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  4. His Life and Thought

Meyer, Leben, Charakter und Schriften Basedows 2 vols. Pinloche, Basedow et le philanthropinisme Paris, ; C. Hidden category: Subpages. Namespaces Page Discussion. Views Read Edit View history. Display Options.


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In other languages Add links. This page was last edited on 3 December , at In close games the "sacrifice-hit," a part of team batting, is an important element. It consists, when a runner is on base, of a hit by the batsman resulting in his own retirement but the advancement to the next base of the runner. The sacrifice-hit is most frequently a bunt, as this gives the batsman the best chance of reaching first-base safely, besides surely advancing the runner.

Another kind of sacrifice-hit is a long fly to the outfield. On such a hit a runner on third-base as on the other bases must remain on the base until after the ball is caught, but the distance from the outfield to the home-plate is so great that a fast runner can generally beat the ball and score his run. When men are on bases, coaches are allowed to stand near first and third bases to direct the runners. One umpire, who has absolute jurisdiction over all points of play, usually officiates in base-ball, but, in important games, two umpires are often employed, one of them standing behind the catcher and calling the good and bad balls pitched, and the other, posted in the infield, giving decisions on plays at the bases.

In cases where the game is tied after nine innings, extra ones are played, the umpire "calling" a game when it becomes too dark to play. In case of rain, play is suspended by the umpire, who calls the game if the rain continues for one half-hour. Should play be permanently interrupted the game counts if five innings have been completed by each side. Careful record is kept of the batting, fielding, pitching and base-running averages of both professional and amateur players.

To find the batting record of a player, divide the number of hits made by the number of times at bat. To find a fielding record, divide the number of accepted chances by the total chances, e. Barbour New York, He was educated at the Johanneum in that town, where he came under the influence of the rationalist H. Reimarus , author of the [v. In he went to Leipzig as a student of theology, but gave himself up entirely to the study of philosophy. This at first induced sceptical notions; a more profound examination of the sacred writings, and of all that relates to them, brought him back to the Christian faith, but, in his retirement, he formed his belief after his own ideas, and it was far from orthodox.

He returned to Hamburg, and between and was private tutor in a nobleman's family in Holstein. Basedow now began to exhibit his really remarkable powers as an educator of the young, and acquired so much distinction that, in , he was chosen professor of moral philosophy and belles-lettres in the academy of Soro in Denmark. On account of his theological opinions he was in removed from this post and transferred to Altona, where some of his published works brought him into great disfavour with the orthodox clergy.

He was forbidden to give further instruction, but did not lose his salary; and, towards the end of , he abandoned theology to devote himself with the same ardour to education, of which he conceived the project of a general reform in Germany. In appeared his Vorstellung an Menschenfreunde fuer Schulen, nebst dem Plan eines Elementarbuches der menschlichen Erkenntnisse , which was strongly influenced by Rousseau's Emile.

He proposed the reform of schools and of the common methods of instruction, and the establishment of an institute for qualifying teachers,—soliciting subscriptions for the printing of his Elementarwerk , where his principles were to be explained at length, and illustrated by plates. The subscriptions for this object amounted to 15, Talers L , and in he was able to publish the work in four volumes.

It contains a complete system of primary education, intended to develop the intelligence of the pupils and to bring them, so far as possible, into contact with realities, not with mere words. The work was received with great favour, and Basedow obtained means to establish an institute for education at Dessau, and to apply his principles in training disciples, who might spread them over all Germany. The name of Philanthropin which he gave to the institution appeared to him the most expressive of his views; and he engaged in the new project with all his accustomed ardour.

But he had few scholars, and the success by no means answered his hopes. Nevertheless, so well had his ideas been received that similar institutions sprang up all over the land, and the most prominent writers and thinkers openly advocated the plan. Basedow, unfortunately, was little calculated by nature or habit to succeed in an employment which required the greatest regularity, patience and attention; his temper was intractable, and his management was one long quarrel with his colleagues. He resigned his directorship of the institution in , and it was finally closed in Basedow died at Magdeburg on the 25th of July See H.

Meyer, Leben, Charakter und Schriften Basedows 2 vols. Pinloche, Basedow et le philanthropinisme Paris, ; C. Goessgen, Rousseau und Basedow BASE FEE, in law, a freehold estate of inheritance which is limited or qualified by the existence of certain conditions. In modern property law the commonest example of a base fee is an estate created by a tenant in tail, not in possession, who bars the entail without the consent of the protector of the settlement.

Though he bars his own issue, he cannot bar any remainder or reversion, and the estate i. An example of this kind of estate was introduced by George Eliot into the plot of Felix Holt. Another example of a base fee is an estate descendible to heirs general, but terminable on an uncertain event; for example, a grant of land to A and his heirs, tenants of the manor of Dale. The estate terminates whenever the prescribed qualification ceases. An early meaning of base fee was an estate held not by free or military service, but by base service, i.

Bale , one of the most northerly of the Swiss cantons, and the only one save Schaffhausen that includes any territory north of the Rhine. It is traversed by the chain of the Jura, and is watered by the Birs and the Ergolz, both tributaries left of the Rhine. It is traversed by railways from Basel to Olten 25 m. Since it has been divided into two half cantons, with independent constitutions.

One is that of Basel Stadt or Bale Ville, including, besides the city of Basel, the three rural districts all to the north of the Rhine of Riehen, Bettingen and Klein Hueningen the latter now united to the city. The total area of this half canton is The cantonal constitution dates from The executive of seven members and the legislature Grossrat of members, as well as the one member sent to the Federal Staenderat and the six sent to the Federal Nationalrat , are all elected by a direct popular vote for the term of three years.

Since , citizens can claim a popular vote facultative Referendum on all bills, or can exercise the right of initiative whether as to laws or the revision of the cantonal constitution. The other half canton is that of Basel Landschaft or Bale Campagne, which is divided into four administrative districts and comprises seventy-four communes, its capital being Liestal.

Its total area is sq. In its total population was 68,, nearly all German-speaking, while there were 52, Protestants, 15, Romanists, and Jews. The executive of 5 members and the legislature or Landrat one member per inhabitants or fraction over , as well as the single member sent to the Federal Staenderat and the three sent to the Federal Nationalrat , are all elected by a direct popular vote for three years.

The "obligatory Referendum" obtains in the case of all laws, while citizens have the right of "initiative" whether as to laws or the revision of the cantonal constitution. Silk ribbon weaving, textile industries and the manufacture of tiles are carried on. Bale , but Basle is a wholly erroneous form; Ital. It is now the second most populous , inhabitants town ranking after Zuerich in the Swiss Confederation, while it is reputed to be the richest, the number of resident millionaires in francs exceeding that of any other Swiss town. Both facts are largely due to the opening of the St Gotthard railway, as merchandise collected from every part of north and central Europe is stored in Basel previous to being redistributed by means of that line.

Hence the city has an extremely large and flourishing transit trade, despite the rather dingy appearance of its older portions. The city is divided by the Rhine into Gross Basel south and Klein Basel north , the former being by far the larger. There are several bridges over the river, the old wooden bridge having been replaced in by one built of stone. The most prominent building in the city is the cathedral or Muenster, built of deep red sandstone, on a terrace high above the Rhine. It was consecrated in , but was mainly rebuilt after the disastrous earthquake of that nearly ruined the city.

The public meetings of the great oecumenical council were held in the choir, while the committees sat in the chapter-house. Erasmus lived in Basel , and on his death there was buried in the cathedral, attached to which are cloisters, in which various celebrated men are buried, e. Oecolampadius d. The 16th-century Rathaus or town hall has recently been restored. In the museum is a fine collection of works of art by Holbein who lived in Basel from [v.

The university founded by Pius II. The university library is very rich, and contains the original MSS. There are a number of modern monuments in the city, the most important being that set up to the memory of the Swiss who fell in the battle of St Jakob , won by the French. Basel is the seat of the chief missionary society in Switzerland, the training school for missionaries being at St Chrischona, 6 m.

The town was founded in A. Henceforth the history of the city is that of the growing power, spiritual and temporal, of the bishops, whose secular influence was gradually supplanted in the 14th century by the advance of the rival power of the burghers. In the city was nearly destroyed by a great earthquake. After long swaying between the neighbouring Rhine cities and the Swiss Confederation, it was admitted into the latter in It later became one of the chief centres of the Reformation movement in Switzerland, so that the bishop retired in to Porrentruy, where he resided till , finally settling at Soleure in , the bishopric having been wholly reorganized since As in other Swiss towns the trade gilds got all political power into their hands, especially by the 18th century.

They naturally favoured the city at the expense of the rural districts, so that in the latter proclaimed their independence, and in were organized into the half canton of Basel Landschaft, the city forming that of Basel Stadt. See Basler Biographien 3 vols. Boos, Geschichte von Basel , vol. Burckhardt, Bilder aus d. Geschichte von Basel 3 vols. Bundes zwisch. Geering, Handel und Industrie d.

Stadt Basel ; A. Heusler, Verfassungsgeschichte d. Stadt Basel im Mittelalter , and Rechtsquellen von Basel 2 vols. Stocker, Basler Stadtbilder ; L. Stouff, Pouvoir temporel des eveques de Bale 2 vols. Thommen, Gesch. Universitaet B. Landschaft B. Vischer, Gesch. Wackernagel, Gesch. Stadt Basel 3 vols. Gautherot, La Republique rauracienne It was put out in and must be distinguished from the First and Second Helvetic Confessions, its author being Oswald Myconius, who based it on a shorter confession promulgated by Oecolampadius, his predecessor in the church at Basel.

Though it was an attempt to bring into line with the reforming party both those who still inclined to the old faith and the anabaptist section, its publication provoked a good deal of controversy, especially on its statements concerning the Eucharist, and the people of Strassburg even reproached those of Basel with celebrating a Christless supper. Up to the year the Confession sometimes also known as the Confession of Muehlhausen from its adoption by that town was publicly read from the pulpits of Basel on the Wednesday of Passion week in each year.

In a resolution of the great council of the city practically annulled it. A decree of the council of Constance 9th of October sanctioned by Martin V. At the expiry of the first term fixed by this decree, Martin V. The next council was due to assemble at the expiry of seven years, i. Martin himself, however, died before the opening of the synod. From Italy, France and Germany the fathers were slow in appearing at Basel.

Cesarini devoted all his energies to the war against the Hussites, until the disaster of Taus forced him hastily to evacuate Bohemia. The progress of heresy, the reported troubles in Germany, the war which had lately broken out between the dukes of Austria and Burgundy, and finally, the small number of fathers who had responded to the summons of Martin V. This opinion, added to the desire which he had of himself presiding over the council, induced him to recall the fathers from Germany, whither his health, impaired of late, probably owing to a cerebral congestion, rendered it all the more difficult for him to go.

He commanded the fathers to disperse, and appointed Bologna as their meeting-place in eighteen months' time, his intention being to make the session of the council coincide with some conferences with representatives of the Greek church, which were to be held there with a view to union 18th December This order led to an outcry among the fathers of Basel and incurred the deep disapproval of the legate Cesarini. The Hussites, it was said, would think that the Church was afraid to face them; the laity would accuse the clergy of shirking reform; in short, this failure of the councils would produce disastrous effects.

In vain did the pope explain his reasons and yield certain points; the fathers would listen to nothing, and, relying on the decrees of the council of Constance, which amid the troubles of the schism had proclaimed the superiority, in certain cases, of the council over the pope, they insisted upon their right of remaining assembled, hastily beat up the laggards, held sessions, promulgated decrees, interfered in the government of the papal countship of Venaissin, treated with the Hussites, and, as representatives of the universal Church, presumed to impose laws upon the sovereign pontiff himself.

Eugenius IV. However, he soon realized the impossibility of treating the fathers of Basel as ordinary rebels, and tried a compromise; but as time went on, the fathers became more and more intractable, and between him and them gradually arose an impassable barrier. Abandoned by a number of his cardinals, condemned by most of the powers, deprived of his dominions by condottieri who shamelessly invoked the authority of the council, the pope made concession after concession, and ended on the 15th of December by a pitiable surrender of all the points at issue in a bull, the terms of which were dictated by the fathers of Basel, that is, by declaring his bull of dissolution null and void, and recognizing that the synod had not ceased to be legitimately assembled.

It would be wrong, however, to believe that Eugenius IV. No express pronouncement on this subject could be wrung from him, and his enforced silence concealed the secret design of safeguarding the principle of sovereignty. The fathers, who were filled with suspicion, would only allow the legates of the pope to preside over them on condition of their recognizing the superiority of the council; the legates ended by submitting to this humiliating formality, but in their own name only, thus reserving the judgment of the Holy See. Nay more, the difficulties of all kinds against which Eugenius had to contend, the insurrection at Rome, which forced him to escape by the Tiber, lying in the bottom of a boat, left him at first little chance of resisting the enterprises of the council.

Emboldened by their success, the fathers approached the subject of reform, their principal object being to curtail the power and resources of the papacy. This is why, besides the disciplinary [v. Thus annates q. By other decrees the jurisdiction of the court of Rome was much limited, and rules were even made for the election of popes and the constitution of the Sacred College.

The fathers continued to devote themselves to the subjugation of the Hussites; they also intervened, in rivalry with the pope, in the negotiations between France and England which led only to the treaty of Arras, concluded by Charles VII. The democratic character of the assembly of Basel was the result both of its composition and of its organization; not only was the number of prelates in it always small in comparison with that of the doctors, masters, representatives of chapters, monks or clerks of inferior orders, but the influence of the superior clergy had all the less weight because, instead of being separated into "nations," as at Constance, the fathers divided themselves according to their tastes or aptitudes into four large committees or "deputations" deputationes , one concerned with questions of faith fidei , another with negotiations for peace pacis , the third with reform reformatorii , the fourth with what they called "common concerns" pro communibus.

Every decision made by three of these "deputations"—and in each of them the lower clergy formed the majority—was ratified for the sake of form in general congregation, and if necessary led to decrees promulgated in session. It was on this account that the council could sometimes be called, not without exaggeration, "an assembly of copyists" or even "a set of grooms and scullions. The question of the union with the Greek church, especially, gave rise to a misunderstanding between them which soon led to a rupture.

The emperor John Palaeologus, pressed hard by the Turks, showed a great desire to unite himself with the Catholics; he consented to come with the principal representatives of the Greek church to some place in the west where the union could be concluded in the presence of the pope and of the Latin council. Hence arose a double negotiation between him and Eugenius IV. The chief object of the latter was to fix the meeting-place at a place remote from the influence of the pope, and they persisted in suggesting Basel or Avignon or Savoy, which neither Eugenius nor the Greeks would on any account accept.

The result was that Palaeologus accepted the offers of the pope, who, by a bull dated the 18th of September , again pronounced the dissolution of the council of Basel, and summoned the fathers to Ferrara, where on the 8th of January he opened a new synod which he later transferred to Florence. In this latter town took place the momentary union, which was more apparent than real, between the Latin and the Greek church 6th July During this time the council of Basel, though abandoned by Cesarini and most of its members, persisted none the less, under the presidency of Cardinal Aleman, in affirming its oecumenical character.

On the 24th of January it suspended Eugenius IV. This schism lasted fully ten years, although the antipope found hardly any adherents outside of his own hereditary states, those of Alphonso of Aragon, of the Swiss confederation and certain universities.

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Germany remained neutral; Charles VII. Finally, in Frederick III. In June the rump of the council migrated to Lausanne. The antipope, at the instance of France, ended by abdicating 7th April Trustworthy evidence, they said, proved to them that this pontiff accepted the dogma of the superiority of the council as it had been defined at Constance and at Basel. In reality, the struggle which they had carried on in defence of this principle for seventeen years, with a good faith which it is impossible to ignore, ended in a defeat.


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The papacy, which had been so fundamentally shaken by the great schism of the West, came through this trial victorious. The era of the great councils of the 15th century was closed; the constitution of the Church remained monarchical. Freiburg-im-Breisgau, ; O. Vienna, ; J. Haller, Concilium Basiliense , vol. Basel, ; G. Much useful material will also be found in J. Gieseler's Ecclesiastical History , vol. It is incorrectly applied to the ground storey of any building, even when, as for instance in the case of Somerset House, London, the ground floor is of plain or rusticated masonry, and the upper storey which it supports is divided up and decorated with columns or pilasters.

In , the raja being of weak intellect and without heir, the administration was undertaken by a British official. In there were some local troubles owing to the refusal of the people to pay taxes. The revenue is obtained chiefly from land and forests, the latter being leased to the British government. Its boundaries are not very well defined, but it may be said in general to have been north of the territory of Gilead.

The name first appears in Hebrew history in connexion with the wanderings of the Israelites. According to Numbers xxi. The value of this narrative is a matter of much dispute. The gigantic stature of the king, and the curious details about his "bedstead" Deut. The story, however, had so firm a hold on Hebrew tradition that it can hardly fail to have some basis in fact; and an invasion by Israel of Bashan before coming to Jordan is by no means an improbability. The great stature of Og is explained in the passage of Deuteronomy mentioned by the statement that he was of the remnant of the aboriginal Rephaim.

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This was a race distinguished by lofty stature; and in Genesis xiv. The territory [v. One of the cities of refuge, Golan, was in Bashan Deut. By Solomon, Bashan, or rather "the region of Argob in Bashan," containing "threescore great cities with walls and brazen bars," was assigned to the administrative district of Ben-Geber, one of his lieutenants 1 Kings iv.

This is the last historical event related in the Old Testament of Bashan. In the poetical and prophetic books it is referred to in connexion with the products for which it was noted. From a passage in the "Blessing of Moses" Deut. Elsewhere it is referred to in connexion with its cattle Deut. Oars were made from them Ezek. The boundaries of Bashan may to some extent be deduced from the indications afforded in the earlier historical books.

Og dwelt at Ashteroth, and did battle with the Israelites at Edrei Deut. In Deut. Hermon is referred to as a northern limit, and Salecah is alluded to in addition to the other cities already mentioned. Josephus Ant. Josephus Wars , iv. Trachonitis mentioned in Luke iii. Auranitis is the Hauran of Ezekiel xlvii. Later scholars arrived at conclusions similar to and independently of Kant — Johann Lambert in and Pierre-Simon Laplace in This work, which has remained little known, cannot have come to the attention of, among others, the celebrated J.

Six years later, in his Kosmologische Briefe , he presented precisely the same theory of the systematic constitution of the cosmos in general, the Milky way, the nebulae, and so forth, which is to be found in my above-mentioned theory of the heavens, the first part, and likewise in the preface to that book. In later years, Kant tried to interest publishers in re-issuing the book, without success. Eventually his younger colleague and close friend, J. The Kant selection is found on pp.

On Fire [alpha]. Meditationum quarundam de igne succincta delineatio. Commonly referred to as De igne. New Elucidation [alpha]. Reuscher in Beck [, ].

Encyclopædia Britannica/Basedow, Johann Bernhard - Wikisource, the free online library

Commonly referred to as Nova dilucidatio. This was the first of three public Latin defenses in which Kant served as the principal, and is briefly described in the Professors pages. He will further develop this idea in his Negative Magnitudes , where he introduces the notion of real grounds in contrast to logical grounds. Reprinted in Tieftrunk [, iv.

Earthquakes 1 [alpha]. This and the following two essays were occasioned by the Lisbon earthquake of 1 November that destroyed over half of the city and killed tens of thousands of its citizens. Earthquakes 2 [alpha]. Kant announced his intention to publish this more detailed account of earthquakes at the end of the 2nd installment of his first essay. Unlike the first and third essays, which appeared in a local newspaper, this essay was printed as a pamphlet. It was handed to the censor on 21 February Earthquakes 3 [alpha].

Physical Monadology [alpha]. Metaphysicae cum geometria junctae usus in philosophia naturali, cuius specimen I. Theory of Winds [alpha]. In this brief essay, which also served as a Lecture announcement for SS , Kant gives a new and correct account of the cause of coastal and trade winds, as well as the cause of seasonal monsoons. This is material that would have been included in his new course on physical geography. West Winds [alpha]. Lecture announcement for SS This essay primarily concerns Kant's lectures on physical geography , which he will give for the second time this semester: a preliminary discussion of the subject pp.

Motion and Rest [alpha]. In this brief pamphlet Kant argues against the Newtonian concept of absolute motion and absolute rest, as well as against the concept of inertial force in a resting body that resists other bodies that might push against it. The pamphlet concludes with a one-paragraph lecture announcement for SS Optimism [alpha].

Den 7. Borowski [, ] reports that Kant, in his later years, wished for this essay to be suppressed — perhaps, as Nauen [] suggests, because it made Kant sound too much like a Spinozist. Funk [alpha].

Article excerpt

Johann Friedrich von Funk. He submitted the letter to the philosophy dean C. Christiani on 4 June Warda False Subtlety [alpha]. Immanuel Kant. The brief essay argues for the unoriginal claim that the Aristotelian syllogistic logic contains redundancies, although we do find Kant focusing on the nature of judgment and its relation to concepts. Reviewed by Resewitz in Briefe, die neueste Litteratur betreffend , letter ; May 2, The Only Possible Argument [alpha]. In the Seventh Reflection of Pt. Negative Magnitudes [alpha].

At the end of the essay, Kant raises for the first time his concern with causality i. Reviewed by Resewitz in Briefe, die neueste Litteratur betreffend , letter ; May 2 and May 9, In The Only Possible Argument we find logical and real ground being used, but not introduced or defined as such.

His Life and Thought

This gives us some reason to believe that its composition October , according to Walford [, lix] followed that of the Negative Magnitudes. Beautiful and Sublime [alpha]. Goldthwait in Goldthwait []. Completed by 8 October , the submission date to the philosophy dean for censoring, Kant wrote this during the summer recess at a house in Moditten owned by his friend Wobser, a forester. The work also appeared in two collections: vol.

It is unclear why he thought to write these remarks in this book: they generally do not concern the text alongside which they are written, nor do they appear to have been intended as revisions or additions to the text, since subsequent editions were relatively unrevised, and certainly did not reflect these remarks. On the Adventurer Komarnicki [alpha].

Adickes [, 14] and Warda [] also list this item. He was accompanied by an eight-year-old boy, whom Kant viewed as a kind of noble savage. Maladies of the Head [alpha]. The occasion for this essay is explained in the previous item see. Human nature knows no more dangerous illusion. Silberschlag [alpha]. Juli erschienenen Feuerkugel. Prize Essay [alpha]. Written near the end of in response to the question announced on 23 June by the Royal Academy of Sciences in Berlin for the year Mathematics is successful not by analyzing concepts to arrive at new truths, but by constructing its objects from its own definitions.

Metaphysics, on the other hand, deals with an independent reality, and so cannot proceed in this same fashion. Instead, the philosopher must begin with certain central concepts, like substance or obligation, and from these seek their definitions. Announcement [alpha]. Dreams of a Spirit-Seer [alpha]. The publisher Kanter submitted the published book to the university censor on 31 January Walford [, lxviii] notes that, apart from the above printing, which is considered the most reliable, this work was also printed twice more in by Johann Fridrich Hartknoch Riga and Mitau , and in Tieftrunk [, ii.

In his appeal to the Academic Senate, Kanter noted the difficulties of submitting a written manuscript, since it was nearly illegible, and because it had been sent to him from Goldap, where Kant was vacationing , sheet by sheet, for typesetting — Kant also notes this sheet-by-sheet procedure in his letter to Mendelssohn [AA ] — such that the work, in its present form, hardly existed until after it was printed [Dietzsch , 91, reading from the Academic Senate minutes].

Directions in Space [alpha]. This brief essay, appearing serially in three successive issues of the local newspaper, appeared at a time when Kant was publishing very little. Kant notes that incongruent counterparts like right- and left-hand gloves, or screws threaded in opposite directions, have identical descriptions based on their internal relations; conceptually they are identical, but intuitively we know that they are not.

Inaugural Dissertation [alpha]. This was Kant's third and final public Latin defense, which took place on 21 August , his so-called disputatio pro loco [ glossary ] , the public defense of an essay made upon assuming a new professorship; see the brief description in the Professors pages. In contrast to Leibniz and Wolff, who understood representations as all having the same source, being distinguished simply in terms of their clarity and distinctness, Kant argued here that human cognition is of two sorts, sensible and intellectual, and that these are wholly separate: sensible cognition cannot come from the intellect, and vice versa.

Cognition of the spatio-temporal world is all sensible, cognition of what is eternal and unchanging is intellectual. Reprinted in Tieftrunk [, ii. Review of Moscati [alpha]. Moscati [1] , who was born and died in Milan, enjoyed a career as a surgeon and politician, and between and taught as a professor of anatomy at the nearby university in Pavia.

Races of Human Beings [alpha]. A lecture announcement for SS , and the last of the seven that we have from Kant. An amplified version of this essay was printed in J. Kant argues that there is a single human species, and that this is divided into four races that he bases primarily on skin color white, red, black, yellow. Although these races are stable across generations, they were originally differentiated as a result of climate.

This topic was originally addressed in the Physical Geography lectures, and then later in the Anthropology lectures. The nature of the human species is also discussed in his Concept of Race and his Teleological Principles Philanthropinum [alpha]. Kant had also worked to procure his student and future colleague Christian Jacob Kraus a position there [Krause , 62]. Given the urgency Kant felt to finish the Critique of Pure Reason , the amount of time he devoted to the support of this experimental school is quite remarkable.

Sensory Illusion [alpha]. This was an untitled Latin commentary provided at the inaugural dissertation the disputatio pro loco [ glossary ] of the new professor of poetry, Johann Gottlieb Kreutzfeld [ bio ] , on 28 February Critique of Pure Reason [alpha]. Kritik der reinen Vernunft Riga: J. Hartknoch, , pp. Translated by Werner Pluhar in Pluhar []. Translated by Paul Guyer and Allen W. Bernoullis Ausgabe des Lambertischen Briefwechsels.

Johann Bernhard Basedow

In the former, Kant apologizes for not being able to locate or have saved some of his correspondence with Lambert; in the latter, he thanks Bernoulli for the volume of correspondence, and mentions the above notice that he had published.