usw. In my world everyone is a pony, and they all eat rainbows, and poop butterflies. Und kann dies dann ja auch. Am September den Stift nehmen und das Kreuz an der Stelle machen, wo die moderne Welt ihre Werte verteidigt. Und zwar unserem Verstand folgend und nicht irgendwelchen sozialen Verhaltensmustern. Die Wahl ist nicht umsonst geheim. Folglich kann und sollte man politisch aktiv werden. Je mehr dies geschieht umso mehr werden auch andere ihre wahre Meinung sagen. Diese Gesellschaft wird politischer.

Man sollte sich darauf einstellen und aktiv mitmachen. Man muss ja nicht direkt Parteimitglied werden oder gar selbst in die Parlamente. Aber man kann. Wie links ist denn der Mainstream? Wahlbeteiligung: Tiefststand, unter 70 Prozent Wunschdenken ist schon teilweise eingepreist. Goodnight: naja, dann koche ich ja Was denken Sie denn, warum ein G. Reil in die AfD eingetreten ist? Solche Ergebnisse kannte ich noch nicht einmal aus der Heimat. Von dem Gewerkschaftsschmonz verdi u. Na ja, wir werden sehen. Das ist im Osten nicht so.

Und desalb steht die Afd hier auch bei zwanzig Prozent, und die wird sie auch bekommen. Moritzburger Es ist nahezu sinnlos. Eine Opposition muss rein, die den Namen verdient. Auch da stehen schon etliche Betonbarrieren bereit. Der Hellste scheint er ja nun gerade nicht zu sein. Viele haben Deutschland bereits verlassen und viele tragen sich mit dem Gedanken daran. Doch wohin. Wir haben nur ein Land, in dem wir keine Fremden sind, warum sollten wir uns hier vertreiben lassen? Recht hat sie. Machen wir uns nichts vor, die Deutschen sind nicht sehr beliebt und schon gar nicht in einer Masse von 60 Millionen.

Also hier bleiben. Aber bestimmt nicht wehrlos. Auf den ca. Die Uruguajos waren begeistert! Irgendwie ist man sie billig losgeworden. Heute sind das ganz normale Argentinier. Carlos Menem war so jemand. Fake History. Dieses Herausputzen praktizieren alle Parteien. Was man der AfD so alles andichtet, sehr geehrter D. So einfach ist das und doch so schwierig zu akzeptieren. Nicht wahr, geachteter D. Die, Don Alphonso, gibt es allerdings In allen Parteien. So wie im Moment die gute Frau Rambatz, deren Namen — zu dem sie nichts kann — sie versuchte alle Ehre zu machen.

All hell would break lose …. Mein erster Theaterbesuch von Maria Stuart usw. War Max Bolkart auch. Eishockey, wir mussten die Jungs anfeuern. Spielautomaten spielten in unserer Clique keine Rolle. Aber die Musicbox! Die AfD spielt da keine Rolle. Wir haben denen beim Training zugeschaut,durften jederzeit ins Eisstadion. Aber danke, dass Sie mir Hirnwirbeligkeit unterstellen wollen. The King is back Ich glaube, so einfach ist das nicht. Die 68er kenne ich nur als Legende, ist wohl lange her…Ich glaube nicht so richtig an den Stadt Land Konflikt.

Die Autos! Wir alle wollen es nett haben, deswegen das ganze Retro. Es gibt eine tiefe Sehnsucht nach Heimat, Tradition etc, aber nicht nur auf dem Land…. Dabei war ich in meiner Jugend sogar links. Lange Haare, kaputte Cordhosen, Rage against the Machine. Trotzdem nur ein dreckiger Alman. Das ist zu verallgemeinert Das war bis vor ein paar Monaten noch nicht der Fall.

Mit der Wahl entscheiden sichg halt mehr und mehr Menschen, und weniger haben Lust, noch den Mund zu halten. Ausserdem ist das hier anonym. Nur, ehrlich, wenn ich dann das Und die Masse diskutiert… eigentlich -auch das nicht. Ich bewundere Menschen wie Prof. Meuthen, Frau Weidel, Frau v. Und wenn dieses Land noch irgendeine Hoffnung hat, dann sehe ich sie dort, bei ihnen! Und ich hoffe, dass sie am Was ich aber sagen wollte: die AfD kann schon jetzt ebenfalls als etabliert gelten, man kommt einfach nicht mehr an ihr vorbei.

Das sehen zunehmend auch die Medien und wenn sie am Und das macht dann eben einen Riesenunterschied. Solange das ein Streiten um Werte ist und grundlegende Werte anerkannt werden, — kann das eigentlich nur fruchtbar werden! Solange das ein Streiten um das Wohl Europas und Deutschlands ist- wunderbar! Die Welt wird aus fairem also nicht Mariettaslomka. TV pp Streit geboren. Wir hatten in den letzten beiden Jahren Zuzug von vielleicht 2 Mio. Nach den Wahlen kommt der Familiennachzug, der sich m. Diese Leute konkurrieren mit all denen, die seit langem auf Sozialleistungen angewiesen sind.

Das Geld reicht nicht mehr, der Mittelstand kann nicht mehr. Woher nehmen und nicht stehlen? Das wird blutig und davor haben viele Angst.

9. November bis 22. Dezember 2013

Ob da eine AfD helfen kann? Ich hoffe, bin aber von Beruf Skeptiker. Kann man nachlesen, in der Mopo gibt es eine Tanskription, falls sie nicht inzwischen wegverschwunden wurde. Das ist nicht zu bestreiten. Das war der Skandal? Sie haben ja vollkommen recht, lieber Don: In der guten alten Zeit war nichts besser… und dann irgendwie doch. Ich kann radikale Meinungen akzeptieren. Am rechten Ende eines Kreises ist geometrisch betrachtet das linke Ende. Am Ende jagen doch alle nur einer Utopie hinterher, die einen sehen sie in den 50ern, die anderen darin, sie zu konterkarieren.

Alle haben recht. Sagen wir, der Programmpunkt gibt auch nur her, aber wer wird denn so kleinlich sein? Geschichte wird von Siegern geschrieben, und jede Zeit spiegelt die Geschichte im Lichte ihrer Ideen. Titel eingeben Tja naja — und nun?! Jedenfalls haben wir den Mund wohl doch zu voll genommen; kann ja mal passieren! Und nun — geht in Euch und erkennt wenigstens Euren Freund, wenn Ihr schon zu doof seid, Euren Feind zu identifizieren — und handelt danach. Denn sonst wirds uns leider allen gemeinsam schlecht ergehen und das kann doch keiner wollen!

Hoffentlich kann die Partei sich ihrer nach der Wahl entledigen. Petry handelt? Vielleicht sehe ich da viel klarer als Sie, haben Sie das mal erwogen? Henkel war jahrelang hoch bezahlter Manager, u. Verbessert haben sich beide als EU-Parlamentarier nicht, im Gegenteil.

Sie standen beide in gesicherten Positionen, anders als Frauke Petry — da Sie das Thema nun schon einmal angeschnitten haben. Dass es — wie in jeder Partei — auch schwierige bis inakzeptable Parteimitglieder gibt, streite ich nicht ab. Dass Frauke Petry hier zuerst zu nennen ist, werden Sie mir sicher nicht zugestehen, aber ich sehe es so. Aber, wie Sie wollen. Ansonsten werde ich die Diskussion mit Ihnen nicht mehr fortsetzen. Frauke Petry hat das nicht getan; und das reicht mir schon. Gast um , Es handelt sich dabei um sog. Mit dem Ausstieg aus dem Euro hat das rein gar nichts zu tun.

Und, wenn ich mir das Kompliment erlauben darf, Ihr Ton ist ein guter, Form geht harmonisch einher mit Funktion. Bedenken Sie: es geht um unser Land! Da unterstellen Sie ihm nichts weniger als Schizophrenie, und das ist denn wohl doch mehr als daneben. Ich will Ihnen wieder nicht zu nahe treten, aber 2 Fragen:.

Hallo Harry Charles, meine Stimme habe ich schon per Brief abgegeben. Hoffen wir auf ein Wahlergebnis, das die geradezu suizidale angebliche Alternativlosigkeit korrigieren kann. Und eben auch die einzige neue Partei, die Chancen hat in den Bundestag einzuziehen. Und danach bleibt nur zu hoffen, dass sie sich noch etwas entwickelt. Schade, dass aus der ALFA nichts wurde. Auch die 68er verfielen der Nostalgie, sie zogen das Proletariat wieder hervor als sich die SPD, im Godesberger Programm, eben davon verabschiedet hatte und zur Volkspartei mutierte.

In so turbulenten Zeiten scheinen wir uns wieder zu befinden, wo die Dinge durcheinander geraten. Das wird alles noch spannend. Nein Deutschland braucht wieder eine echte Opposition und eine breitere Debatte grundlegender politischer Entscheidungen. Nein Danke. Ich mache mir real Sorgen. Ziemlich sorglose Jugend, kaum Bildungsprobleme, gute Schulen, hohe Sicherheit und dazu noch guten Journalismus. Gute Schulen in den 70ern und 80ern? Gute Schulen Ist leider relativ. Ich war in den 70ern und 80ern in SH in der Schule.

Trotz eigener schlechter Noten. Die Lehrergeneration davor weil teilweise zwar auch weltfremd, aber eben nur zum Teil. Die legt man sich kurz vor die Ferien um sie in denselben zu korrigieren. Und bei Gymnasiallehrern sind da horrend arbeitsintensive Abiturvorbereitung und -korrektur nicht mal mit eingerechnet. Und die Belastungen nehmen immer mehr zu. Also bitte! Beim Missionieren aus xyz mitgenommen oder so. Ich finde die AfD wirklich in Teilen unappetitlich. Aber Fakt ist: Sie werfen wichtige Fragen auf. Statt mit Argumenten, kommt man mit Stigmatisierung. Die Sechziger schon eher, als Kind, und die waren nicht so schlecht.

Nicht so schlecht, wie das Heute. Demographischer Wandel ist nachplappern vom Bertelsmann Studien. Die Spaltung der Gesellschaft. Ist es gewollt, ist in Kauf genommen, oder ist es schlicht Dummheit? Was mich betrifft ist das nicht hinnehmbar. Das Parlament findet auch nicht mehr statt. Oder wie meinte auch der Finanzier von diversen linkem Plattformen — wir haben es niemanden weggenommen, das Geld, es wurde in diesem Land erwirtschaftet. Die laufen sich gerade erst warm. Wie gesagt. Die laufen sich gerade erst warm!

Nackt- bzw. Bilder von teilweise bekleideten Kindern reichen…. Gut beobachtet, aber es ist noch simpler. Wenn bei den Progressiven abwertend von den 50er Jahren die Rede ist, dann meinen sie doch vor allem die traditionelle Familie. Mit diesem Konzept geraten wir auf Grund von politischen Entscheidungen von Jahr zu Jahr immer weiter ins Hintertreffen.

Alle Bundestagsparteien und die FDP haben an dieser Entwicklung mitgewirkt oder haben Vorstellungen, die noch weit radikaler sind. Die gibt vor, mein guter Anwalt zu sein. Aber die haben mein Vertrauen verspielt, nachhaltig verspielt. Eher soll mir der Arm abfaulen, als dass ich dort mein Kreuzchen setze.

Das Umdenken auf nichttraditionelle Partnerschaften besonders bei der Union und SPD ist ein schwerer Fehler, weil es das Modell ist, das sehr viele Menschen wollen und dann auch konsequent durchziehen. Das hilft der AfD, keine Frage. Das ist das Gemeinsame. Don Alphonso 6. Das glaub ich auch. Genau das. Es ist vielleicht einfacher, als Sie, verehrter Autor, es darstellen, vielleicht spielen Adenauer und Kirchen und Schwulenparagraphen in diesem Vorwurf nur eine sehr kleine Rolle. Die Debatte vom historischen Argument freizuhalten scheint heingegen ein frommer Wunsch.

Ist der Slogan einmal in der Welt, darf der Historiker im Kreis springen und differenzieren, so viel er will. Hilfreich, oder gar konstruktiv, ist das sicher nicht. Wenn es den Jargon dann noch so gibt. In ihr sammelt sich das ganze Zeug, das man nicht braucht, das aber einen inneren Wert hat, von dem man sich nciht trennt. Aber wenn man mal krankheitsbedingtbehindert ist, kann sowas ansonsten Ungewohntes google.

Er bejahte, belustigt mit Blick auf die Femininewarteschlange, und ich eilte hinein — kein Problem und vor allem: sauber!!! Es werden Millionen sein Gut so, denn das machen die wenigesten seiner Zunft. In Mitteldeutschland wird sich dies ganz besonders auswirken. Naja, das ist halt der Osten, aber die Wahlen werden nun mal im Westen entschieden. Japan es tut. Sie wird vergeben werden.

Mit Schlehen habe ich bisher nur Angesetzen gemacht. Gut wenn man die zuvor nochmal einfriert! Es gobt genug, die darauf hoffen, dass die AfD nicht in den bundestag kommt — es wird also Entsetzen geben. JA, genauso mache ich das auch. Fast richtig. Bin verzweifelt. Nur ab und zu. Also Schlehenschnaps ist klar. Die Kerlchen bestehen doch fast nur aus Kern und Schale. Da bekommt die Hefe doch einen Hungerast! Zum Ramadan in Marokko war man von meinen Mitbringseln jedenfalls begeistert.

Man kann auf first-flush-Verschnitte ausweichen, die second-flush-Charakter haben, second flush darjeeling is nicht. Menschen brauchen Sicherheit und eine Art Geborgenheit. Vielleicht auch ganz gut so. Da hat das Elend zumindest ein Ende. Nur, was tun, wenn der Zettel im Ergebnis leer bleibt?? Dabei ist bekannt, dass diese Zeitspanne auch seine Restriktionen hatte. Pest oder Cholera? In Zeiten des schwarzen Tods leben wir nun schon seit 12 Jahren. Off topic: Neulich las ich irgendwo diesen netten Kommentar: Schweizer Zeitung sei das neue Westfernsehen… — Wenn das hier gewesen sein sollte, bitte ich die Dopplung zu entschuldigen….

Wie also soll der geneigte Leser Ihren Rat verstehen? Meinen vermutlich ohnehin dasselbe…. Eigentlich will ich nur das Deutschland wieder, in dem ich gut und gerne gelebt habe. Ich verabschiede mich dann mal als Leser. Vielleicht schreibe ich auch noch einen genaueren, sich inhaltlich mit dem Blogtext auseinandersetzenden Kommentar dazu. Man muss sich halt schon ein bisschen anstrengen und selbst formulieren, was einem an dem Blogtext des Don nicht passt, wenn es einem nicht passt. Stimmt das denn? Dass wir alle durch Mythen und Idyllen motiviert sind — neben anderem!

Man nennt diese Idyllen meistens Werte, aber immer sind damit Heilsziele verbunden. Aber so ein Land gibt es nicht. Politiker sind doch nur Kosmetiker. Das macht die Partei auch methodisch so unangenehm radikalistisch. Aber welche Konservativen orientieren sich noch an Balance, Wortgerechtigkeit, Bedachtsamkeit? Adorno hat ja die Dialektik der Geschichte auch nicht zu Ende gedacht.

Ja, da haben Sie Recht, die Dialektik wird erst noch rihtig entfalten. Verstehe ich Sie richtig? Im Wirtschaftswunder-Deutschland des Jahres ! Ich kann nicht mehr, ich will nicht mehr, ich will sie einfach leiden sehen. Allerdings nicht von einer ideen- und visionslosen Bundeskanzlerin. Was schreiben Sie denn da eigentlich? Aktuelle politische Entwicklungen in z.

Kein kluger Mensch will m. Aber das Bestehende zu erhalten, zu bewahren, gegebenenfalls sanft verbessern z. Das Gegenteil sind die sog. Klar gab es schlimme Aspekte z. Don Sie sind geboren, ich Wir haben somit eine unterschiedliche Kindheit erlebt und Sie schreiben von den 70ern und nicht von den 50ern. Der Unterschied von zu war ein Zeitensprung. Was Sie erlebt haben, hat mit den 50ern nichts zu tun. Sie meinen die Siebziger. Wie ich geschrieben habe: Die 50er dauerten bei uns auf dem Land bis in die 80er. Sie gehen erst mit Streibls Sturz zuende. Nachsicht Er hat nen Wasserrohrbruch und ist etwas durcheinander.

Vor allem, wohin damit. Deswegen radelt er heute. Ich muss nicht radeln, weil ich hungrig aufgewachsen bin zu wenig Fettzellen. Allein schon die Klage ist so dumm und widersinnig. Das ist ja noch leichter als aus Italien. Haben Sie etwas davon mitbekommen, Don A. Wer soll und kann dagegen klagen? Der Drops ist gelutscht. Keine Antwort. Mein Wahlbrief ist bereits auf dem Postweg. Und der Beweis ist nun zweifelsfrei erbracht. Ich werde am Candidesgarten Das passt schon so. Alles i. Und andere auch.


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Irgendwann wird die heutige Macke vorbei sein, wonach wir Deutsche die Welt retten und den Menschen verbessern. Heute ist es gleichzeitig besser und schlechter als damals, es ist eben anders. Und wahrscheinlich wird es wieder Besserwisser in den Redaktionen und den Parlamenten geben, die auf die schrecklichen Jahre zwischen und herabsehen.

Den kalten Krieg mit seiner anhaltenden atomaren Bedrohung — schon vergessen? Und wir haben durch die exponentielle Technisierung, Digitalisierung und Globalisierung riesige Aufgaben vor uns. Vorher schon die Waschmaschine oder auch den Fernseher. All die Gaffer verstehe ich nicht. Immer alles wegen des Versicherungsfalles. Es wird immer bekloppter und gesteuerter. Keine Eigenverantwortung mehr zu sehen. Korrelation und Kausation Vielleicht tut einfach die Kirchensteuer mehr weh, wenn man mehr verdient.

Und nun noch Klima. Alles Gedankenverbrechen. Man stelle sich vor! Soetwas kann doch gar keinen Umweltschutz lieben. Am Ende erscheint es mir, als wolle man sich endlich entledigen, was einem schon lange auf der Seele brannte: Vergangenes, Ungutes, Dunkles.

Juli und zwar massenhaft, aber das meist ausgeblendet, in dieser Retortenwelt. Und nicht blindlings jeden Andersdenkenden zum Monster machen. Bei Spon gab es zu Strunz auch eine breite Debatte, wo sich immerhin ca. Und sich herausnimmt den Akteuren und Verantwortlichen so zu befragen! Fefe immer wieder vermeldet. Mein Rechtssoziologieprof. Aber vielleicht hat es das einfach noch nicht in meine Blase geschafft… Aber ich bin bei Ihnen, solch Denke zeugt in der Tat nur von Weltfremdheit und Dummheit.

Oder all die Waisen… Es gab also berechtigten Wunsch nach heiler Welt in den 50ern. Nach Vergessen. Nach besseren Zeiten. Nach Familie mit Vater-Mutter-Kind. Dies aus heutiger Sicht arrogant abzuqualifizieren ist schlicht asozial.

Performing Terrorism

Titel eingeben Hans, das ist es. Und — Es wurde besser! Da ist alles! Die Eliten verstanden wir sind ein Volk! Es sind doch Heroen, und besonders heroisch ist es wenn das Opfer auch noch auf dem falschen Altar, dem der Globalisierung erfolgt und nicht auf dem der Einheit, der Freiheit und des Rechts.

Die Heroen verstanden: Ihr seid das Volk. Mal sehen ob das verstanden wird. Mittlerweile suche ich schon gezielt nach Ihren Kommentaren. Uli49 Ach, besser nicht. Wer will sowas essen, da schmeckt es doch nicht mehr, oder? Wie in den letzten Jahren der DDR. Aber das hab ich, glaub ich, schon einmal geschrieben. Sozialer Aufstieg war damals die Regel und sozialer Neid auf die Bessergestellten z.

Ich lese gerade wieder K. Popper woran glaubt der Westen? Es ist erhellend, zu lesen, warum sich Popper, der sich als kritischer Rationalist versteht, nicht mit einem Scheindisputanten wie Habermas unterhalten will. Pereat mundi. DaDa, oder was? Bei uns zog er noch den Leiterwagen, und wir Kinder sassen drin und johlten.

Das ist die Zeit, die der Hausherr des Blogs hier beschreibt. Die AfD wird kommen, und sie wird gehen. Und auch die Aufgeregtheit unserer Zeit wird irgendwann einmal eine gute, alte Zeit sein, nach der wir uns mit Wehmut sehnen werden. Sie wurden es. Abweichler wurden mundtot gemacht, beruflich vernichtet, eingesperrt, abgeschoben. Fast jeder, der sich bis dahin an einen noch so kleinen Zipfel Hoffnung auf eine Zukunft in seiner Heimat geklammert hatte, wurde entmutigt. Schlimm ist was anderes.. Die wie hier zu lesen unbedingt dadurch klug erscheinen wollen, in dem sie z.

Das ist miefig kleingeistig und so was von fuffziger! Demokratie heisst den Volkswillen umsetzen. Der Kaiser oder die Kaiserin;- ist nackt. Der hat nix richtiges studiert und gearbeitet, man kauft also mit Sicherheit die Katze im Sack noch mehr als Macron. Weitgehend ist er auch ein Folge von Hofers Wahlerfolg. Er ist eine Mogelpackung wie Macron. Was sonst nach den ersten 50 Jahren des Jahrhunderts. Heute sind wir wieder wer und haben vor allem einen moralischen Anspruch. Such has been the unwaveringly maintained attitude of Professor von Mises, and to recognize that it is also the motor of advancing human thought in general does not detract a whit from the lasting value and brilliance of his work, but ranks him among the great thinkers of the West.

Alas, this stock taking will perforce be subjective.

Neue Kunst. Hahnenstraße 6. D-50667 Köln

But an aim never quite to be reached. The choice of the factors considered to be relevant assumes already decisions based on personal preferences. There is no thinker of the past whose ideas do not look to us as coloured by the values he and his times took for granted. It is unlikely that what we think and say today will not look to our posterity as carrying the same mark.

Our view of the world perforce will be our view. What has distinguished the lasting thinkers has been their effort and success in keeping their eyes at horizon level and their consciousness of the dependence of that level upon the viewer's emplacement, which has saved them of the grosser distortions of mere foreground view. The present trend of a purely quantitative approach to economics, the jolting jargon of contemporary sociology, often simply due to clumsy translation of current foreign idioms, hardly digestible to those of us who still believe in style and how excellent a stylist Professor von Mises is!

One of the attainments of our Jubilar making of him a teacher of whom there will be always very much to be learned, is the skill and penetration with which he has always kept abstract thinking in direct communication with the multiform substance of life. They do not pretend to be exhaustive, not even perhaps well balanced. But I believe they point to factors which have some relevance. In taking stock of the present scene, this writer believes to perceive the following outstanding features: a an ever accelerating increase of the technical capacity of mankind or at least some important sectors of mankind; b concomitant accelerating changes of the modes of cooperation and relations among individuals, and their aggregation, in short, what I should like to call the texture of society; c a cumulative increase and crowding of world population; d a variety of negative reactions or defensive attitudes or blocking mechanisms, apparently intended to, or anyhow effective in, warding off these accelerating changes; e a spread of compulsive political systems, communist or otherwise collectivist, and the consequent authoritarian government interference with what was up to then private activity.

These five features seem to me closely interlocking. The present expansion of technology seems to have no parallel during any earlier period. To give this assertion more weight than that of a phrase, one would like to have a standard by which to measure quantitatively technological advance. I don't know whether any such standard exists, but there is enough material available to construct indices allowing to compare the technological advance per time unit of different ages.

Technological advance appears to be almost synonymous with expanded and intensified division of labour, as has been stressed, since Adam Smith, by all great economists, Professor von Mises not the least of them. It is widely recognized that accelerating change and the expanding range of the division of labour seem to segregate each individual from the smaller human units in which he was and still is imbedded, changing the pattern of his emotional attachment to persons and activities.

A much greater mobility is required of him, a readiness to change his dwelling place, profession and proficiency, to fit into new teams, since any activity he might have chosen may become obsolete overnight. Stability of position is less assured, whilst new ways of insuring against the risks of change are developing. A process of simultaneous weakening and accenting individuality is underway. People are becoming more exchangeable, more uniform, but are also offered a wider choice of differentiating knowledge, interests, pastimes and socially neutral values.

Being diminutive cogs in an enormous, unified economy, they may feel more Edition: current; Page: [ 17 ] impotent despite augmented available means. They may realize more clearly than in earlier times that they depend upon the cooperation of hundreds of millions of unknown fellow men and the decision of millions of leaders.

Change has become a value in itself in the most advanced societies. Otherwise it could not go on at the pace it does. It is assumed that change assures greater flexibility, adaptability and opportunity. It is also commonly still assumed that in the end conditions will be the better, not the worse for change. However, change may evidently be for the worse. Or it may be for the better in some and for the worse in some other measure or period.

And it will often be impossible to balance the long term pros and cons, as that would require the gift of prophecy. Ecological deterioration as counterpart of an ever growing supply of commodities is notably the change for the worse of which people in the advanced countries are most aware. Such deterioration seems to have happened often in the past in connection with technological advance. In the less advanced societies the change for the worse most in view is probably unchecked human proliferation.

Again the same effect, if on a smaller scale, seems to have accompanied past technological advance, although the progressive rather than the arrested societies may have turned out to become more prolific in the past. This proposition sounds somewhat paradoxical, since population growth supposes improved living conditions and a larger population may, although does not have to, intensify the division of labour and with it its efficiency.

Biology teaches us that crisis in the life of species are sometimes preceded by abnormal proliferation, it being uncertain in which direction the causal sequence runs. Whatever else man may be, he is definitely a biological phenomenon. This outlook we are Edition: current; Page: [ 18 ] inclined to neglect, feeling ourselves lords of the creation, free in our individual decisions, prompted by our ideas rather than by external circumstance, capable of keeping the species on a safe course, either by the reasoned decision of the many or the reason and force of the few. Recent times have witnessed an enormously increased general welfare within the advanced societies, engendering endeavours to help the less advanced ones to create a comparable welfare in their midst.

Their population increase has often frustrated the intent. More than anything else, this has awakened man to the menace implicit in the trend. Does this force us to give up our confidence in the free decisions of the many? By no means. No doubt, individuals may show inclinations which seem at variance with the interest of the species. Conversely individuals are moved by natural drives which do not answer to the individual interest in its narrowest sense.

But this is precisely a decisive argument for relying on the working of individual decisions. The gregarious instincts, the sex drive, the care for the offspring, tend to preserve the life of the species, the cohesion of human groupings and in the end also the needs of the individuals. Zoologists have found that members of animal species living in a state of nature follow behaviour patterns which keep their population within bounds.

Yet where external influences destroy the balance of the state of nature to which the species or group has adapted, these checks will fail and need to be replaced by new checks in accordance with the altered conditions, to be developed through time consuming learning or natural selection. If the restoration of a state of nature is continuously disturbed such readaptation may also fail. It is said that the sacred cows in India reduce the natural resources available to the human population of that nation. If this bovine population were, in addition, cared for by modern veterinary methods and fed enriched, balanced food, it is likely that their numbers would grow out of all proportion Edition: current; Page: [ 19 ] and in the end metaphorically eat up their human hosts.

Only the ensuing hardships could reactivate behaviour patterns tending to equate population to available resources. Modern procedures extending human life expectancy are the achievement of societies which after expanding while they found suitable empty expanses on the globe, have since spontaneously checked proliferation. The development of attitudes equating population to resources are likely to take a longer time and entail suffering as the momentum of previous population growth will mechanically continue for a while after the new restrictive attitudes have already been developed.

If the rate of change accelerated indefinitely, e. Not only natural tendencies are active in this field, but also cultural traditions, religious teachings, psychological reactions and historical experience. Under their influence, governments may try to sustain or provoke population trends, as the Romans did and contemporary France. Such policies may be pursued by legislation or by suasion or may be the outcome of simple, unarticulated feelings prevalent in a society.

I shall take up this point later. Although change per se as exponent of social liveliness appears to have been raised to the dignity of a value, different sectors may find that change only merits such promotion if it moves in a given direction. Cleavages may thus result among different groups in a changing society. In America a few years ago the meaning of change was taken to be technological advance and intensified division of labour and its social reflection a homogenized, internally rather unstructured national community, containing little or not very solid sub-groups.

At present many younger people in America seem to have turned away from the first part of that understanding of desired change, but seem still committed to the second part, its social counterpart, moving also towards the breaking up of the smaller social units, among which the unicellular family. Thus also the dissenting movement in America is apparently not directed against change as such. Nevertheless, it is an important shift the significance of which is not yet quite clear. Intergenerational revolt has been common during the last two centuries but whether its meaning was similar to the present movement is not easy to decide.

No comparable eruptions are yet discernible in Europe, perhaps because industrial Europe is still in transition, hesitating whether to move into the forefront of technological advance. This may also prompt intergenerational confrontation. In the older type societies one may observe revealing contradictions between declared aims and rejected means.

But progress as a never ending process requiring certain conditions and producing certain effects, is much less desired. The inevitable changes in the social texture dissolution of emotional bonds within smaller groupings are strongly rejected by many, while changes in the stratification and distribution of social power may be welcomed in different ways by different members.


  • Introduction;
  • Theorie der sozialen Reproduktion: Zurück zu (welchem) Marx?.
  • Destiny’s Rift (Broken Well Trilogy Book 2).

The role of an expanding, flexible, increasingly subtle, disciplined and precise division and recombination of labour is seldom understood. The indispensable conditions: continued retraining, the application of considerable capital per man, the scope to be given to managerial skill, the merging of the economy into larger units to warrant such division of labour are not often recognized.

It is resistance against this change of social aggregation, much more than any existing power structure, that stands in the way of successful technological advance. Tremendous differences separate the older type societies and the ways in which they react differ accordingly. Very schematically we may distinguish between 1 the very archaic societies, such as the Andean Indians and the Sub-Saharan black Africans; 2 the nations which remember having been once cultural leaders, as the Arabs and the populations of the northern shores of the Mediterranean; 3 the old and highly cultivated societies which developed on lines differing from those followed by the West, not less subtle but less efficient, established in Taiwan, South Korea and not so long ago Japan.

I leave out the huge bodies of India far from homogeneous , China in the course of transformations which nobody can yet tell where they may lead and Eastern Europe a heterodox province of the West. The East Asian societies went into the process of adapting to Western technology with enormous zeal and initiative, leaving little to chance transference through trade and other contacts. Keeping abreast of events, Japan has joined the technologically most advanced group of nations, as to the range and quality of its production, organizational talent and arrested proliferation, yet still maintaining tradition bound smaller groupings within its society, including relics of the wider family and a unicellular family of a texture somewhat different from the Western forms.

South Korea and Taiwan seem to follow a related pattern. One might venture the hypothesis, that the members of these societies, conceiving themselves traditionally as learners from more advanced alien cultures—originally the Chinese—have developed techniques which allow them to absorb other societies' superior achievements up to clearly defined self-set limits, without attaching any stigma to this adaptation nor hurt to national self-esteem. The maintenance of traditions considered of value may require of them extra toil but affords the advantage of a richer assortment of cultural elements.

Few societies have the stamina, cohesion, initiative and discipline of the Japanese and their example will not be easy for others to follow. They were additionally favoured by factors which may not recur elsewhere: their highly developed crafts; their not too depressed living standards; their productive surplus formerly used to embellish life and now available for capital accumulation; the size of their society allowing for organized division of labour on the appropriate scale; the policies of free trade and enterprise prevailing at the time, allowing them to organize a fruitful industrial and financial coordination of labour beyond the national frontiers; a social texture still prevailing throughout the world but especially at home, thanks to which social leadership was heeded with deep respect.

Japanese adaptation to modern technology did not avoid the particularistic reactions mentioned in section 9, but they did not obstruct technological advance, owing to exceptionally helpful external and internal factors. At the opposite pole stand those societies whose traditions see them as teachers of mankind.

The Arabs, propagators of a creed born in their midst, have been also cultural leaders after a brief and probably popular forgotten period of assimilation of Greek, Latin and Persian thought. These traditions, more than a thousand years of almost uninterrupted war with the peoples of the West, an advance arrested by a number of unfavourable circumstances, the rigidity of a religious legal system regulating in unchangeable script down to minute details of their social organization and everyday behaviour, seem to make it particularly odious to them to seek progress in assimilating not so much alien techniques as the changes in social textures and behaviour that go with them.

The conflict between their craving the fruits of progress and the psychological obstacles that make the process so hazardous may go far to explain the restlessness of their societies. The nations of southern Europe, Greeks, Italians, Spaniards, have also been teachers of mankind and especially of the peoples of the North. Seeing themselves demoted to pupils of their former pupils has laid the ground for resentments, sharpened by religious schism: East-West and South-North. Particularly Reformation and Counter-Reformation have consolidated differences in rules of behaviour and family textures that were for long periods sources of reciprocal antipathy.

However, historical developments have allayed most of these sentiments, which at present seem to have disappeared altogether in Europe, although the strong southern leftist movements, not exactly duplicated in the North, may be obliquely derived from the same tensions. But these secular resentments continue in Latin America in accordance with the oft observed phenomenon that fashions and passions survive in the outlaying provinces of a cultural area well after they have disappeared at the Centre.

The technological gap between America and the rest of the world is real. Most conscious of it are other industrial countries as may be seen by the many European publications dealing with it. Here the gap is narrow, but the industrial countries know what they are concerned about. Between the Edition: current; Page: [ 24 ] industrial countries and other less advanced societies the gap is much wider and the understanding of its nature is correspondingly less.

Its breadth is enormous as related to the archaic societies and misconceptions or simple ignorance are equally conspicuous. If superior technology has always consisted in superior knowledge and the disposal of tools multiplying the capacity of human limbs and facilitating the deployment of human thought, it now means the command of procedures coordinating and pooling the thought, research and material effort of untold numbers not of any people but persons intellectually and behaviourly trained to act efficiently in such a vast assemblage. A gathering of disjointed masses will not do.

The members of archaic societies, organized as they always are in very small units, cannot even conceive what it is about. The gap is not unbridgeable but supposes such a deep transformation of less advanced and particularly the archaic societies that nobody can tell when and how it may happen. Archaic societies may be more or less willing and more or less able to undergo such change. South Saharan black Africans have commonly been under colonial rule for less than a century. Although it might have hurt self-esteem, especially of the large ethnic units, colonial rule has almost always improved personal safety, health except where security favoured the propagation of diseases , economic prosperity and opportunities of education.

The colonial powers had outgrown religious and social fanaticism, had no stake in destroying the social systems under which Africans lived and proscribed only customs at extreme variance with European feelings, as human sacrifice. Africans are not overly fertile and continued being plagued by tropical diseases and high mortality rates.

The slave trade of preceding centuries would not have been possible without African tribes and potentates providing the commodity. European traders only contributed the market and transport. Therefore, Africans on the whole did not develop strong resentments against the former colonizers nor is their attachment to their own social system overly charged with conservative emotion. Owing to high mortality rates, their desire for progeny is strong but might yield with improvement of health.

Africans in general would probably not put up emotional resistance against integrating closer than at present into a modern economic system led by industrial nations. Very different is the attitude of the South American Indians. Their clash with Spaniards left a deep and lasting trauma. According to the spirit of the times, Spanish rule lacked all those features which made colonialism in Africa bearable and in many ways beneficial. In the course of history the contact of societies separated by a very wide technological gradient has often lead to the destruction of the backward society by war, disruptive enslavement, diseases, discouragement, confinement into habitats barely permitting survival and miscegenation.

Up to modern times this has been the lot of most of the smaller backward ethnic groups. What has preserved the Andean Indians has been their number which, though it greatly shrunk in early colonial centuries, recovered later. It is in this light that some violent reactions against family planning, encouraged alike by the catholic clergy and Marxist catechists must be seen and understood. The Spanish attempt at destroying paganism would, if successful, have dissolved the Amerindian value system and with it indigenous society itself, since shared values are the cement without which associations fall asunder.

It is in connection with that danger that the resistance of Andean Indians to fundamental change in their style of life has to be seen and understood. Having been cut off for so long from the main body of mankind and its cultural evolution, it is likely that American Indians had a comparatively poor training in conceptualization and analytical faculty, the growth of which one may suppose to accompany the use and improvement of mechanical devices.

Feeling themselves thus doubly handicapped, they did not attempt to discover the sources of their conquerors' superior power, but withdrew into a deliberate attitude of mental torpor vis-a-vis the foreigners' ways, ignoring as much thereof as possible and only taking over what was forced on them or had to be shown in order to avoid repression. Within this hull of apparent stolid indifference, they continued their traditional life in extreme poverty in their small communities, unable to develop a social solidarity embracing larger social units. Periodically desperation drove them to revolt against the oppressors.

This role of oppressor, as though one of those devil masks used in their colourful pantomimes, has been fitted, with changing control of power over land and mines and suitable indoctrination, to successive different impersonators: originally the Spaniards, then the local upper classes, it has been Edition: current; Page: [ 26 ] passed on to the Americans and lately, in a curious re-edition of the Chinese Cultural Revolution, to the administrators and technicians of State owned mines or cooperativized former private exploitations, irrespective of whether the impersonators had actually committed any acts of oppression.

Citizens of Latin American countries enclosing substantial bodies of Andean Indians are confronted with a double problem: to steer the western minded sector—often a minority, always a small number—into the stream of technological advance through the rapids of changing social texture and to modernize, and finally merge with, their archaic sector, a process even more beset with uncertainties which no society as yet has succeeded in carrying through.

Casting members of the industrial societies into the role of the oppressors, in which large sectors of the western minded fraction concur or acquiesce, may be seen as an instinctive attempt at giving both social bodies a common stand. That oppression and expolitation are compulsive ingredients of thought in societies where vast social bodies have been subjected to them for centuries, is understandable.

But only few Latin American countries contain archaic societies, whilst the obsession is shared by all, whether more advanced or backward. It may be a common feature of societies who have experienced prolongued foreign unenlightened rule. Latin American emancipation was a reaction against a greedy and narrow minded metropolitan mercantilism, hostile to colonial economic development, and characteristically occured as this policy had softened its grip. Periodically a nightmare surfaces, of fears of being exploited by foreign powers whose nationals have placed capital in the country in order to render technical services, benefit natural resources or establish industries; of being victimized by big corporations; of having their way barred towards domestic technological advancement; to lose control over the national destiny; in short of becoming a colony again.

As mentioned in sections 9 and 12, this syndrome may be understood as nonacceptance of changing textures in social agglutination felt as a loss of national identity. It is often reinforced by reminiscences of historical South-North antipathies and affords the solace of a good hearty hatred. This syndrome works as an effective blocking mechanism.

It obstructs the social changes normally associated with modern technological advance and fetters the most enterprising members of the nation in Japan the artificers of development , branding them as pawns of foreign exploiters if not exploiters in their own right. It hinders foreign investment, indispensable when local capital is short and deters local private investment, since where foreign investment is not secure, local investment is less so.

This calls in the State since where foreign and local capital is frightened away, there remains only the recourse to compulsive accumulation of funds by the public purse either for direct investment or the repayment of loans. But the State is called in for other reasons still.

Technological advance is seen as a limited military campaign and not as an unlimitable development of new forms of work on a vaster cooperative scale. As this requires somebody to utter an unanswerable fiat, it is but natural to put the task in the hands of the public, particularly the military authorities. These strategies will have to be judged by their results. As they reject available capital, ignore economies of scale and labour mobility, encourage indiscipline, shake business morale by repudiating contractual obligations, neglect natural selection of leaders, it will be surprising indeed if they should succeed.

But they may be pursued almost indefinitely because of the provident creation of scapegoats. Xenophobia may be used without any sign of wear and tear in putting the blame for failures at the door of foreigners over and over again. One meets often the opinion that extremist leanings in less advanced nations are prompted by poverty and that more generous aid and a faster growth of effective and not only statistical per capita income will revert these inclinations. If exceptionally that may hold true, more often it will prove fallacious. A faster growth will generally speed up social transformation through dislocation and increased tensions.

However these lines do not propose to discourage aid. They intend to show the working of factors which, although far from unknown, are not always given the attention this writer believes they deserve as elements of reality. Man is more influenced by his ideas and wishes than by facts. He will look at reality through the grid of his mental constructs, convinced that the world is articulated as shown by the grid. Only through doubt, raised by occasionally discernible discrepancies between grid and fact can one come to grips with reality. And only when a sufficient number of members of different societies have grown conscious of what is reality and what is fancy and are prepared to act in accordance, can one hope that through their mutual understanding will their efforts at improving human conditions turn effective.

A condition of liberty in which all are allowed to use their own knowledge for their own purposes, restrained only by rules of just conduct of universal application, is likely to produce for them the best conditions for achieving their respective aims. Such a system is likely to be achieved and maintained only if all authority, including that of the majority of the people, is limited in the exercise of coercive power by general principles to which the community has committed itself. Individual freedom, wherever it has existed, has been largely the product of a prevailing respect for such principles which, however, have never been fully articulated in constitutional documents.

Freedom has been preserved for prolonged periods because such principles, vaguely and dimly perceived, have governed public opinion. The institutions by which the countries of the Western World have attempted to protect individual freedom against progressive encroachment by government have always proved inadequate when transferred to conditions where such traditions did not prevail. And they have not provided sufficient protection against the effects of new desires which even among the peoples of the West now often loom larger than the older conceptions——conceptions that made possible the periods of freedom when these peoples gained their present positions.

That I have attempted elsewhere. The freedom to pursue his own aims is in fact at least as important for the complete altruist as for the most selfish. Altruism, to be a virtue, certainly does not presuppose that one has to follow another person's will. We need not consider here again the undeniable fact that the beneficial effects on others of one's efforts will often become visible to him only if he acts as part of a concerted effort of many in accordance with a coherent plan, and that it may often be difficult for the isolated individual to do much about evils that deeply concern him.

It is of course part of his freedom that for such purposes he can join, or create, organizations which will enable him to take part in concerted action. And though some of the ends of the altruist will be achievable only by collective action, purely selfish ends will as often be achieved through it.

There is no necessary connection between altruism and collective action, or between egotism and individual action. From the insight that the benefits of civilization rest on the use of more knowledge than can be used in any deliberately concerted effort, it follows that it is not in our power to build a desirable society by simply putting together the particular elements that by themselves appear desirable. Though probably all beneficial improvements must be piecemeal, if the separate steps are not guided by a body of coherent principles, the outcome is likely to be a suppression of individual freedom.

The reason for this is very simple though not generally understood. Since the value of freedom rests on the opportunities it provides for unforeseen and unpredictable actions, we will rarely know what we lose through a particular restriction of freedom. Any such restriction, any coercion other than the enforcement of general rules, will aim at the Edition: current; Page: [ 31 ] achievement of some foreseeable particular result, but what is prevented by it will usually not be known. The indirect effects of any interference with the market order will be near and clearly visible in most cases, while the more indirect and remote effects will mostly be unknown and will therefore be disregarded.

We shall never be aware of all the costs of achieving particular results by such interference. And so, when we decide each issue solely on what appears to be its individual merits, we always overestimate the advantages of central direction. Our choice will regularly appear to be one between a certain known and tangible gain and the mere probability of the prevention of some unknown beneficial action by unknown persons.

If the choice between freedom and coercion is thus treated as a matter of expediency, freedom is bound to be sacrificed in almost every instance. As in the particular instance we hardly ever know what would be the consequences of allowing people to make their own choice, to make the decision in each instance depending only on the foreseeable particular results must lead to the progressive destruction of freedom.

There are probably few restrictions on freedom which could not be justified on the ground that we do not know the particular loss it will cause. That freedom can be preserved only if it is treated as a supreme principle which must not be sacrificed for particular advantages was fully understood by the leading liberal thinkers of the nineteenth century, one of whom B. All these warnings were, however, thrown to the wind, and the progressive discarding of principles and the increasing determination during the last hundred years to proceed pragmatically is one of the most important innovations in social and economic policy.

Since warnings against this sort of procedure have often been misunderstood, as one of my earlier books has, a few more words about their intention may be appropriate. What I meant to argue in The Road to Serfdom was certainly not that whenever we depart, however slightly, from what I Edition: current; Page: [ 33 ] regard as the principles of a free society, we shall ineluctably be driven to go the whole way to a totalitarian system.

The end of the liberal era of principles might will be dated at the time when W. The contention often advanced that certain political measures were inevitable has a curious double aspect. With regard to developments that are approved by those who employ this argument, it is readily accepted and used in Edition: current; Page: [ 34 ] justification of the actions. But when developments take an undesirable turn, the suggestion that this is not the effect of circumstances beyond our control but the consequence of earlier decisions is rejected with scorn.

The idea that we are not fully free to pick and choose whatever combination of features we wish our society to possess, or to fit them together into a viable whole, that is, that we cannot build a desirable social order like a mosaic by selecting whatever particular parts we like best, and that many well-intentioned measures may have a long train of unforeseeable and undesirable consequences, seem to be intolerable to modern man.

He has been taught that what he has made he can also alter at will to suit his wishes, and conversely, that what he can alter he must also have deliberately made in the first instance. In fact, of course, the chief circumstance which will make some measures seem unavoidable is usually the result of our past actions and of the opinions which are now being held. I am myself now old enough to have been told more than once by my elders that certain consequences of their policy which I foresaw would never occur, and later, when they did appear, to have been told by younger men that these were in any case inevitable and quite independent of what had been done.

The reason why we cannot achieve a coherent whole by just fitting together any elements we like is that the appropriateness of any particular arrangement within a spontaneous order will depend on all the rest of it, and that any particular change we make in it will influence the effects of any further steps. Experience with a particular arrangement in one institutional setting will tell us little about how it would operate in a different setting.

An experiment can tell us only whether any innovation does or does not fit into a given framework. But to hope that we can build a coherent order by random experimentation with particular solutions Edition: current; Page: [ 35 ] of individual problems and without following guiding principles is an illusion. Experience tells us much about the effectiveness of different social and economic systems as a whole. But an order of the complexity of modern society can neither be designed as a whole, nor by shaping each particular part separately without regard to the rest, but only by consistently adhering to certain principles throughout a process of evolution.

It is probably true that in the eighteenth century the English, little given to speculation about general principles, were for this reason more firmly guided by strong opinions about what kind of political actions were permissible, than the French who tried so hard to discover and adopt such principles. The truth seems to be that while they talked little about principles, the English were much more surely guided by principles, while in France the very speculation about basic principles prevented any one set of principles from taking a firm hold.

Sheila McGregor

The preservation of a free system is so difficult because it requires a constant rejection of measures which Edition: current; Page: [ 36 ] appear to be required to secure particular results, on no stronger grounds than that they conflict with a general rule, and frequently without our knowing what will be the costs of not observing the rule in the particular instance. A successful defense of freedom must therefore be dogmatic and make no concessions to expediency, even where it is not possible to show that besides the known beneficial effects, some particular harmful result also would follow from its infringement.

Freedom will prevail only if it is accepted as a general principle whose application to particular instances requires no justification. It is thus a misunderstanding to blame classical liberalism for having been too doctrinaire. Its defect was not that it adhered too stubbornly to principles, but that it lacked principles sufficiently definite to provide clear guidance, and that it often appeared simply to accept the traditional functions of government and to oppose all new ones. Consistency is only possible if definite principles are accepted. But the concept of liberty with which the liberals of the 19th century operated was in many respects so vague that it did not provide clear guidance.

People will not refrain from those restrictions on individual liberty that appear to them the simplest and most direct remedy of a recognized evil if there does not prevail a strong belief in definite principles. The loss of such belief and the preference for expediency is in part the result of the fact that we no longer know any principles which can be rationally defended.

Die Ergebnisse der Bewohnerbefragungen zu Zufriedenheit mit der Sanierung, zum Waermeempfinden vor und nach der Sanierung, zu Gewohnheiten in der Heizperiode, sowie zum Umgang mit der Heizungsregelungstechnik werden dargelegt. Predicting the service life of connecting rod and main bearings, taking into account different engine loads. Final report; Lebensdauervorhersage fuer Pleuel- und Hauptlager unter Beruecksichtigung unterschiedlicher Motorlastkollektive.

Connecting rod and main bearings of internal combustion engines are among the most heavily stressed components in modern engines. It was found that these engine components are increasingly reaching the limits of their strength and therefore become the components limiting engine life.

However, there is no known process which makes a calculated prediction of the service life of modern connecting rod and main bearings possible, taking into account various engine loads. In this research project, a new concept for the calculated prediction of the service life of non-static highly loaded radial sliding bearings is worked out. The basis is a process of calculation which realistically determines the pressure and gap course in highly loaded sliding bearings.

The results are compared with the present conventional process of calculation and the effects which occur are discussed. Based on the elasto-hydrodynamic calculation, a method of calculating the service life of non-statically loaded sliding bearings, taking into account various motor loads, is worked out.

Es hat sich gezeigt, dass vor allem diese Maschinenelemente zunehmend an die Grenzen ihrer Belastbarkeit stossen und so zum lebensdauerbegrenzenden Bauteil werden. Es ist jedoch kein Verfahren bekannt, das eine rechnerische Lebensdauervorhersage moderner Pleuel- und Hauptlager unter Beruecksichtigung unterschiedlicher Motorlastkollektive ermoeglicht. Im vorliegenden Forschungsvorhaben wird daher ein neuartiges Konzept zur rechnerischen Lebensdauervorhersage von instationaeren.

Blades and discs in gas turbines. Behaviour of material and components. Project department A-C. Projektbereiche A bis C. This final report deals with the work in the years , and In the area of optimising casting structure, it was shown that the making grains finer up to the medium temperature range can be a suitable means for significantly raising the resistance to LCF loading with nearly unchanged heat and creep strength properties. Another main point was the characterisation and optimisation of sprayed ceramic layers on metallic substrates heat insulating layers and compound ceramic materials.

Dieser Abschlussbericht behandelt die Arbeiten der Jahre , und Auf dem Gebiet der Gussgefuegeoptimierung konnte gezeigt werden, dass die Kornfeinung bis in den mittleren Temperaturbereich ein geeignetes Mittel sein kann, um den Widerstand gegen LCF-Belastung bei annaehernd unveraenderten Warm- und Kriechfestigkeitseigenschaften signifikant zu erhoehen. Einen weiteren Schwerpunkt bildete die Charakterisierung und. Research on the subject of air pollution and forest damage in the period from to Report on results; Forschung zum Schwerpunkt Luftverunreinigungen und Waldschaeden These activities comprised a total of approximately 80 research projects which were conducted by Bavarian reserach institutes.

Most of the projects were dedicated to research into the effects of pollution. The complex interactions prevailing in forest ecosystems are reflected in the wide variety of research topics dealt with, which ranged form the determination of pollutant deposition, atmospheric chemistry, over biochemical and physiological mechanisms of pollutant uptake in tree to soil analyses taking fibrous roots and mycorrhiza into account. The field studies were conducted at the interdisciplinary research bases of the Bavarian forest damage research programme, among which the Wank research base plays an outstanding role.

They were flanked by laboratory work and controlled experiments performed in the exposition chambers of the GSF. Even though numerous questions relating to material processes and to alterations in forest ecosystems remain to be solved, at lest in some research areas it is now possible to derive conclusive statements from the results of the conducted forest damage research.

This report sums up the results obtained. Ueber die Projektgruppe wurden insgesamt rund 80 Forschungsvorhaben durch bayerische Forschungsinstitutionen bearbeitet. Die Forschungsvorhaben waren ueberwiegend im Bereich der Wirkungsforschung angesiedelt. Entsprechend den komplexen Zusammenhaengen im Waldoekosystem reichten die Forschungsansaetze von der Ermittlung der Immissionsituation. Selection and examination of types of waste relevant to underground disposal.

Reichelt, C. Braunschweig Germany. Kenntnisse ueber den Abfall selbst, die geologisch-hydrogeologischen Verhaeltnisse des Deponieraumes und seiner Umgebung sowie der zukuenftigen Entwicklung des gesamten Deponiesystems. Hierzu muessen insbesondere die Abfaelle selbst sowie deren Reaktionsvermoegen mit fluiden Komponenten in geologischen Systemen bekannt sein und erforderlichenfalls untersucht und bewertet werden.

Damit konnten wichtige Aussagen zum Abfallaufkommen selbst und den zu beruecksichtigenden Abfallinhaltsstoffen ermittelt, wie auch eine Abschaetzung deren Gefaehrdungspotentials vorgenommen werden und als Grundlage fuer weiterfuehrende Forschungs- und Entwicklungsarbeiten dienen. Reduction of environmental pollution - Mohndruck Energy Centre with PHC installation and cooperative energy combination. Abschlussbericht mit Anlagen zum Abschlussbericht. One of the leading printing firms im Europe covers its energy requirements for thermal and cooling energy from a Power-Heat-Cooling-combined installation.

The central element of the installation is a gas and steam process with 3 gas turbines and a steam turbine with an electrical performance of 20,5 MW in total. The waste heat extracted from the combined cycle-process is used to produce refrigeration using absorption refrigeration equipment and to provide district heating for internal and external firms. The waste heat is used several times in the refrigerating centre through cascade switching. The solvent-containing vitiated air from the offset printing machines present is used in the combined cycle-process to generate electricity.

The vitiated air is cleaned in TNV equipment and the hot waste gases used to produce steam. The process steam produced is sent into the combined cycle-progress installation and so used for the generation of more electricity. Die aus dem GuD-Prozess ausgekoppelte Abwaerme wird zur Kaelteerzeugung ueber Absorptionskaelteanlagen und zur Fernwaermeversorgung interner sowie externer Betriebe eingesetzt.

Die Abwaerme wird in den Kaeltezentralen durch Kaskadenschaltung mehrfach genutzt. Der erzeugte Prozessdampf wird in die Gasturbinen der GuD-Anlage eingeduest und so zur zusaetzlichen Stromerzeugung genutzt. Contribution of selected protectorates to the climate protection and its monetary evaluation. Final report; Beitrag ausgewaehlter Schutzgebiete zum Klimaschutz und dessen monetaere Bewertung.

In Germany, large-scale nature conservation projects have the task to protect and develop the nature and landscape. The authors of the contribution under consideration report on an evaluation how far federal funds or EU funds has contributed to the nature protection targets as well as to the climate protection targets. The modelling of the climate relevance of the areas before and after restoration measures derived for all four areas a significant reduction of the emissions. The averaged up to date reduction span between nearly 4 to Advanced computational methods for the assessment of reactor core behaviour during reactivity initiated accidents.

Final report; Fortschrittliche Rechenmethoden zum Kernverhalten bei Reaktivitaetsstoerfaellen. Pautz, A. The work performed in the framework of this project was dedicated to the development, validation and application of advanced computational methods for the simulation of transients and accidents of nuclear installations. These simulation tools describe in particular the behavior of the reactor core with respect to neutronics, thermal-hydraulics and thermal mechanics at a very high level of detail. This computational chain shall primarily be deployed for light water reactors LWR , but should beyond that also be applicable for innovative reactor concepts.

Thus, validation on computational benchmarks and critical experiments was of paramount importance. Finally, appropriate methods for uncertainty and sensitivity analysis were to be integrated into the computational framework, in order to assess and quantify the uncertainties due to insufficient knowledge of data, as well as due to methodological aspects. Hydrogen as an energy carrier. Final report; Wasserstoff als Energietraeger. This final report of the Special Field of Research SFB documents the work and results of the four promotion phases from to , presented in reports on 15 part-projects.

From its inception, SFB , which bears the title ''Hydrogen as an Energy Carrier'', has been dedicated to two fields of work: in Project Area A to the production of hydrogen 7 part-projects and in Project Area B to the transport and storage of hydrogen 8 part-projects. The scientific results of the part-projects have also been presented in detail in the progress reports and interim reports of , and Some of them have also been presented at the colloquiums of SFB Sie sind in den Berichten von 15 Teilprojekten wiedergegeben. Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der Teilprojekte sind ausfuehrlich auch in den Arbeits- und Ergebnisberichten , und wiedergegeben.

Solar drying of liquid manure. Final report; Solare Trocknung von Guelle. This is a report on the solar drying of manure in a simple greenhouse tunnel. As part of the research project, a pilot plant was set up at the Duernast agricultural research station of the Technical University of Munich at Weihenstephan. During a test programme of more than one year, process engineering and mode of operation were studied and optimized by means of this pilot plant.

An der Anlage wurde in einem mehr als einjaehrigen Versuchsprogramm die Verfahrenstechnik und Betriebsweise untersucht und optimiert. Kurz zum Klima: Zu viel Salz verdirbt den Boden. Sie sind nur durch hohen Aufwand und Kosten wieder renaturierbar. Prokofieff: Kantate zum Jahrestag der Oktoberrevolution, Op. Uuest heliplaadist "Prokofieff: Kantate zum Das Tallinner Mietshaus.

Arvustus: Karin Hallas. Vom Historismus bis zum Jugendstil. In: Architektur und bildende Kunst im Baltikum um Das migrationspolitische Feld der Schweiz: eine politikwissenschaftliche Analyse der Vernehmlassung zum Arbenzbericht. The influence of advanced generations of equipment of information- and communication technology on the energy consumption in Germany up to the year - possibilities to increase energy efficiency and -conservation in this domains.

Final report. Summary of final report. Annex; Der Einfluss moderner Geraetegenerationen der Informations- und Kommunikationstechnik auf den Energieverbrauch in Deutschland bis zum Jahr - Moeglichkeiten zur Erhoehung der Energieeffizienz und zur Energieeinsparung in diesen Bereichen. Kurzfassung des Abschlussberichts. Summary of the final report.

Anhang zum Abschlussbericht. Cremer, C. For , this study ascertained an electricity demand of 38 TWh for ICT end-use appliances in households and offices and their associated infrastructure. The stock of appliances and systems of ICT infrastructure will grow noticeably and since these devices, such as servers or mobile communications systems, are continuously operated, the consumption growth in normal mode is the strongest.

The consumption in standby mode shows an increasing tendency, most notably up to the middle of the decade, whereas it decreases in off-mode. However, this has less to do with efforts for greater efficiency and more to do with the expected substitution of the off- by the standby mode especially in televisions. Da die meisten der im Bestand deutlich wachsenden Geraete und Anlagen der IuK-Infrastruktur wie Server oder Mobilfunkanlagen dauerhaft in Betrieb sind, faellt damit auch der Verbrauchszuwachs im Normalbetrieb am staerksten aus.

Der Verbrauch im Bereitschaftsbetrieb zeigt vor allem bis Mitte des Jahrzehnts noch eine steigende Tendenz, waehrend er im Schein-Aus-Zustand ruecklaeufig ist. Dies ist allerdings weniger auf Effizienzanstrengungen als auf eine erwartete Substitution des Schein-Aus- durch den Bereitschaftsbetrieb insbesondere bei Fernsehern zurueckzufuehren. Full Text Available In Deutschland zeichnet sich bereits vor Schuleintritt im Bereich der literarischen und medialen Sozialisation eine Bildungsbenachteiligung ab.

Vor allem Kinder aus bildungsfernen Milieus und mit Migrationshintergrund sind hiervon betroffen vgl. Durch kreative Medienarbeit soll ein Gegengewicht zur eher passiven Mediennutzung geschaffen werden. Ziel ist es Bildungsunterschiede von Kindern bereits vor Schulbeginn auszugleichen.

Already before starting school educational disadvantages in the part of reading and media socialization can be identified within Germany. Therefore, an exceptional intervention and research project KidSmart — media competence by entering school was initiated in the area of early childhood education. Within this project media-pedagogical work is corresponding with preparation of entering school. The intention is to create a counterbalance to passive media use by creative media work.

The scope of the project is to fight against early educational disadvantages. Landeskundeunterricht zum Nationalsozialismus. Ein Praxisbericht aus der Mongolei. Dabei wird der Schwerpunkt auf die wichtigsten Entdeckungen und Entwicklungen, beispielsweise der Quantenfeldtheorie, der Eichtheorien und die Zukunft der Teilchenphysik, gelegt. The VGB research project was to examine and characterize various, operation-induced impacts on the crack formation in stabilized austenitic steels, caused by intercrystalline stress corrosion cracking as a result of sensitization after chromium depletion at the grain boundaries.

The results of this project as well as available operating experience show that the measures taken so far for the future operation of the German BWR plants, for avoiding in these plants intercrystalline stress corrosion cracking, correspond to the state of the art and achieve the wanted purpose.

These measures are: use of optimized material W-No. Aus den Forschungsergebnissen dieses VGB-Programms sowie den bisher vorliegenden Betriebserfahrungen ist festzuhalten, dass die bisher durchgefuehrten Massnahmen fuer den zukuenftigen Betrieb der deutschen SWR-Anlagen zur Vermeidung von interkristalliner Spannungsrisskorrosion zielgerichtet waren und dem heutigen Wissensstand entsprechen. Diese Massnahmen sind: 1. Einsatz von optimiertem Werkstoff W. Einsatz von optimierten Schweissverfahren zur Verminderung der Waermeeinbringung und zur Verringerung des Schweissschrumpfes Kaltverformung.

Durchfuehrung einer optimierten Schweissnahtvorbereitung zur Vermeidung. Optimisation of solar collector foils with transparent thermal insulation. Final report; Optimierung von transparent waermegedaemmten Folien-Speicherkollektoren. The report describes storage collector foils which are used as hybrid systems. Contents: State of the art - solar test facility - tests on small test collectors - cost reduction. Development of a method for direct biological removal of ammonium to nitrogen in treatment of waste waters of the anaerobic sludge digestion - deammonification.

Final report; Entwicklung eines Verfahrens zur direkten biologischen Umsetzung von Ammonium zu Stickstoff bei der Behandlung von Abwaessern der Anaerob-Klaerschlammfaulung - Deammonifikation. Accompanying batch-tests and micro-biological analyses served mainly for the kinetic examination of the metabolisms, that is for the determination of the conversion performances and for the basic analysis of the relevant metabolism ways and the participating micro-organisms.

Da gerade die Stickstoffentfernung oftmals einen erheblichen Kostenfaktor bei der Abwasserreinigung darstellt, insbesondere wenn es um die Mit- Behandlung hoch stickstoffbelasteter Teilstroeme geht, ist man stetig auf der Suche nach wirtschaftlichen Behandlungskonzepten. Im Rahmen des Forschungsvorhabens wurde das Verfahren der Deammonifikation entwickelt, d.

Aufgrund des verkuerzten aeroben Oxidationsschrittes und bei Anwendung der Biofilmtechnologie lassen sich zudem Sauerstoffbedarf und Reaktionsvolumen reduzieren. Im Hinblick auf einen gezielten verfahrenstechnischen Einsatz der Deammonifikation waren im Rahmen der Forschungsarbeiten die prozessbestimmenden Einflussgroessen zu bestimmen und geeignete Verfahrenstechniken und Verfahrensfuehrungen naeher zu ueberpruefen.

Hierzu wurden ausgehend von gross- und pilottechnischen Untersuchungen und Erkenntnissen unter Beruecksichtigung mikro- biologischer Zusammenhaenge die wesentlichen Randbedingungen zur Realisierung sowie das Betriebsverhalten der autotrophen. Weiterhin nehme die Rezeption westlicher Rundfunk- und Fernsehsendungen immer mehr zu, jedoch sei es verbo Denn zum einen haben neuere Theorieen Development of a process for a better biological degradation of dangerous substance by using tensid in the wastewater treatment. Final report; Tensideinsatz - Entwicklung eines Verfahrens zum verbesserten biologischen Abbau gefaehrlicher Stoffe bei der Abwasserreinigung durch Tensideinsatz.

In this Project in an interdisciplinary cooperation the influence of tensides on the performance improvement of biochemical decomposition of persistent substances has been investigated. During the first part of the project Prof. Raebiger two continously supplied experimental plants were built. These two plants, using activated sludge from a municipal wastewater treatment plant, were run simultaneously with and without tensides respectively.

The investigations show, that the results in regard to the decomposition rate are better from the plant operated with tenside. Also, the decomposition rate in relation to the total solids content has shown to be better in the plant run with tenside in comparison to the plant without tenside. This was especially relevant during simulated malfunctions. In project part II Prof. Fischer further investigations into the influence of tensids on the microbial decomposition of pollutants have been conducted using the adapted microorganism cultures taken from the experimental reactors.

Investigations using activated sludge flakes and a monoculture in a batchprocess have shown an increased growth in the presence of the investigated tensids. A variation in the pollutant concentration as well as the addition of the tensid Bioversal to the nutrient medias yielded hints for the optimization of the culture conditions. Leibfritz an extraction process was optimized in order to meet the requirements of the bacteria cultures and the objective of the project.

Leon Trotsky - The life of a revolutionary

Among other things, the influence of the tensids on the decomposition speed of the pollutants has been demonstrated in the course of this examinations. The findings gathered from this joint project regarding the use of tensids for improved decomposition of persistent substances, particularly during malfunctions and strong changes in the concentration, can be transposed into technical application in the future. Analytic studies on pollutant deposition through domestic coal combustion - influence of the current structural change on pollution in an urban region.

Final report; Analytische Untersuchungen zum Schadstoffeintrag durch den Hausbrand - Auswirkungen des gegenwaertigen Strukturwandels auf die urbane Belastungssituation. In the present paper the author reports on the continuation of an OEKOR part project in which he had undertaken a chemical characterisation of emissions from domestic brown coal combustion. On the basis of a partitioning by land use of the Greater Leipzig region he initiated long-term observations of local pollution levels for the various structural types of land. The aim of the work was to facilitate a comprehensive analysis of local air quality in terms of VOC levels.

The current concern about VOCs results from the toxicological risk they have been proven to pose to the human organism and from their relevance to the chemistry of the atmosphere e. The task to be accomplished was broken down into the following main steps: Development and trial of a sampling and analysis method for determining an as wide a spectrum of environmental VOCs as possible; elaboration of a measuring strategy for obtaining results of high representativeness and power; installation and operation of pollution monitoring sites in selected structural types of area characteristic of Leipzig; execution of measuring campaigns of several weeks each at selected sites during both winter and summer periods.

Das verstaerkte Interesse an diesen Verbindungen resultiert aus dem fuer eine Reihe von VOC belegten toxikologischen Gefahrenpotential fuer den menschlichen Organismus sowie ihrer atmosphaerenchemischen Relevanz u. Hieraus ergaben sich fuer das Teilprojekt die folgenden methodischen Schwerpunkte: - Entwicklung und Erprobung einer Probenahme- und Analysenmethode zur Bestimmung eines moeglichst breiten Spektrums von Spuren fluechtiger organischer Verbindungen im Immissionsbereich - Erarbeiten einer Messstrategie, die Ergebnisse hoher Repraesentanz und Aussagekraft gewaehrleistet - Installation und Betrieb von Immissionsmessplaetzen in ausgewaehlten, fuer Leipzig typischen Stadtstrukturen - Durchfuehrung jeweils mehrwoechiger Messkampagnen an den ausgewaehlten Standorten in Sommer- und Winterperioden.

Studies on the turnover and properties of dump groundwaters in brown coal mining areas and possibilities of influencing them. Final report; Untersuchungen zum Stoffumsatz und zur Beschaffenheit der Kippengrundwaesser in Braunkohlebergbaugebieten und Moeglichkeiten zu deren Beeinflussung. Compared with the untreated variant the lowering of pH in the further course of the experiment led to a slight Fe III mobilisation and hence, through interaction with other reduction processes, to erratic changes in the share of Fe II in total Fe. Although this sediment showed a relatively low iron concentration a comparison showed that higher pH values and incubation temperatures have an influence on microbial iron reduction.

Obwohl in diesem Sediment nur vergleichsweise niedrige Eisenkonzentrationen vorliegen, ergab ein Vergleich, dass hoehere pH-Werte und Inkubationtemperaturen die mikrobielle Eisenreduktion beeinflussen. Generic study on the relation between contamination if primary coolants and occupational radiation exposure in nuclear power plants with PWR. Final report; Generische Studie zum Zusammenhang zwischen Kontamination von Primaerkreislaufmedien und beruflicher Strahlenexposition bei Kernkraftwerken mit Druckwasserreaktor.

A generic model for the primary cooling system contamination in pressurized water reactors and the resulting radiological consequences has been developed. The functional capability was demonstrated by means of three examples concerning manipulation procedures during revision outages. Activities at the main reactor coolant pumps were studied and the influence of the coolant contamination on the resulting dose rates and collective doses were calculated.

The effect of a Co hot spot in a more remote area on the radiation exposure during the specific action at the reactor pumps was considered. Study on the safety during transport of radioactive materials. Events during transport. Final report work package 6; Untersuchungen zur Sicherheit bei der Befoerderung radioaktiver Stoffe. Ereignisse bei der Befoerderung. Abschlussbericht zum Arbeitspaket 6. This report presents the results from a data collection and an evaluation of the safety significance of events in the transportation of radioactive material by all modes on public routes in Germany.

Systems for reporting and evaluation of the safety significance of events encountered in the transport of radioactive material are a central element in monitoring and judging the adequacy and effectiveness of the transport regulations and their underlying safety philosophy, this allows for revision by experience feedback lessons learned.

The nationwide survey performed covering the period from the mid s through identified and analysed a total of transport events varying in type and severity. The vast majority of recorded transport events relate to minor deviations from the provisions of the transport regulations e. Severe traffic accidents and fires represented only a small fraction ca.

Four transport events were identified in the reporting period to have given rise to environmental radioactive releases. Three transport events have reportedly resulted in minor radiation exposures to the transport personnel; in one case an exposure in excess of the statutory annual dose limit for the public seems possible. Based on the EVTRAM scale, with seven significance levels, the broad majority of transport events has been classified as ''non-incidents'' Level 0 and ''events without affecting the safety functions of the package'' Level 1.

The survey results show no serious deficiencies in the transport of radioactive material, supporting the conclusion that a high level of safety and protection is ensured by the existing regulatory requirements. However, there is potential for improvement notably through avoiding common administrative deviations that could be rectified by training and qualification of the involved transport personnel.

Otherwise, harmonising and consolidating of transport event reports would be a preferable future goal. Development of a method for the detection of heavy metal discharges into the sewer system. Methodenentwicklung zum einfachen Nachweis schwermetallhaltiger Einleitungen ins oeffentliche Kanalnetz mittels Sielhautuntersuchungen. Very often the agricultural use of municipal sludges is inhibited due to heavy metals contents, that exceed the values of the municipal sludge decree Klaerschlammverordnung. This sludge contamination can only be reduced, if heavy metal containing run-offs are avoided.

An effective method for registration and control of the waste water run-offs is therefore necessary. The analysis of sewer slime, a biofilm, that grows on the inner surface of waste water canals is a successful method to localize heavy metal laden run-offs. In this paper the results of the biological and the chemical analysis of several sewer slimes of different origins are presented. The accumulation of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in sewer slimes at different chemical conditions pH, metal and slime concentrations is investigated.

The attachment of the metals on the biomass is mostly irreversible. Ni and Zn also appear in more soluble species. The remobilization of heavy metals is possible at acid conditions and in the presence of chelating agents. The growth of the biofilm depends on the nutrient content of the waste water and its flow rate. With 42 refs. Reliability analysis and computation of computer-based safety instrumentation and control used in German nuclear power plant. Final report; Zuverlaessigkeitsuntersuchung und -berechnung rechnerbasierter Sicherheitsleittechnik zum Einsatz in deutschen Kernkraftwerken.

The trend of technological advancement in the field of safety instrumentation and control I and C leads to increasingly frequent use of computer-based digital control systems which consisting of distributed, connected bus communications computers and their functionalities are freely programmable by qualified software. The advantages of the new I and C system over the old I and C system with hard-wired technology are e. On the other hand, skeptics see the new technology with the computer-based I and C a higher potential by influences of common cause failures CCF , and the easier manipulation by sabotage IT Security.

In this joint research project funded by the Federal Ministry for Economical Affaires and Energy BMWi , FJZ the Otto-von-Guericke-University Magdeburg and Magdeburg-Stendal University of Applied Sciences are therefore trying to develop suitable methods for the demonstration of the reliability of the new instrumentation and control systems with the focus on the investigation of CCF.

This expertise of both houses shall be extended to this area and a scientific contribution to the sound reliability judgments of the digital safety I and C in domestic and foreign nuclear power plants. First, the state of science and technology will be worked out through the study of national and international standards in the field of functional safety of electrical and I and C systems and accompanying literature. On the basis of the existing nuclear Standards the deterministic requirements on the structure of the new digital I and C system will be determined.

The possible methods of reliability modeling will be analyzed and compared. A suitable method called multi class binomial failure rate MCFBR which was successfully used in safety valve applications will be extended according to cope with special needs of the digital safety I and C system. The new modelling method based on fault tree analysis FTA combined with MCBFR model is provided and validated by a real example system from an industrial partner.

The reliability data are taken from a platform specific data base of the industrial partner and an international generic data base. The results demonstrate the applicability of the new approach although the modelling quality is strongly dependent on the observed failure cases from the plant operation. Therefore more failure data of safety I and C should be collected in the future. This report is the final project report. Chemical composition and optical properties of aerosols in the lower mixed layer and the free troposphere.

Abschlussbericht zum AFS-Projekt. Asseng, H. Berlin Germany. Biogeochemie; Fischer, J. Biogeochemie; Weller, M. Meteorologisches Observatorium. Aerosol radiative forcing is the largest unknown in current climate models and, as a result, in predicting future climate.

Accurate vertically-resolved measurements of aerosol optical properties are an important element of improved climate prediction IPCC. The present project has contributed to this objective. Jets of directly and remotely determined radiation data have been provided suitable to cut down the uncertainty of column- or layer related optical aerosol parameters. Available analyses of size and chemical composition of sampled particles adjoined projects have been also taken into consideration.

The retrieved parameters have served as an input for modelling the radiative transfer exactly for the real time of measurements. Closure procedures yielded finally realistic spectral scattering - and absorption coefficients typically for the lower troposphere in a mostly rural Central European region. Wissenschaft und Technik bemuehen sich in sog.

Im vorliegenden Projekt wurden aus verschiedenen passiven, spektralen Messungen von Streulicht und Transmission der Atmosphaere in verschiedenen Hoehen sowie aus der Beruecksichtigung von Partikelanalysen Dritter, Streu- und Absorptionskoeffizienten des Aerosols der gesamten Luftsaeule und in vertikaler Aufloesung abgeleitet. Strahlungstransportmodellierungen mit den gewonnenen Aerosolparametern als input engten ueber den Vergleich mit den Messungen deren Grad an Unbestimmtheit wesentlich ein und lieferten realistische Werte des Streu- und Absorptionsverhaltens resp.

Brechungsindex des Aerosols als Voraussetzung einer gleichfalls realistischen Modellierung ihres Einflusses auf Strahlungshaushalt und Klima von urban gering belasteten mitteleuropaeischen Regionen. Carsharing on the country. Feasibility study. The present feasibility study about 'Car-sharing in rural areas' is the joint production of a project consortium from science and practice.

The consortium was composed of two chairs in the field of business management of the Carl von Ossietzky University Chair for general business management studies, company management and business-related environmental policy, Prof. Reinhard Pfriem and the Chair for general business management studies, sales and marketing, Prof. Udo J. Becker as well as the federal association Carsharing bcs Martin Stutzbach. The joint target of the working group members was to justify a 'model experiment Carsharing in rural areas' and to test it in terms of feasibility.

The question whether the Carsharing concept can be transferred from conurbations to rural areas is supposed to be investigated in a most extensive scientific framework and at the same time closely oriented to the practice by means of a model experiment as research approach. Becker sowie dem Bundesverband Carsharing bcs Martin Stutzbach. Gemeinsamens Ziel der Arbeitsgruppenmitglieder war es, einen 'Modellversuch Carsharing in der Flaeche' zu begruenden und hinsichtlich seiner Machbarkeit zu pruefen.

Mit Hilfe eines solchen. Sloboda und Alf Gabrielsson. CFRP materials reinforced with liquid crystalline polyester LCP fibres were produced and characterized with regard to their physical and mechanical characteristics. Die Faserverbunde weisen ausserdem eine hohe Waermeformbestaendigkeit und Wassersperrwirkung auf. Investigations of atmospheric input of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans into pasture. Final report; Untersuchungen des atmosphaerischen Eintrags polychlorierter Dibenzo-p-dioxine und Dibenzofurane in Futterpflanzen.

An zwei fuer Deutschland typischen landwirtschaftlichen Standorten wurden repraesentative gasfoermige und, analog dazu, partikelgebundene Depositionsgeschwindigkeiten gemessen, die insgesamt unabhaengig von den Standortbedingungen eine relativ geringe Variationsbreite aufwiesen.

Theorie der sozialen Reproduktion: Zurück zu (welchem) Marx? – International Socialism

Durch dieses Modell konnten die Teilergebnisse dieses Vorhabens zu einer sinnvollen Einheit zusammengefasst und somit ein wertvolles Werkzeug zum Verstaendnis der Anreicherung von mittelfluechtigen lipophilen organischen Verbindungen in landwirtschaftlichen Nutzpflanzen geschaffen werden. From traditional locomotive engineers to automated train control; Vom triebfahrzeugfuehrergefuehrten Zug zum Fahrautomaten. Profitability and capacity in public guided transport must be increased. One option is automatic, driverless train control.

There are many questions surrounding the legal, technical and operational aspects of automated control which need to be answered. These intrinsic aspects of the system will be presented and discussed. The various options leading to automatic train control as well as the necessary technical measures will also be presented. Als Loesung bietet sich zukuenftig auch der automatische und fahrerlose Betrieb an.

Das Fahren ohne Triebfahrzeugfuehrer wirft jedoch eine Vielzahl von Fragestellungen auf, die sowohl in juristischer, technischer und betrieblicher Hinsicht beantwortet werden muessen. Diese systemimmanenten Aspekte werden dargestellt und diskutiert.