- Jean Giraud - Wikipedia
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Jean Giraud was born in Nogent-sur-Marne , Val-de-Marne, in the suburbs of Paris, on 8 May ,   as the only child to Raymond Giraud, an insurance agent, and Pauline Vinchon, who had worked at the agency. The rupture between mother and father created a lasting trauma that he explained lay at the heart of his choice of separate pen names. At age Giraud started to draw Western comics while enrolled by his single mother as a stop-gap measure in the Saint-Nicolas boarding school in Issy-les-Moulineaux for two years and where he became acquainted with Belgian comic magazines like Spirou and Tintin , much to the amusement of his school mates.
At 18, Giraud was drawing his own humorous, Morris inspired , Western comic two-page shorts, Frank et Jeremie , for the magazine Far West , his very first free-lance commercial sales. For example, two of the books Giraud illustrated for Fleurus, were co-illustrated with Guy Mouminoux , another name of some future renown in the Franco-Belgian comic world, and Giraud's work can only be identified, because he signed his work, whereas Mouminoux did not sign his. While not ample, Giraud's earning at Fleurus were just enough to allow him — disenchanted as he was with the courses, prevalent atmosphere and academic discipline — to quit his art academy education after only two years, though he came to somewhat regret the decision in later life.
Conceding that he had been a bit too cocky and ambitious Giraud stated, "I started the story all by myself. But after a week I had only finished half a plate, and, aside from being soaked with my sweat, it was a complete disaster. So Joseph went on to do the penciling, whereas I did the inks. Though he considered the assignment a daunting one, having to create in oil paints from historical objects and imagery, it was, besides being the best paying job he had ever had, a seminal appointment.
George Fronval , for whom Giraud provided two-thirds of the illustrations in gouache, including the cover. In the Pilote era, Giraud additionally provided art in gouache for two Western themed vinyl record music productions as sleeve art,  as well as the covers for the first seven outings in the French language edition of the Morgan Kane Western novel series written by Louis Masterson. Aside from its professional importance, Giraud's stint at Hachette was also of personal importance, as he met Claudine Conin, an editorial researcher at Hachette, and who described her future husband as being at the time "funny, uncomplicated, friendly, a nice boy next-door", but on the other hand, "mysterious, dark, intellectual", already recognizing that he had all the makings of a "visionary", long before others did.
Besides raising their children, wife Claudine not only took care of the business aspects of her husband's art work, but has on occasion also contributed to it as colorist. Additionally, the appearance of a later, major character in Giraud's Blueberry series, Chihuahua Pearl, was in part based on Claudine's looks. The Lieutenant Blueberry character, whose facial features were based on those of the actor Jean-Paul Belmondo , was created in by Charlier scenario and Giraud drawings for Pilote.
His featured adventures, in what was later called the Blueberry series, may be Giraud's best known work in native France and the rest of Europe, before later collaborations with Alejandro Jodorowsky. Giraud was so eager to return on the project during a stopover from the United States while the project was in hiatus, that he greatly accelerated the work on the "Angel Face" outing of Blueberry he was working on at the time, shearing off weeks from its originally intended completion.
It was Jodorowsky who introduced Giraud to the writings of Carlos Castaneda , who had written a series of books that describe his training in shamanism , particularly with a group whose lineage descended from the Toltecs. The books, narrated in the first person, related his experiences under the tutelage of a Yaqui "Man of Knowledge" named Don Juan Matus. Nonetheless, he never tried to hinder Giraud in the least, as he understood that an artist of Giraud's caliber needed a "mental shower" from time to time.
Michel Rouge , who was taken on by Giraud in for the inks of "La longue marche" "The Long March" painted a slightly different picture though. While Charlier was willing to overlook Giraud's "philandering" in his case only, he was otherwise of the firm conviction that artists, especially his own, should totally and wholeheartedly devote themselves to their craft, as Charlier had always considered the medium. According to Giraud, Charlier's purported stance negatively influenced his son Philippe, causing their relationship to rapidly deteriorate into open animosity, after the death of his father.
Later that year however, the long-running disagreement Charlier and Giraud had with their publishing house Dargaud , the publisher of Pilote , over the residuals from Blueberry came to a head. They began the Western comic Jim Cutlass as a means to put the pressure on Dargaud. It would be nearly fifteen years before the Blueberry series returned to Dargaud after Charlier died.
When Charlier, Giraud's collaborator on Blueberry , died in , Giraud assumed responsibility for the scripting of the main series, the last outing of which, "Apaches", released in , which became the last title Giraud created for the parent publisher. The original Blueberry series has spun off a prequel series called Young Blueberry in the Pilote -era — , but the artwork was in , when that series was resurrected, left to Colin Wilson and later fr: Michel Blanc-Dumont after the first three original volumes in that series, as well as the by Giraud written, but by William Vance penciled intermezzo series called Marshal Blueberry.
A Blueberry album sells at least Though Giraud enjoyed the artistic freedom and atmosphere at the magazine greatly, he eventually gave up his work there as Blueberry , on which he had embarked in the mean time, demanded too much of his energy, aside from being a better paid job. Magazine editor-in-chief Cavanna was loath to let Giraud go, not understanding why Giraud would want to waste his talents on a "kiddy comic".
Club du livre d'anticipation , a limited edition hardcover series, collecting work from seminal science fiction writers, from French publisher fr: Galaxie-bis science fiction magazine and pocket book series. Pursued through space and time by his own puritanical authorities, who frown upon the condition, and other parties, who have their own intentions with the hapless bandard , he eventually finds a safe haven on the asteroid Fleur of Madame Kowalsky, after several hilarious adventures.
Another novelty introduced in the book, is that the narrative is only related on the right-hand pages; the left-hand pages are taken up by one-page panels depicting an entirely unrelated cinematographic sequence of a man transforming after he has snapped his fingers. The translated version was known in the English-speaking world as Heavy Metal , and started its release in April , actually introducing Giraud's work to North-American readership.
Unlike most science fiction comics, it is, save for the artful executed story titles, entirely devoid of captions, speech balloons and written sound effects. It has been argued that the wordlessness provides the strip with a sense of timelessness, setting up Arzach's journey as a quest for eternal, universal truths.
Jean Giraud - Wikipedia
Lovecraft inspired story and "Citadelle aveugle" "The White Castle", in issue 51, and oddly enough signed as "Gir" were examples of additional stories Giraud created directly in color, shortly after "Arzach". His series The Airtight Garage , starting its magazine run in issue 6, , is particularly notable for its non-linear plot, where movement and temporality can be traced in multiple directions depending on the readers' own interpretation even within a single planche page or picture.
The dark, disturbing and surreal tale dealt with a blind boy in a non-descript empty cityscape, who has his pet eagle scout for eyes, which it finds by taking these from a street cat and offering them to his awaiting companion who, while grateful, expresses his preference for the eyes of a child. Deeming the story too short for a regular, traditional comic, it was Giraud who suggested the story to be told on the format he had already introduced in "Le bandard fou", to wit, as single panel pages.
On recommendation of Jodorowsky, he refined the format by relating the eagle's quest on the right-hand pages, while depicting the awaiting boy in smaller single panel left-hand pages from a contra point-of-view. Giraud furthermore greatly increased his already high level of detail by making extensive use of zipatone for the first time. In the magazine's issue 58 of Giraud started his famous L'Incal series in his third collaboration with Jodorowsky. He had left Pilote to escape the pressure and stifling conditions he was forced to work under, seeking complete creative freedom, but now it was increasingly becoming "as stifling as it had been before with Blueberry ", as he conceded in , adding philosophically, "The more you free yourself, the more powerless you become!
Then I will quit comics! Fortunately for his fans, Giraud did not act upon his impulse as history has shown, though he did take action to escape the hectic Parisian comic scene in by moving himself and his family as far away from Paris as possible in France, by relocating to the small city of Pau at the foothills of the Pyrenees. Another member of the commune was Paula Salomon, for whom Giraud had already illustrated her book "La parapsychologie et vous". Jean Annestay , for the express purpose to release his work in a more artful manner, such as limited edition art prints, art books "La memoire du futur" was first released under the Gentiane imprint, and reprinted under that of Aedena and art portfolios.
There were thousands of professionals who knew my work. That has always amazed me every time I entered some graphics, or animation studio, at Marvel or even at George Lucas '. Mentioning the name Jean Giraud did not cause any of the present pencillers, colorists or storyboard artists to even bat an eye. A two-issue Silver Surfer miniseries later collected as Silver Surfer: According to Giraud, this was his first time working under the Marvel method instead of from a full script, and he has admitted to being baffled by the fact that he already had a complete story synopsis on his desk only two days after he had met Stan Lee for the first time, having discussed the — what Giraud then assumed a mere — proposition over lunch.
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An amused Giraud quipped, "It's better than a big stature, because in a way, I can not dream of anything better to be immortal [than] being in a movie about submarines! As a result, from his cooperation with Marvel, Giraud delved deeper into the American super hero mythology and created super hero art stemming from both Marvel and DC Comics , which were sold as art prints, posters or included in calendars. Another project Giraud embarked upon in his "American period", was for a venture into that other staple of American pop culture, trading cards. None of the images were lifted from already pre-existing work, but was especially created anew by Giraud the year previously.
Although Giraud had taken up residence in California for five years — holding a temporary residence the O-1 "Extraordinary Ability" category,  including the "International Artist" status  visa — he maintained a transient lifestyle, as his work had him frequently travel to Belgium and native France maintaining a home in Paris , as well as to Japan, for extended periods of time. His stay in the United States was an inspiration for his aptly called Made in L. Giraud's extended stay in the US, garnered him a Inkpot Award , an additional Eisner Award, as well as three Harvey Awards in the period — for the various graphic novel releases by Marvel.
It was in this period that Giraud, who had already picked up Spanish as a second language as a result from his various trips to Mexico and his dealings with Jodorowsky and his retinue, also picked up sufficient language skills to communicate in English. In late summer , Giraud returned to France, definitively as it turned out, though that was initially not his intent. His family had already returned to France earlier, as his children wanted to start their college education in their native county and wife Claudine had accompanied them to set up home in Paris.
However, it also turned out that his transient lifestyle had taken its toll on the marriage, causing the couple to drift apart, and it was decided upon his return to enter into a " living apart together " relationship, which allowed for an "enormous freedom and sincerity" without "demands and frustrations" for both spouses, according to the artist.
Giraud's marriage with Claudine was legally ended in December , without much drama according to Giraud, as both spouses had realized that "each wanted something different out of life". Giraud and Isabelle were married on 13 May , and the union resulted in their second child, daughter Nausicaa, the same year.
The changes in his personal life were also accompanied with changes in his business holdings during — The American subsidiary Starwatcher Graphics followed in its wake,  partly because it was a shared marital possession of the original Giraud couple and partly because the publication efforts of his work in the United States had run its course. Together with Claudine he founded Stardom in , his first true family operated business without any outside participation, according to Giraud,  with the to copies limited mini art portfolio "Mockba - carnet de bord" becoming the company's first recorded publication in September the same year.
In , the company was renamed Moebius Production — singular, despite the occasional and erroneous use of the plural, even by the company itself. Despite repeated pleas to convince Giraud otherwise, it left writer Jodorowsky with no other recourse than to start anew with a new artist. Both parts were published on the same date 13 November  and were the last ones written by Van Hamme before Yves Sentes took over the series. Late in life, Giraud also decided to revive his seminal Arzak character in an elaborate new adventure series; the first and last in hindsight volume of a planned trilogy, Arzak l'arpenteur , appeared in By this time, Giraud created his comic art on a specialized graphic computer tablet, as its enlargement features had become an indispensable aid, because of his failing eyesight.
As book illustrator, Giraud illustrated for example the first edition of the science fiction novel "Project Pendulum" by Robert Silverberg ,  and the French edition  of the novel " The Alchemist " by Paulo Coelho. Adventures in Slumberland and Thru the Moebius Strip as outlined further down the line. He also wrote the "Story Notes" editorials for the American Epic publications, providing background information on his work contained therein.
In , he took time off to write his " Moebius-Giraud: Histoire de mon double " autobiography. Tron was not a big hit. The movie went out in theaters in the same week as E. There was also Blade Runner and Star Trek that summer so it was a battle of giants. Tron was a piece of energy trying to survive. It is still alive. And the new movie is what Steven wanted to do back then but at that time CG was very odd and we were pioneers. I almost did the first computer-animated feature after that, it was called Star Watcher, we had the story, we had the preparation done, we were ready to start.
His daughter married in the head of the second branch, Gabriel-Marie, comte de Grignols , and Chalais passed to that branch. This simple lordship near Rethel was sold in by Raoul de Porcien to Thibaut de Navarre, count of Champagne, whose possessions were inherited by his nephew Jeanne, wife of Philippe IV of France It was sold in to cardinal Mazarin, and followed that inheritance. The title is currently used by the Grimaldi family of Monaco. The town itself was founded in by Hugues de Rethel.
As with a number of other principalities sitting on international borders, a main source of revenue in the 16th and 17th centuries was the large-scale minting of imitations of neighboring coins; something which would be called counterfeiting if the perpetrators were not sovereign. Located in the Aunis region, along the Atlantic coast. This castle was originally owned by the counts of Poitou and became the personal possession of a family in the 10th c.
In the 17th c. See an interesting article in French by Jacques Duguet. It originally belonged to the sires of Avesnes, then to the Luxembourg-Saint-Paul family. The first time the title is used is in the official account of a lit de justice on 15 Jan The original lords of Conti died out in the late 14th c. It stayed as a marquisate in the Sully family, but the Bourbon-Conti styled themselves as princes de Conti. Montmorency, a small town a few miles north of Paris, reverted to its original name, probably after the Revolution.
But the nearby lake kept the name of Enghien. Sulfurous springs were discovered there in , and in a thermal establishment was founded; the location became a township in its own right under the name of Enghien-les-Bains, with a renowned casino. They were the next branch of the Capetians after the Bourbons, but never enjoyed the rank of princes of the blood.
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The last branch of Courtenay, the lords of Chevillon, styled themselved princes de Courtenay in the 17th c. The last male, Charles-Roger, died in ? For this reason the Bauffremont have used the title of prince de Courtenay, as well as a number of other dubious princely titles, such as Listenois, which came to them by marriage to Anne de Vienne, dame de Listenois in Their title of prince of the Holy Roman Empire conferred in was authorized in France the same year.
To the house of Montglat in , the comte de Chiverny in EdlF. The total area was about 1, km2. The Thoire family became extinct in ; the last male, Humbert, had sold Dombes in to Louis, duc de Bourbon. Louis de Bourbon united these territories together.
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These territories were inherited by Suzanne de Bourbon and her cousin and husband, Charles de Bourbon. Charles de Bourbon saw that he would not get a fair hearing and betrayed the king of France, entering the service of Charles V. On Jan 16, he was declared guilty of leze-majesty, his feudal possessions forfeited to the crown and his personal estate confiscated. Dombes was taken over by edict of January But the heirs of Charles de Bourbon disputed the confiscation; in fact, the matter had been raised by the Emperor Charles V and promises to review the matter inserted in the treaties of Madrid and Cambrai ; in both treaties, it was specified that the Dombes was outside of the jurisdiction of France.
The French king finally relented, and the Dombes was given on Sep. Louis XIV forced her to cede Dombes to his legitimized son, the duc du Maine, in exchange for the freedom of her imprisoned lover, the duc de Lauzun Feb 6, ; letters patent of Mademoiselle of Oct 24, , registered in the Parlement of Dombes on Nov 19; the donation was to take effect after her death. The duc du Maine, by his will of , left his possessions to his children and in default to the children of his brother the comte de Toulouse will registered in the parlement of Dombes on May 28, Accordingly his eldest son the prince de Dombes succeeded him and, in , his second son the comte d'Eu followed.
The revenues of the Dombes were estimated at , livres, and the lands ceded in exchange to the comte d'Eu were worth twice as much; the premium reflecting the value of the sovereignty of the Dombes.
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The duc du Maine did not mint any coins. They styled themselves "princes souverains de Dombes". See a 17th c. The prince de Dombes conferred titles: letters patent of the duc du Maine of 10 June raised the lordship of Cibeins to a county for its owner Pierre de Chollier sold at Drouot, Nov. The county of Montbazon was raised to a dukedom in and again in This branch was granted rank of foreign prince by brevet of The descendants in male line are settled in Austria.
It is claimed that Bernard, a companion of Rollo, first duke of Normandy, was given Harcourt and other lands in Normandy. Harcourt became a county in His posterity inherited the duchy of Lorraine, and the lands of the Harcourt inheritance Lillebonne, Elbeuf, Aumale were given to Claude de Lorraine, first duc de Guise d. Claude settled in France and from him are descended the French branches of the Lorraine family. In the 16th c. Their son Charles I was made duc d'Elbeuf in The house of Guise ended in Mayenne, descended from Charles younger son of the 3d duc de Guise d.
The house of Aumale ended with Charles d. The barony of Joinville Haute-Marne belonged to the family of Joinville which appears in the early 11th c. With Geoffroy III d. The title of prince de Joinville was born by the ducs de Guise Henri I, d. The act was voided by the Parlement de Paris in Du Cange cites a charter of with Guido de Juncivilla Princeps. It's not clear which member of the family that would refer to. In Provence, in the house of Lorraine, used as title by the eldest son of the comte de Brionne Lorraine with a label and a bordure gules besanty.
Also styled "comte souverain". After the title La Rochefoucauld was raised to a duchy-peerage in , Marsillac became the courtesy title of the eldest son of the duc de La Rochefoucauld. It was given as a viscounty in to Jacques d'Arcussia, chamberlain of Jeanne of Provence, and returned to the count of Provence in She had married Philibert-Emmanuel of Lorraine, duc de Mercoeur d. Louis-Joseph gave homage for, inter alia, the principality of Martigues to the king on 18 June Nouveaux Hommages , vol. His son died without issue in and the heirs sold the viscountcy in to the Galliffet.
EdlF It was later raised to a duchy peerage, by letters of Dec , registered in , with remainder to heirs male and female. However, in november Louis-Armand de Bourbon, prince de Conti exercised the right of "retrait lignager" which gave kinsmen the right to purchase the main family estates out of an inheritance before it was sold outside of the family. A lawsuit followed, lost by the comte de Lassay 21 June In July , Mercoeur was again raised to a duchy-peerage.
Louis-Armand's son sold Mercoeur to the king on 9 Oct Levantal Marie de Montauban married Louis de Rohan d. In the late 17th century, when the Rohan family was granted rank of foreign prince, various younger sons took the habit of calling themselves "prince de Montauban" or "prince de Montbazon". In Gironde. It belonged to the viscounts of Aunay, then to several families. Charles de Coetivy is styled prince of Mortagne in It passed later to the Goyon-Matignon family, which sold it to Lomenie, who in turn sold it to the cardinal de Richelieu, whence to the Plessis-Richelieu family, which used the style of "prince de Mortagne".
Orange, a county made a principality of the Holy Roman Empire in , was a relic of the old kingdom of Burgundy, and was originally dependent of the count of Provence or the count of Dauphine. By the 13th century, however, the counts of Orange were claiming sovereignty on their coinage: "princeps Aurasicensis" and "deo gratia princeps Auraice" the phrase "by the grace of God" indicating that they did not hold their land from anyone.
Alix de Chalon, dame de Bussy d. Alix received the barony of Baux, which, later united to the crown, was then given in to Honore Grimaldi, hence its present-day use as title of the heir apparent in Monaco. Jean's only son, Philibert de Chalon , was the last male descendant of Jean III, and left his estates to the son of his only sister Claude d. The latter left the principality to his paternal uncle's son William of Nassau, the Silent , in violation of the remainder, since he was unrelated to Marie de Baux.
The principality should have passed to the heir of Alix de Chalon. They had Philip d. They protested and obtained court decisions in their favor, but given William the Silent's high profile as leader of the Dutch revolt against Spain and given France's enmity with Spain , the French kings decided not to enforce the courts' decisions and left the principality in the hands of the Nassau-Orange family. One of the rights that successive houses of Orange had enjoyed was the right to strike coins, and one finds coins in the name and arms of various individuals "by the grace of God prince of Orange, count of Nassau" down to the late 17th c.
Some were scandalous imitations of French coins even showing the arms of France, with a little bugle-horn somewhere in the design. William who became king of England in died without children in However, by a will dated 28 Oct , he had made his universal heir his distant agnate Johan Willem Friso of Nassau-Dietz who was, however, a less distant relation in female line: the king of Prussia descended from the eldest paternal aunt of William III, while Johan WIllem Friso descended from the next aunt.
The three-way dispute between France, Prussia and Nassau-Dietz was resolved slowly. By art. The Dutch royal house descended from Johan Willem Friso has been using the title of prince of Orange to this day, currently as title of the heir apparent. The Dutch constitution of specified in its article "De oudste van des Konings zonen, of verdere mannelijke nakomelingen, die de vermoedelijke erfgenaam is van de Kroon, is des Konings eerste onderdaan, en voert den titel van Prins van Oranje.
Meanwhile, the last male Longueville, Jean-Louis-Charles, had died in The only surviving sibling of Jean-Louis-Charles de Longueville was Marie, widow of the duc de Nemours, died childless in The Longueville claim descended from Alix de Chalon fragmented into multiple claims.
Marie had adopted as heir an illegitimate child of Louis de Bourbon, comte de Soissons, named Louis Henri de Bourbon Marie's father was Henri, none of whose siblings left surviving issue. To find more heirs, one has to return to her grandfather Henri's sister Antoinette , who married in Charles de Gondi, and Eleonore b. In , Orange or rather the "domaine utile", or usufruct was given to the prince de Conti.
After the latter's death in , by arrangement with his heirs, Orange was united to France in But there was a third child who left issue, namely Jean de Chalon, sire de Vitteaux d. His eldest son Charles left a daughter and heiress Charlotte, married in Adrien de Sainte-Maure, comte de Nesle d. There was issue from both marriages, and claims in both issues. From the first marriage the representation passes through their son Jean d. This was ignored when Orange was awarded to the prince de Conti.
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Louis de Mailly-Nesle left only five daughters famous for having been the mistresses of Louis XV in succession and a sister Charlotte married but without surviving issue. The canting arms of Mailly are Or three mallets vert. The Orange-Nassau bore en-surtout an escutcheon used a quartering of Chalon and Orange, either as grand-quarter or en-surtout see a testoon or a gold double pistole of Frederic-Henri, who reigned to ; although, as king of England, William III simply used an escutcheon of Nassau.
See a map of the principality of Orange. Poix , in Picardie near Abbeville; present-day Somme , belonged to the Tyrel family, who used the title of "prince de Poix". Du Cange: Gualterus Tyrellus dominus et princeps de castello de Poix , Poix became a principality again and passed through his only daughter Marguerite d.
The principality then stayed in the Noailles family, where it became the title of the second son starting with Philippe de Noailles, b, , second son of Adrien Maurice de Noailles; Philippe's wife Anne-Claude-Louise d'Arpajon had the singular privilege of being received as grand-cross of Malta in , her great-grandfather having saved the island from a Turkish invasion in