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  1. Mozart’s Italianate Response to Haydn’s Opus 33 | Music and Letters | Oxford Academic
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It was widely performed and favourably received, not least owing to its avoidance of what were taken to be the chief dangers of tone-painting, excessive literalness and triviality. Haydn also sold the Seven Last Words in arrangements, one for string quartet and one for keyboard. Their orientation, reflecting that of the emperor, was enlightened-conservative: they were interested in literature, philosophy and education and largely rejected dogmatism, yet retained a traditional and Catholic outlook — all traits that Haydn shared.

The majority were freemasons; Nicolaus himself was Master of Ceremonies at one Viennese lodge, and it was most probably he or others in this circle who induced Haydn to apply for membership in the order.

Mozart’s Italianate Response to Haydn’s Opus 33 | Music and Letters | Oxford Academic

The string quartets op. In March , however, he produced Il ritorno di Tobia for them in a revised version. The friendship between Haydn and Mozart also developed in Vienna. The nature of their relationship has been much discussed. But there is no doubt of their mutual admiration as composers: each acknowledged the other as his only peer and as the only meaningful influence on his own music in the s. It is remarkable that his feelings were apparently marked neither by jealousy nor a compromise of his musical self-confidence, except possibly regarding opera; they had no effect on his productivity.

In June she sent Haydn her piano arrangement of the slow movement of an unidentified composition; he responded with praise, and the relationship rapidly became intense, although as far as can be told it remained platonic. Here I sit in my wilderness — forsaken — like a poor waif — almost without human society — sad — full of the memories of past glorious days — yes!

Those wonderful parties? Nothing could console me, my whole house was in confusion, my pianoforte, which I usually love, was perverse and disobedient … I could sleep only a little, even my dreams persecuted me; and then, just when I was happily dreaming that I was listening to Le nozze di Figaro , the horrible North wind woke me and almost blew my nightcap off my head … Alas! Later that year he completed a sonata h XVI for Mme Genzinger, in the course of which he also advised her on the purchase of a new fortepiano; earlier he had advised her daughter Josepha about her performances of his cantata Arianna a Naxos h XXVIb:2 , perhaps composed in for the Venetian singer Bianca Sacchetti.

But the year was to prove even more disruptive than Haydn could have suspected in early February. He at once moved to Vienna, taking rooms with a friend, J. Whatever his intentions were, they were soon overtaken by events. Salomon was not the first to contemplate this. In Haydn said of Symphonies nos.

Gallini, the impresario of the Italian opera. Salomon himself had had business dealings with Haydn, who in a letter to Bland of April referred to 40 ducats owed him by Salomon. London was the largest and economically most vibrant city in the world, made even more cosmopolitan by refugees from the French Revolution. He immediately plunged into a hectic social and professional life which, however stimulating, competed with his need to compose:.

My arrival caused a great sensation … I went the rounds of all the newspapers for three successive days. Everyone wants to know me … If I wanted, I could dine out every day; but first I must consider my health, and second my work. He also had to give fortepiano lessons, primarily to high personages; he was soon invited to a ball at the Court of St James, and to a concert sponsored by the Prince of Wales later George IV. Other royal invitations followed that month and in April.

The typical concert was a mixed affair, including symphonies, sonatas, arias and duets. Haydn arrived with relatively few new works except the string quartets op. However, Symphonies nos. Symphony no. Only nos. His benefit concert in May fig. The following report is of the first, on 11 March :. Never, perhaps, was there a richer musical treat. It is not wonderful that to souls capable of being touched by music, haydn should be an object of homage, and even of idolatry; for like our own shakspeare he moves and governs the passions at will.

His new Grand Overture [symphony] was pronounced by every scientific ear to be a most wonderful composition; but the first movement in particular rises in grandeur of the subject, and in the rich variety of air and passion, beyond any even of his own productions. The symphony was no. Charles Burney, with whom Haydn was to become fast friends, waxed equally enthusiastic:. Haydn himself presided at the piano-forte; and the sight of that renowned composer so electrified the audience, as to excite an attention and a pleasure superior to any that had ever, to my knowledge, been caused by instrumental music in England.

All the slow middle movements were encored; which never happened before, I believe, in any country. By the end of the season Salomon and Haydn were agreed that he would stay for another year. Haydn feared outright dismissal; as so often, it did not come to that. The summer and autumn gave him ample opportunity to compose, travel and expand his social circle. In August and early September he stayed on the estate of Nathaniel Brassey, a banker, in Hertfordshire.

By mid-September he was back in London; on 5 November he attended an official banquet given by the newly installed Lord Mayor amusingly described in the Notebooks. On 24—5 November he stayed at Oatlands, a property of the Duke of York, who the previous day had been married to a daughter of the King of Prussia; the new duchess became one of his most loyal patrons. Meanwhile, he had begun giving piano lessons to Rebecca Schroeter, the attractive and well-to-do widow of the composer and pianist Johann Samuel Schroeter.

During the winter of —2 this relationship blossomed into a passionate affair, documented by copies Haydn made of her letters to him beginning with this one, from 7 March :. My D[ear]: I was extremely sorry to part with you so suddenly last Night … I had a thousand affectionate things to say to you, my heart was and is full of tenderness for you, you are dearer to me every day of my life … I am truly sensible of your goodness, and I assure you my D. Oh how earnestly [I] wish to see you. I hope you will come to me tomorrow. I shall be happy to see you both in the Morning and the Evening.

Although no letters between them survive following his departure in the summer of , they remained close: Haydn dedicated the piano trios h XV—6 to her, she witnessed an important contract of regarding English editions of his music, they were in touch again regarding business in and she was a subscriber to The Creation. As he wrote to Genzinger 17 January , complaining of overwork:. So now a bloody harmonious war will commence between master and pupil. The newspapers are all full of it, but it seems to me that there will soon be an armistice, because my reputation is so firmly established.

Pleyel behaved so modestly towards me on his arrival that he won my affection again. I jokingly asked him once if it was true that he composed the Andante … in order to wake up the dozing English audience. He departed from London at the end of June or beginning of July, travelling via Bonn where he met Beethoven and Frankfurt.

There is considerable evidence that he intended to return for the season; in the event he did not until On 24 July he arrived in Vienna, occupying the same lodgings as in the autumn of His 18 months in the Habsburg capital were uneventful. Polzelli was in Italy still asking for money , and Mme Genzinger died on 20 January Beethoven arrived in November, and their intercourse began immediately; it included a stay at Eisenstadt with Haydn in the summer of By early winter he had decided not to return to London in : he had finally determined to undergo an operation for a long-painful polyp in his nose, and perhaps he feared travelling at a dangerous stage in the Napoleonic Wars.

In any case it was to his advantage to take an additional year, so as to be able to have new compositions in his portfolio on his return. In November Haydn produced 12 each of new minuets and German dances h IX—12 at a charity ball, and immediately published them with Artaria. Keess had produced Symphonies nos. He began the string quartets op. Later in Haydn worked on three symphonies for London, completing no. On the way they stayed in Passau, where he heard a choral arrangement of the Seven Last Words by the local Kapellmeister, Joseph Friebert.

The Professional Concert having disbanded, in Haydn and Salomon had the stage to themselves. Haydn therefore allied himself with the so-called Opera Concerts, directed by the violinist and composer Giovanni Battista Viotti, with an even larger orchestra, of approximately 60 players; Symphony no. He composed no. He also composed sonatas nos. Another genre he took up again owing to the influence of a lady was the solo song. He also composed numerous arias, divertimentos, marches, canons and other works. His new house still not being ready for occupancy, he took lodgings on the Neuer Markt in the old city.

In , by contrast, he returned as a culture-hero. The key figure was Baron van Swieten, the imperial librarian and censor and the resolutely high-minded leader of the Gesellschaft der Associirten, an organization of noble patrons who subsidized large-scale performances of oratorios and the like. He composed little instrumental music: no orchestral works save the Trumpet Concerto and only one piano work the trio no. Both the Missa Sancti Bernardi von Offida Heiligmesse and the Missa in tempore belli Paukenmesse are dated ; the former was apparently composed first and performed in Eisenstadt, while the latter originated in the autumn and was first given at the Piaristenkirche in Vienna on 26 December, then produced in Eisenstadt in Although one later account has Swieten manipulating things, the immediate impetus came from Count Joseph Franz Saurau, the president of Lower Austria and later Minister of the Interior:.

I have often regretted that unlike the English we had no national anthem suited to display before the entire world the devoted attachment of the people to their Landesvater … This seemed especially necessary at a time when the Revolution in France was raging at its strongest ….

Haydn identified thoroughly with the cultural politics of this project. Later in he employed the melody as the basis for the variation movement in the String Quartet op. But Haydn and Swieten were already pursuing bigger game. The Associirten guaranteed Haydn ducats and subsidized the copying and performance. Haydn, whose enthusiasm for the project was bound up with his experience of Handel in London, conceived the remarkable notion of disseminating the work in both German and English it is apparently the first original bilingual composition.

Swieten translated the libretto and adapted the English prosody to his German version; he also made suggestions regarding the musical setting, many of which Haydn adopted. The effect was overwhelming; Silverstolpe reported:. No one, not even Baron van Swieten, had seen the page of the score wherein the Creation of Light is portrayed … Haydn had the expression of someone who is thinking of biting his tongue, either to hide his embarrassment or to conceal a secret.

The enchantment of the electrified Viennese was so profound that the performers could not proceed for some minutes. The work immediately became a staple especially of charity performances, many conducted by Haydn himself, which brought in tens of thousands of gulden. The success which my Oratorio The Creation has been fortunate enough to enjoy … [has] induced me to arrange for its dissemination myself. Thus the work will appear … neatly and correctly engraved and printed on good paper, with German and English texts; and in full score, so that [at least] one work of my composition will be available to the public in its entirety, and the connoisseur will be in a position to see it as a whole and to judge it.

The edition appeared at the end of February with a list of more than subscribers. He suffered a serious illness in winter —01 , as the work neared completion, during which he again identified with his own oratorio. His pupil Sigismund Ritter von Neukomm reported:. Nonetheless he maintained that it would join The Creation in assuring his lasting fame.

A very different kind of vocal composition is represented by the 13 partsongs h XXV , composed in the years —9. A chapter in its own right is the hundreds of arrangements of British folksongs he sold to the publisher George Thomson in Edinburgh, not all from his own pen; as in so many other respects, Beethoven followed him in this lucrative commission. In Haydn began to complain of physical and mental weakness. Every day the world compliments me on the fire of my recent works, but no one will believe the strain and effort it costs me to produce them.

Some days my enfeebled memory and the unstrung state of my nerves crush me to the earth to such an extent that I fall prey to the worst sort of depression, and am quite incapable of finding even a single idea for many days thereafter; until at last Providence revives me, and I can again sit down at the pianoforte and begin to scratch away. He deeply regretted his loss of the stamina and concentration necessary for composition.

O God! In the same letter Haydn also complained about the press of business he was then arranging the self-publication of The Creation. This was not a complete edition but comprised salable works for or with piano, analogous to an edition of Mozart already under way. No longer interested in marriage, he signed a declaration in which he promised to marry Luigia Polzelli or no-one, as well as to bequeath her gulden a year a sum he later reduced to In May—June he drew up his will; the largest bequests were to his two brothers, but he also included among the beneficiaries many other relatives, former benefactors and perhaps lovers , servants, religious and charitable institutions.

From on he received a steady stream of distinguished visitors, honours and medals of which a gold medal from and honorary citizenship of the City of Vienna, in recognition of his charitable performances, meant the most to him. Thereafter he mainly stayed at home in Gumpendorf; after he wrote no letters in his own hand. His last public appearance of any kind was on 27 March , at a gala performance of The Creation in honour of his 76th birthday, in the Great Hall of the University.

He signed his last will on 7 February , altered primarily to reflect the many deaths that had taken place in the meantime. It disbursed about 24, gulden; his estate totalled about 55, gulden. During the spring he progressively weakened and had to be cared for by Elssler and other servants. His final decline was hastened by the French bombardment of Vienna on 11—12 May; Napoleon ordered that a guard of honour be stationed at his house, and his last known visitor was a French officer who paid his respects and sang an aria from The Creation.

He died at about 20 minutes before 1 a. His remains are now interred in the Bergkirche in Eisenstadt. Although not inaccurate, it is one-sided; it reflects the elderly and increasingly frail man his first biographers knew. Insight into the personality and behaviour of the vigorous and productive composer, performer, Kapellmeister, impresario, businessman, conqueror of London, husband and lover, whose career had already spanned 50 years when Griesinger met him in , must be inferred from his correspondence which is more revealing than is usually assumed and from other sources.

His modesty and probity were everywhere acknowledged he was occasionally entrusted with secret diplomatic communications. These traits were not only prerequisites to his success as Kapellmeister, entrepreneur and public figure, but also aided the favourable reception of his music. The many younger musicians who benefited from his teaching and advice, as well as the court performers whom he directed, seem to have regarded him as a father-figure, or kindly uncle; he was well disposed towards them and helped them as he could, although there is little evidence that he thought of them as substitutes for the children he apparently never had.

When conditions permitted i. He was interested in literature, art and philosophy and gladly circulated and corresponded with intellectuals and freemasons, albeit without pretensions to being an intellectual himself. Silverstolpe, who saw much of him during the composition of The Creation , reported:. I discovered in Haydn as it were two physiognomies. In the next moment this air of exaltation was chased away as fast as lightning by his usual mood, and he became jovial with a force that was visible in his features and even passed into drollery.

The latter was his usual physiognomy; the former had to be induced. His most important instrumental work of the s was arguably the Seven Last Words. He identified personally with The Creation and the religious portions of The Seasons and came to think of the former in overtly moralistic terms, as he wrote in :.

The [story of the] Creation has always been considered the sublimest and most awe-inspiring image for mankind. His marriage was unhappy, and he was often lonely and at times melancholy. His modesty, genuine though it was, had distinct limits. He took pride in his works, notably including his vocal music; he wrote to Artaria in October :.

I assure [you] that nothing comparable has yet been heard in Paris, and perhaps not even in Vienna. Bach as a model. He did not hesitate to assert his interests and those of his musicians against the court administration: these interventions were usually successful including, for example, re-engaging Polzelli and her husband and keeping them on the payroll for ten years. In a letter of September to Mme Genzinger his ambivalence is palpable:.

This little bit of freedom, how sweet it tastes! I had a good prince, but at times I was forced to be dependent on base souls. I often sighed for release; now I have it in some measure … Even though I am burdened with more work, the knowledge that I am not bound to service makes ample amends for all my toil.

However, I doubt that this longing can be satisfied, in that my prince … absolutely demands my immediate return, which however I cannot comply with, owing to a new contract I have entered into here. Indeed, London won out. Yet in he was glad to become Kapellmeister again — although only on condition of minimal duties. As regards money, Haydn was so self-interested as to shock both certain high-minded contemporaries Joseph Martin Kraus, Friedrich Rochlitz and many later authorities.

Whereas until he presumably suffered nothing worse than ordinary schoolboy privations, during his early freelance years he lived in poverty, an experience he was determined never to repeat. When crossed in business relations, he reacted angrily. Yet Haydn was generous. He supported his brother Johann for decades and bequeathed substantial sums to relatives, servants and those who had supported him in his youth, and took pride in the large sums generated for charity by performances of his oratorios.

Of the many contemporary images only a few avoid idealizing their subject. More conventional in both facial features and the pose at the keyboard are the various images based on a lost painting of uncertain date by Guttenbrunn fig. There is a good miniature from about From London we have formal portraits by Hoppner and Hardy, of which the former has the more personality; still more is conveyed in the drawing by George Dance in two versions , which Haydn claimed was the best likeness of himself.

Several sculptures survive from the last Vienna years, including two busts by Grassi; there is also a deathmask, taken by Elssler. He famously commented to Griesinger:. My prince was satisfied with all my works; I received approval. As head of an orchestra I could try things out, observe what creates a [good] effect and what weakens it, and thus revise, make additions or cuts, take risks. I was cut off from the world, nobody in my vicinity could upset my self-confidence or annoy me, and so I had no choice but to become original. However, in late 18th-century aesthetics originality also implied genius, a link emphasized among others by Kant.

Of course, in his music these qualities are not unmediated binary opposites but poles of a continuum. Admittedly, since about wit has been the better understood pole. Most of the familiar nicknames for his works respond to features that listeners have taken as humorous; e. In other cases the wit is on a higher plane, e. Like Beethoven, Haydn often seems to problematize music rather than merely to compose it the tonal ambiguity at the beginning of op.

These qualities were less appreciated in the 19th and early 20th centuries, owing in part to the absence of his vocal music and much of his earlier instrumental music from the standard repertory, in part to a lack of sympathy for his extra-musical and ethical concerns during the age of absolute music. Like all 18th-century composers, Haydn believed that the primary purpose of a composition was to move the listener, and that the chief basis of this effect was song.

He was an excellent tenor in the chamber if not the theatre. Much of his early music is earnest, at times even harsh; see the keyboard Trio h XV:f1, the String Trio h V:3, the slow movement of the String Quartet op. Many of his keyboard works are affective in an intimate way: he wrote to Mme Genzinger regarding the Adagio of Sonata no. Similarly, even at his wittiest or most programmatic he never abandons tonal and formal coherence. The three op. In the late s most of his symphonies were unambiguously intended as entertainment, but no.

In —90 he composed some 45 weighty symphonies, quartets and piano works, but also lyre concertos and notturnos, flute trios and other light works. These stylistic dualities are found even in his late sacred vocal music and long hindered its appreciation. His quotation of the buffa -like contredanse from no.

Haydn usually juxtaposes or contrasts stylistic dualities rather than synthesize them. Perhaps he approaches synthesis most closely when an ostensibly artless or humorous theme later changes in character e. Thus both novelty and continuity are maintained from beginning to end. No other composer — not even C. Indeed these aspects of his style intensified in his London and late Vienna years, along with the complexity of his music and its fascination for connoisseurs.

This becomes obvious when he employs folk tunes, as in the Andante of Symphony no. Many Haydn movements are progressive in form, continually developing e. Haydn was also a master of rhetoric. Referential associations are common in his instrumental music, especially symphonies nos. In his vocal music Haydn like Handel was a brilliant and enthusiastic word-painter. Like all 18th-century composers, Haydn composed for his audiences which term includes his performers.

He calculated Piano Sonata no. When he went to London, his music for public performance became grander and more brilliant. Sketching was a regular procedure: although drafts survive for only a modest proportion of his music, they comprise works in all genres and all types of musical context including recitatives.

A draft for the finale of Symphony no. His surviving autographs by and large are fair copies, which exhibit few corrections and alterations. Both his first and last completed compositions were mass settings, and he cultivated sacred vocal music extensively throughout his career except during the later s, when elaborate church music was inhibited by the Josephinian reforms, and the first half of the s in London. The remaining masses fall into two groups of six each: nos.

The former are notably heterogeneous. These include choruses both festive and ominous, elaborate arias, ariosos, ensembles and four massive concluding fugues. It is set for chorus and organ continuo in stile antico ; strict fugal expositions alternate with free counterpoint and occasional homophonic passages. He exploits the complementary functions of soloists and chorus with inexhaustible freedom and telling effect; owing to his London experience the orchestra plays a newly prominent role.

Both invoke the travails of the Napoleonic wars. Even in the Kyrie, which usually consists of a slow introduction and a fast main movement, the latter freely combines fugato and sonata style in a distinctly unsymphonic way. The Gloria and Credo are divided into several movements, fast—slow—fast with the slow middle movement s in contrasting keys and featuring the soloists e. The latter is a long movement and an emotional highpoint; it usually features the soloists and is in, or based on, sonata form.

They vary widely in style and scale, from the massive, dark, traditional Stabat mater h XX bis , to the tender devotion of the Lauda Sion hymn complexes; from the festive jubilation of the choral Te Deum settings with trumpets and drums in C to the stylized folk idiom of the pastorellas for solo voices and strings. The libretto of Tobia by a brother of Boccherini narrates the story of the blind Tobit from the Apocrypha; Haydn fashioned a magnificent late example of Austrian-Italian vocal music, comprising chiefly long bravura arias, along with three choruses; most of the recitatives are accompagnati of emotional intensity.

In he revived the oratorio, shortening many of the arias, adding two magnificent new choruses and supplementing the instrumentation. Its most striking movement is the bleak, newly composed introduction to the second part, scored for wind alone and set in A minor, a key Haydn hardly ever used. Part 1 treats the First to Fourth Days the creation of light, land and sea, plant life, heavenly bodies , Part 2 the Fifth and Sixth animals, birds, fish, man and woman ; each Day comprises recitative on prose from Genesis, a commentary set as an aria or ensemble, another recitative and a choral hymn of praise.

Part 3 abandons the Bible; it amounts to a cantata devoted to Adam and Eve and to further praise of heaven. The libretto of The Seasons presents scenes of nature and country life; the narrator-function is personified as the moralizing peasants Simon, Jane and Lucas. Many of these works are organized around the conceptual image of salvation, at once personal and communal, achieved at or near the end: a musical realization of the desire for a state of grace.

Those predating are lost, except for fragments of the festa teatrale Acide , revised and of the commedia Marchese —3. His three operas from the late s become increasingly long and complex.

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The concluding trio and quartet of the first and second acts, respectively, include real dramatic action. For the last time there are no serious characters; the opera portrays an idealized peasant life with much lampooning of the nobility and the characters are concerned only to set their mismatched affections aright. From the same year comes the German Philemon und Baucis , originally a marionette opera but surviving only in an adaptation for the stage. Rosina, secretly married to the half-mad Count Errico, lives incognito in a fishing-village.

Eventually the Count and many other characters discover her, leading to repeated painful tests of her virtue and fortitude; in despair she flees to the country, where the final reconciliation takes place. The music is glorious and the characterizations surprisingly credible, with Rosina reaching heights of genuine emotion. Orlando paladino is a dramma eroicomico with a libretto by Nunziato Porta based on Badini. It is primarily seria in style, with long stretches of action set in freely alternating accompanied recitatives and set pieces; the long magic forest scene of Act 3 is particularly successful.

It also includes numerous choruses, which contribute to the action; he uses males for the Furies and females for the Bacchae, the latter bringing the work to a tragic end in D minor. Their recent reception has been mixed. For these reasons as well as their ready availability , they have attracted much analytical and critical attention. The festive Italian cantatas honouring Prince Nicolaus h XXIVa:1—5, c —7 begin with a long orchestral ritornello leading to an accompanied recitative announcing the cause for celebration, followed by arias and duets and concluding with a chorus.

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The very long solo numbers are unusually virtuoso and richly orchestrated in an aria from Qual dubbio ormai , no. The celebratory cantata Applausus h XXIVa:6, on an allegorical Latin text is stylistically similar, although it is longer and musically more concentrated, and as appropriate to its elevated text has been said to adumbrate the sublime. Three late solo cantatas for soprano are of great significance.

Miseri noi h XXIVa:7, by was composed for an unknown occasion and singer possibly Nancy Storace ; the middle section, a Largo in G minor, is particularly impressive. The lieder of —4 stand in close chronological and stylistic proximity to the op.

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Although they have seemed simple to many commentators — they are relatively short and strophic, with the piano right hand largely doubling the voice — they are varied in mood and exhibit subtle rhythmic and formal construction, often brilliantly realizing implications of the text; the set includes more deeply felt items.

They are among his wittiest, most beautiful and most touching creations, with an inimitable air of casual sophistication and a brilliant combination of comic and serious topics and styles; their fusion of easy intelligibility and wit with the highest art and their ravishing part-writing almost suggest string quartets for voices. All are scored for two oboes, two horns and strings except for no.

In nos. These early symphonies combine Italian and Austrian, light and serious, traditional and up-to-date features. Notwithstanding their limited outward dimensions, they are masterful; many exhibit considerable thematic integration no. One finds works for connoisseurs nos. A few present an apotheosis of the chamber symphony: at ease, yet refined and profound nos. Although a few symphonies are still in three movements nos. Concertante scoring is prominent not only in nos. These include remote keys no. The slow movements and finales become more nearly comparable to the first movements in size and weight; in the former the violins play con sordino and the tempo is usually slowed to Adagio.

The programmatic nos. From about in some respects to Haydn again changed his orientation. Symphonies nos. This stylistic turn has been interpreted as a kind of relaxation, or even as an outright selling out, but it is better understood as representing the distinct artistic stance of entertainment. They are easy as Haydn was to say of nos. The slow movements exhibit new formal and stylistic options the hymn-like no. Slow introductions become important about and begin to create tangible links to the allegros nos. Although in many respects nos. The Paris symphonies nos. All these features characterize nos.

Not only do they outdo the Paris symphonies stylistically, but he produced them in person for rapturous audiences; this interaction stimulated him to ever bolder and more original conceptions. Those given in nos. These last features are found in nos. The last six symphonies are even more brilliant clarinets are added, except in no. He also composed numerous concertos, both for melody instruments many of them lost and for keyboard.

Later came nos. A distinct subgenre comprises the early concertinos h XIV—13, XVIII:F2 , not easily distinguished from a group of similar, probably soloistic divertimentos h XIV:3, 4, 7—10 ; all are tiny works for harpsichord, violins and bass, mainly in C. Although finely crafted, his keyboard concertos are less original and less popular than his symphonies, perhaps in part because he favours the middle register except in no. The traditional figure of 83 included the spurious op. Each group offers a different solution to the technical and aesthetic aspects of the genre while cumulatively enlarging the resources of quartet style.

They belong to the larger class of ensemble divertimentos, with which they share small outward dimensions, prevailing light tone except in slow movements and a five-movement pattern, usually fast—minuet—slow—minuet—fast. Even on this small scale, high and subtle art abounds: witness the rhythmic vitality, instrumental dialogue and controlled form of the first movement of op. They also — op. In op. Haydn now prefers homophonic, periodic themes rather than irregularly shaped or contrapuntal ones; as a corollary, the phrase rhythm is infinitely variable.

The slow movements and finales favour ABA and rondo forms rather than sonata form. However, these works are anything other than light or innocent: no. The appearance of op. He responded in opp. The minuet now almost invariably appears in third position; the slow movements, in ABA , variation or double variation form are more melodic than those in op. Without losing his grip on the essentials of quartet style or his sovereign mastery of form, he expands the dimensions still further, incorporating more original themes the octave leaps in the first movement of op.

He experimented as well with the organization of the cycle: op. In his earlier years especially, Haydn composed extensively in other chamber genres. His surviving authenticated ensemble divertimentos h II consist of one string quintet no. Most of them exhibit the same five-movement cyclic pattern as the early string quartets, with the difference that contrasts in instrumentation become a basis of style, for example in reduced scorings in trios and slow movements or extended soloistic passages.

Although some of the mixed works nos. The wind band works seem to date from about —61 ; they are even smaller in scale but unfailingly masterful. All are scored for two violins and presumably cello except no. They are in three movements except no. The baryton trios h XI; c —75 are similar in that they are music for a particular connoisseur and always in three movements with a minuet except no.

One last group of baryton works comprises the important octets h X:1—6 mids ; they are richer in scoring and on a larger scale than the trios. The six violin-viola duets h VI:1—6 are likewise from the mids; the violin dominates and the style seems somewhat old-fashioned.

In 18th-century thought and practice these constituted a single, loosely defined genre, destined primarily for private performance and orientated on the topic of sentiment, seen as the natural expressive mode for music performed solely or primarily by an individual at the keyboard; indeed Haydn often adopted a selfconsciously improvisatory style, especially after During the s these keyboard works were apparently composed for the harpsichord. The first clear albeit indirect evidence of composition for the fortepiano or possibly clavichord is found in the highly expressive Sonata no.

Nevertheless, most works from the s may have been conceived for the harpsichord or neutrally for both instruments. Beginning in the early s, and decisively from the late s on, Haydn composed for the fortepiano. Many of his keyboard works were composed for ladies, whether students in his early years, the Auenbrugger sisters around , or intimates such as Mme Genzinger, Mrs Schroeter and Therese Jansen.

The majority are in three movements: either fast—slow—fast, or a fast movement, slow movement and minuet in various permutations. Two-movement works are also common, often slow—fast; numerous slow movements in penultimate position are run on, attacca , to the finale. Even in the s and 90s many works end with an outwardly modest movement such as a Tempo di menuetto, a set of variations or a simple rondo. Two sets in mixed style followed, nos. The three modestly scaled sonatas nos.

Except for no. In the late s he composed no. From London come two virtuoso sonatas for Jansen: nos. Nevertheless the strings are essential, for integration of the texture, tone colour and rhythmic definition. From London, nos. It begins dissonantly on a dominant 9th and this instability is maintained throughout: there is no tonic cadence until the very last bar of the A section, just before the double bar, and in the reprise even this cadence is deceptive, leading to a substantial coda. By contrast, nos. Its only major dividing-points that affected both his life circumstances and his compositional orientation were , when he became full Kapellmeister, , when he became responsible for the court opera, and , when he negotiated his independence as composer of instrumental music.

The oldest and most persistent of these interpretations associated Classical style with thematische Arbeit and the string quartets op. Another proposed a double progression: towards a first highpoint with his Sturm und Drang manner around —72 , and a second one with the Paris symphonies and the Seven Last Words of —6. But even his earliest music was never in any intrinsic sense immature, and he continued to experiment, successfully, throughout his career. Joseph Haydn: Kritische Gesamtausgabe , ed.

Larsen, 4 vols. Boston, Leipzig and Vienna, —51 [L]. Joseph Haydn: Werke , ed. Haydn-Insttut, Cologne, dir. Larsen —61 , G. Feder —90 and others — , 78 vols. Munich, — [HW]. Landon, Philharmonia ser. Vienna, —8 [P]. B Miscellaneous sacred. C Oratorios and similar works. D Secular cantatas, choruses. E Dramatic. F Secular vocal with orchestra. G Solo songs with keyboard. H Miscellaneous vocal works with keyboard. I Canons. K Miscellaneous orchestral. M Concertos for string or wind instruments. N Divertimentos etc. O String quartets. P String trios divertimentos. Q Baryton trios divertimentos.

R Works for 1—2 barytons. T Works for 2 lire organizzate. V Keyboard trios. W Keyboard sonatas. X Miscellaneous keyboard works. Y Works for flute clock. A- autograph, i. Haydn in those years according to C. Items are numbered chronologically as far as possible within each category except in section Z ; these numbers are always shown in italics and are used for cross-references between sections e. Instrumental parts that are doubtful or are later additions sometimes by Haydn himself are parenthesized or given a question mark.

Note : over spurious masses listed in Hoboken; composers of some identified by MacIntyre H Quae admiranda lux; for? Merrick, rev. Tattersall : 17 How oft, instinct with warmth divine, F Ps xxvi. Heyda Hayda, Haida; c — ; also attrib. Appendix B. Vienna, 2, 4 April ; rev. Friebert, rev. Ramler: Der Tod Jesu ; perf. Vienna, 26, 27 March Weisse and G. Eisenstadt, before 11 Sept? Zeno: Lucio Vero , ; cf Q Acts 1, 2 inc. Coltellini, rev. Florence, 9 June ; ov. Schuster; cf appx Y. Rameau: Pigmalion. Meiningen, Er ist nicht mehr!

Leipzig and Nuremberg, , by Carl Franz; vocal part with bc extant; considered authentic by Landon A Sarti: I finti eredi; cf appxs X. Unpubd secco recits, rev. Recit and aria sung by Calcagni, London, , and Cantata a voce sola con violino composed for the Duke of Bedford, unidentified or lost; see Landon A Note : several anon. Haydn; 22 It. Leon , E; 3 Der erste Kuss J. Weisse , G; 5 Die Verlassene L. Haschka , g; 6 Der Gleichsinn G. Wither, trans. Eschenburg , A; 7 An Iris J. Bader , F? Lessing , a; 23 Minna J. Cardiff, Haydn; for text of no. Dormann: Franz Joseph Aumann Munich, , , ; arr.

Lindemayr , C; 51 Kein besseres Leben, G. Mozart k Anh. Note : further songs, mentioned by Griesinger and Dies as composed in England, may be identical with some of those listed above; 7 Ger. Gerber, 23 Sept ; Haydn used 1st bars of no. Boswell , G; 4 Saw ye my father? Mrs Grant;?

Burns , C. E nos. Note : Cant. Blumauer, after M. Tscherning , A, 2vv; 19 Grabschrift P. Hensler , g, 4vv? II also used in N 14 ; for bracketed dates of nos. I and II supposedly composed as ov. London, 31 March ; II uses Romance of lira conc. Note : single movts, see K 1 , 10 ; c spurious syms. Incidental music: Der Zerstreute comedy, 5,?

Bergopzoomer, after J. Regnard: Le distrait. J 63 combines altered ov. J 53 doubtful. Stegmann ;? Note : ovs. Eybler in D-HR , orig. Note : concs. Note : 3 concs. Haydn in D. Hellyer Cardiff, Mozart; in Opera incerta Mainz, , ed. Gerlach, as by? Haydn, L. Kammel, Anton, Quartett [ o ] del Sig. Hammell [ sic ]. Giuseppe Michl. Rutini, Giovanni Marco, Sonate per pianoforte , ed.

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Oxford Academic. Google Scholar. Rainer Kleinertz. Cite Citation. Permissions Icon Permissions. The first to identify any analytical detail that might demonstrate a qualitative leap in Op. As the quartets Op. View large Download slide. This has not, however, been underlined by scholarly publications on the topic.

Where so few authors have managed to pinpoint the originality of Op. Mark Evan Bonds, in an article on these quartets and the question of influence, mentions some presumed similarities between Op. Neither in Op. Mozart did not need to go back to the older genres to become acquainted with it. The first type is the simplest. The second and third types, by contrast, require more harmonic and melodic changes in the recapitulation before reaching the caesura bars.

The first type with its Scharnier bar Ex. In his Viennese quartets, this strict symmetry is suspended. Winter points out that the complementary bifocal close is used less frequently during the s and s by other composers. His assumptions, however, are based exclusively upon works available in modern editions, mainly symphonies and keyboard works. The first is the above-mentioned example by Rosen from the B minor quartet Ex.

At the same time, the accompanying quavers in the first violin bb. Even at the very beginning of the movement the intrinsic relationship between subject and accompaniment is subliminally present. Then in bar 11 a short figure with dotted semiquavers is introduced and repeated in the following bars, seemingly without being of greater importance Ex. Later in the movement, in the recapitulation, this figure reveals itself as one of the central motifs of the movement bb. The same happens in the following six bars bb.

Later, in bars 27—32 Ex. Here the musical foreground and background are exchanged. The principal motif serves as an accompaniment for what had originally been presented as a mere embellishment. Another example: later in the movement, in the dominant key area bb. At the same time, the first violin seems to fill the harmony with rather ancillary crotchets bb. When this is repeated in bars 51—4 Ex. Again, the background changes into the foreground. Haydn, String Quartet in C major, Op.

Apparently, it was this new dialectical relationship between important and unimportant elements—or, in other words, the latent importance of at first glance unimportant details in the musical process—which impacted on Mozart. Mozart could just as well have proceeded diatonically by writing two crotchets, a dotted crotchet with a quaver, or a crotchet with two quavers. The intrinsic reason for these passing notes becomes evident only in retrospect, quite a while later.

In bars 13—14 the seeming embellishment becomes part of a purposive development when the second to fourth quavers are separated and imitated in the violins Ex. This leads to a new, emphatically chromatic motif in bars 16— Another detail is partly linked with this. In the first violin, the first half of bar 9 is a variant of bar 3 cf. Five bars later, in bar 30, this new double-mordent figure from bar 25 is played legato in the cello, preparing in turn the inverted legato semiquaver figuration in bars 39—41 Ex.

Of Continued Importance

In the recapitulation, the first subject is even more decorated with chromatic passing notes Ex. Consequently, chromaticism, introduced in a rather clandestine way in the first movement, maintains its prominent role during the following movements. Similar phenomena can be found in the subsequent quartets. The figure does not return until bar 42 Ex. There it suddenly reappears in the first violin inverted, displaced by one quaver, and augmented from minor to major second and is repeated in the following bars in a slightly different manner with a two-quaver anacrusis downwards and upwards through all voices, becoming the central motif of the dominant key section from bar 55 onwards Ex.

In the development bb. A third and final example is drawn from the first movement of the string quartet in E flat major K. The four repeated crotchets of the second theme with quaver upbeat; Ex. The seemingly conventional upbeat figure of the second theme b. Mozart, however, was not the first composer to transfer this declamation style from opera to eighteenth-century instrumental music.

Since these figures—with the exception of the first—were prominent opera composers, the influence of declamation principles on instrumental music is not surprising. Hence it may be assumed that Mozart did not transfer this feature directly from opera to his piano concertos or string quartets, but that he adopted an already established manner of writing Italian instrumental music. The beginning violin 1 is an example of a quinario Ex. Here it is possible to underlay an eight-syllable verse ottonario ; Ex. The clear presence of sonata form in the minuet of the G major quartet K.

Such combinations go back to the s. The first part of the minuet—the last of four movements—provides a genuine second subject in the dominant key bb. Of these seven parts, according to Galeazzi, parts 2, 4, and 6 in modern terms: first key subject, transition, and cadential confirmation of the second key are compulsory, the remainder are optional. As an illustration, Galeazzi adds the melody of a two-part instrumental composition Ex. T able 1. T able 2. T able 3. Prior to this, Haydn had offered the new series for subscription in manuscript copies, demanding 6 ducats per copy.

Three copies of this letter are preserved. Like most scholars, Webster follows the traditional numbering with the B minor quartet as no. Das Opus zeigt charakteristische Entwicklungstendenzen 1. Es, 3. Many musicians and musicologists may well have been conscious of what Rosen explained, and there may be publications that document this. In the literature most directly concerned with Haydn and Op. Kassel and Stuttgart, , i. The Early Quartets, II. The Genesis of K. By the end of Apr. Mozart-Jahrbuch, ; Kassel, , i.

In the quoted sentence Bonds refers mainly—but not exclusively—to parallels with Op. Simon P. Keefe Ann Arbor, Apart from one quartet in Op. Keefe eds. Keefe ed. Parallels with other genres are mentioned only occasionally. He carried it with him on his journey to Mannheim and Paris —8 and ordered a copy for Otto Freiherr von Gemmingen-Hornberg in Mannheim before his departure for Paris. In a letter to his father of 24 Mar. Wilhelm A. Bauer and Otto Erich Deutsch, 7 vols.

Kassel, —75 , ii. See below, n. Apart from the opera and the string quartets only the solo motet Exsultate, jubilate K. Paris, —46 , i. Wie immer Mozarts Informationslage aussah—sie konnte allenfalls heterogen sein. Sammartini , Vol. Mozart , i. As speculation, I find it very intriguing that there is just one point of very close similarity not between the old man Sammartini and Mozart, but between the young man Boccherini and the very young man Mozart.

So bleibt es bei der unspezifisch anregenden Rolle seines Auftretens und seiner Publikationen. August Leipzig, , 79— at 82—3. Cliff Eisen London, , Apparently, Leopold refers here to experiences gained in Italy, but probably not to a concrete payment for the string quartets K. About five years later Leopold would have remembered the exact sum and not have mentioned two alternatives.

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The letter suggests, however, that Leopold had indeed tried to get a commission for his son for string quartets and to sell them. There seems to have been a particular market for string quartets, but at relatively low prices. Musicological Reprints; Baden-Baden, , iv. Amsterdam, —84 , i. Giacomo Fornari Lucca, , 4. See also Mozart, Streichquartette , i, pp.

Geburtstag am 3. September Kassel, , —27 at A further, but quite different, example is the first movement of the E flat major quartet K. Furthermore, in this series sonata-form movements with and without repeats coexist, in either case consistently indicated in the manuscript and the print.

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Mozart, Briefe und Aufzeichnungen , i. Apart from three trips to northern Europe, he spent the rest of his life in Italy. Daniel E. He composed lyra pieces for Ferdinand IV, king of Naples, to whom he also dedicated his string quartet series published in BEN —8. According to Julius Zsako, Pleyel was living in Italy nearly exlusively between and and was in contact also with the Italian violinists Nardini and Pugnani. They do not consider K. Fisher refers to Marion G. The quartets with sonata-rondo are Nos. The Mozart family had been travelling through Europe from to the end of From to they travelled to Vienna and Bohemia.

On 13 Dec. After sixteen months they were back in Salzburg on 28 Mar. On 13 Aug. From Oct. About the influence of Opp. It should not be forgotten in this context that string quartets—printed or handwritten—circulated in parts, not in score. See further Simon P. Robert N. Kirkendale mentions further fugue movements in string quartets by the following composers: Michele Barbici 17, , Pietro Beretta 17, , and Gaetano Latilla 17, See also A.

Jahrhunderts Neues Handbuch der Musikwissenschaft, 5; Laaber, , Similarly, the paradigm for the key order of K. Mozart, Streichquartette , i, p. Speck, Boccherinis Streichquartette , Geburtstag , —38 at Rudolstadt, , and Leipzig, and ; repr. Hildesheim, , iii. Geburtstag Mainzer Studien zur Musikwissenschaft, 21; Tutzing, , 79— With particular reference to the string quintet K.

This error originates in the Hummel edition Berlin and Amsterdam, New Grove , xii. Both are No. Marius Flothuis, Mozarts Streichquartette Munich, , Speck observed that this is the case for many settings of the Italian quinario , but it is actually the verse type that makes the difference and makes it possible to distinguish string quartets by Haydn from those by Mozart and his Italian contemporaries.

Its period of greatest currency was the s through the s. Music in the Galant Style , After a modulating middle section bb. The editor supposes influences from Johann Christian Bach, who had moved from Milan to London in XVI in E flat major from about ? The final movement of the piano sonata H. After eight bars it returns to the tonic, but without a clear recapitulation. Only the last four bars are repeated, now in the tonic. They are no Tempo di Minuetto finales like the final movements of the violin concerto in A major K.

Apparently, Mozart did not distinguish terminologically between the two types nor formally between a final minuet and a minuet within a four-movement cycle. The Minuetto of K. With a total number of bars this movement is even longer than the finale minuets in the Milanese series. In contemporary Italian usage string quartets, piano sonatas, and symphonies the terminology is similarly ambiguous: movements entitled Tempo di Minuetto can be minuets e.

Deborah Burton and Gregory W. Galeazzi always mentions Joseph Haydn as the first of the authorities he refers to, before Boccherini and his Italian contemporaries. This period is only used in very long pieces; in brief pieces it is omitted; thus, it is not essential. This is a new idea but always dependent on the preceding ones and especially on the motive or second motive; in it, the melody is disposed and prepared for the cadence. Jahrhunderts , The movement has often been subject to analysis.

See e. Elaine R. Mozart had done this in his symphonies since his first essays in the genre. In his early string quartets he never did, with the sole exceptions of K.