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In the building structures integrations are evident realized with various materials bricks of varied typologies. The techniques for the realization of the partitions is particularly elaborated. Camilla Sansone Architect, Ph. She publishes volumes and articles about technological recovery of the traditional architecture. E-mail address: camilla. The ancient Swabian Village of Termoli is the original nucleus of the adriatic town, whose foundation is dated, by archive sources, to the Vth century.
This village constitutes an independent entity from the modern city, fruit of an expansion plan of the XIXth century. It presents uniform constructive characters that have been maintained unchanged in the centuries. As centre of the Bishopric and a trades port them Termoli has always been a rich city and this explains the notable characteristics present also in the more modest buildings. The composition of these architectures is strongly conditioned by the requirements deriving from the activities tied to the sea.
The construction materials from the technological survey carried out on these buildings show a prevailing local origin. The construction stones come partially from still existing quarries, for example the breccia del Gargano. The constructors, instead, show a typical technical formation of the swabian constructive culture, imported in Italy by the emperor Federico II, that was the initiator of the construction of the Cathedral of Termoli. The systems of horizontal partition of the buildings introduce a rich technological and constructive variety. The vault system is found also outside the buildings in the planning of the city system.
In fact the Swabian Village of Termoli, raised on a limestone block nearly entirely encircled by the sea, is exposed to strong winds. For this reason it is delimited by a wide building curtain that protects the residential area and is characterized by tight and winding roads,. The simplest vault system is the barrel vault in stone to cover basements and underground spaces. The construction used a arch lagging in earth shaped with uses of bundles of wood, made with stone chips jammed together and tied with chalk or lime mortar. In order to accelerate the setting processes of the mortar chalk was added, or more often for vaults and hourdis ceiling only chalk mortar was used.
The beams of this ceiling, supported on the mid portion of the vault below, can be of reduced dimensions. The activity of brick creation happened near the quarry. After a second passage in the sieves and an addition of water the material was pasted with the feet in appropriate pits lined with bricks. Every pit concurred the preparation of approximately bricks. The shapes were rectangular for the making of bricks and pianelle. After the formation the next step was drying exposed to the air and then baking in appropriate furnaces. The handcrafted bricks, beginning from the had standard dimensions, with small local variations.
Normally solid bricks and the those with two holes were 26x13x7cm while those with three holes were 21x10x4 cm. For the construction of the light vaults and the vaulted ceiling slabs between the metallic beams of the ceiling special shaped bricks were made: these elements, called pignatielli had a cylindrical shape and they were hollow inside. The last system frequently found, beginning from the second half of the eighteen hundreds, the ceilings with iron beams and small brick vaults. This system has origin from the static concept of the ceiling with wooden beams and planks: in our case the planks are replaced by vaults made with bricks or with pignatielli.
The beams of the main framework of this ceiling can be done with metallic beams or wooden ones. The choice of the material depends on the age of construction the older ones are in wood and from problematic of economic nature and obtaining the material. In fact the ceilings with metallic structure show a strong tendency to corrosion, facilitated by the presence of the chalk in the mortar. In order to contrast this problem the beams preventively are protected with varnishes made with tar. These ceilings, even if carefully crafted, usually were hidden with false ceilings.
The false ceiling was covered with a glued paper or with burlap. It was connected to the ceiling by means of a truss with lists of wood or suspended from divider beams. Building and Rebuilding with earth. Earthen architecture in Cyprus and the problem of its conservation. Strovolos , Nicosia, Cyprus E-mail address: dmyri cy. Through archaeological investigation and excavations it was found that adobe was used in several places of Cyprus from the Neolithic, to the Classic Period.
This technique continued to be used throughout the various periods of Cypriot history. Mud bricks were also used in military structures like the Venetian walls of Nicosia as well as in some Medieval churches. Adobe as a basic building material is met mainly today in the rural and urban traditional architecture of the 19th and 20th c. Types of traditional architecture The basic rural dwelling in Cyprus is the single-unit structure.
Two can be considered the main types of this. In the plains and in the settlements of the foothills of the mountains the type that prevails is the broad-front single-room house makrinari. The maximum width of the makrinari varies from meters which is determined by the constructional properties of the timber available where the length of the building varies between meters or even more. In these cases and according to the timber available the dimensions are about 6X6 meters.
Of course the variety of the islands rural houses is not limited to the above mentioned basic types. There are many house variations as. According to the plot and the area available a house was built and extended as a single-storey building plains or in two levels mountainous regions. In this category a central common room iliakos is surrounded on both sides by rectangular rooms which with the backyard additions, the verantahs etc create a more complex type of dwelling.
Also goat hair and seaweed was used depending on the location and availability. The mixture of soil, straw and water was left for few hours up to a day so as cellulose was released to give adhesive properties and make it mouldable. Mud bricks were prepared with the use of a wooden mould of internal dimensions 30x45x5 cm and were left to dry for at least a week.
Mud bricks were only made during the summer. On top of that a stone base foundation is always built to protect mud brick walls from rising damp. The stone base of the wall, of about 40 cm thick, was built with local stone. The height of the stone part of the wall varies, it goes from 1 meter high, up to the lintel of the openings. Mud bricks were then laid in consecutive layers with intersecting joints.
The walls were built with the use of straw based mortar which was as thin as possible to avoid shrinking and uneven settling while drying. Mantosia was placed at the top of the wall, usually at the external side of it. Wooden beams were also used at the height of the lintels of the openings. The most common renders were gypsum on the inside and mud plaster with straw on the outside. From the beginning of the 20th century onwards lime based renderings were used as well. Mud plaster is essential for the protection of the mud brick wall from rain but it has to be repaired annually when used externally.
Deterioration at the base of the wall. The rising damp penetrates into the mass of the wall and depending on the temperature alterations it is drawn outwards. Thus the evaporating water leaves behind crystalline salts breaking this way the coherence of the soil and creates disintegration of the material which is then easily eroded by wind action. The process continues upwards and inwards, undercutting the wall structure and it may end to a collapse. Deterioration at the top of the wall. Water penetrates when the Hair cracks due to excessive wetting gradually develop to channels which become thinner and die out as they progress downwards.
This procedure leads to extensive disintegration of the bricks and to vertical cracking. Disintegration of the material. Damp penetrated the wall gradually evaporates and through the freezing-thawing cycle causes loss of the material cohesion which is pulverised and becomes dust. Human activity. This method proved to be catastrophic for the mud wall as the cement render being stronger than the earthen core does not allow humidity to be released and leads to humidity accumulation in the core of the wall.
This leads eventually to the extensive disintegration of the mud brick. Repair methods An intervention on a damaged mud brick structure aims at the restoration of those parts by eliminating the causes of its destruction. Also additional strengthening by means of modern techniques must be considered if necessary. I ntervention on the stone base of a mud brick wall. The most common techniques for the strengthening of the stone wall and the prevention of the rising damp are, the underpinning, the construction of a proper drainage system and the grouting by compatible injection grout.
Stone replacement as well as repointing of the wall are also common practice. Repairs in the body of the wall. Heavily damaged mud bricks should always be replaced. If the damaged part is a corner or is accompanied by cracks a further strengthening method must be applied. The most common one is the insertion of a wooden tie beam at an appropriate length and at several levels along the height of the wall stitching.
If it is necessary wooden tie beams could be inserted on both sides of the wall and should be, in this case, properly connected between them. The same way a proper interlocking of the corners must be inserted if the existing one is not appropriate or does not exist at all. It is of crucial importance to create a proper tie at the top of the wall to establish the diaphragm function. Other strengthening methods that are widely used is the increase of the length of the sitting of a wooden beam so as load is distributed in a wider area and the increase of the length and section of the lintels of the openings.
In an extreme case where a wall has a very low load bearing ability, a timber frame structure vertical posts and horizontal beams properly connected can be incorporated to carry the load of the structure. Amina Foufa Dr. Rom 5. San Lorenzello. Seismic behaviour, vulnerability and probability of collapse of masonry buildings.
Pp Saadaoui A. Tunis ville ottomane. Ed CPU, Tunis, p Ed Diagonale, Italie. Berbrugger Randazzo Contribution for a catalogue of earthquake resistant traditional techniques in Northern Africa: the case of the Casbah of Algiers Algeria.
Hotels i allotjament a Marràqueix
European Earthquake Engineering Journal, 2. The observed seismic damage of traditional buildings of Western Greece reinforce the need for their strengthening. Karantoni Dr. The openings are of a small percentage of structural walls and the height of each storey is relatively high. The second group type A2 consists of the buildings subsequently constructed of stone or solid bricks, that contain many and large openings. In the third group type B belong the buildings constructed in the beginning of 20th century and have an internal reinforced concrete frame and external structural masonry walls, principally of solid or perforated bricks.
A characteristic of these buildings is the asymmetry in plane and in elevation. Their natural periods are lower than 0.
These values of natural periods refer to low rise buildings, which are common in Greece. The results of the simulations are compared with the data collected after earthquakes. Furthermore, simple strengthening techniques are recommended. In addition, an assessment of the widely spreading intervention, which is the demolition of internal structural walls and the erection of a new frame of steel or reinforced concrete as a load. The main external characteristic is that all the architectural elements emphasize the horizontal dimension of the structure.
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The type A2 buildings consist of openings with great percentage of the total area. The vertical dimension is emphasized by all means, structural and architectural. The type B buildings are of a hybrid type between frame structures and structural masonry ones. An internal frame of reinforced concrete beams and columns supports the reinforced concrete slabs while the external structural masonry supports the end of the reinforced concrete beams and the outer side of the slabs. In this study, eight seismic loading combinations are considered.
Also, diagonal cracking of the lower storeys piers and of the strong lintels is observed [6,7]. The results of an analysis of such a building are presented in Fig.
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The building is of stone masonry with only one internal load bearing wall in the two lower storeys along the x direction. The tensile strength of the stone masonry was estimated to be 0. As shown, the regions of the masonry walls with tensile stresses exceeded 0. A simple method to strengthen this building is to add a structural wall along the y direction up to the roof level as well as to raise the existing internal wall to the same level. As shown in Fig. In addition, after the intervention, only a few elements of the wall develop principal tensile stresses that exceed the tensile strength of masonry.
A usual modern intervention in order to rehabilitate traditional buildings is the demolition of the internal load bearing walls and the preservation only of the external shell of the building. A new framing. This intervention makes the remaining walls much vulnerable as shown in Fig. The building under consideration is a two-storey stone masonry building with internal load bearing walls.
The natural periods along the x and y axes are 0.
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If the internal load bearing loads continue up to the roof, the decreasing of stresses is dramatically. The analysis predicts that the demolition of the internal load bearing walls increases the part of the walls that are overstressed, as is presented in Fig. Buildings of type B The buildings of type B are mainly asymmetric in plane and have reinforced concrete slabs supported by a reinforced concrete frame at the inner of the structure and by brick or stone walls in the perimeter.
The roof is generally of wooden trusses and occasionally of bricks supported by steel beams. The main characteristic of these buildings is the low percentage of load bearing walls and their unpredictable seismic behaviour. As is mentioned in [3, 4, 5] the damage may be due to shear failure of the basement or due to bending failure of the upper storey. On the other hand, the bending of the upper storey is not as severe, because the walls are supported by the reinforced concrete slabs and the bending height is limited to just one storey.
In Fig. This is in agreement with the inspection results after earthquakes . One reason is that the remaining walls cannot sustain the applied forces. On the contrary, the construction of new walls in conjunction with the existing walls, which are well joined, is a good strengthening technique.
Conclusions The results of the above mention analyses show that a method widely employed in practice during the rehabilitation works of traditional buildings that is the demolition of load bearing walls make the. Fig1: Building of type A1. Fig7: Building of type B. Fig4: Building of type A2. A proposal for the development of the traditional construction crafts in Egypt A case study of Aswan City. Research Methodology: The research was based on a theoretical method to recognize the local construction crafts existing in Aswan, their progress, and the transfer of expertise.
Studies on the preparations for repair and maintenance guidelines are needed for the continuity of traditional historic sites in Turkey. Papaz Mahallesi Figure. Problems in Papaz Mahallesi 1. Str uctural System Problems Although there are not many serious structural problems in buildings, some unique cases have been taken into consideration for the evaluation of structural problems Figure.
Interior Structural Problems and Their Causes Interior structural problems documented in the area are mostly. More serious problems have emerged in unused and not maintained buildings in the area. Loss of mortar, plaster and other binders are the primary cause of external wall movements that cause interior structural problems, as well. Exterior Structural Problems and Their Causes Exterior structural problems are mainly small structural cracks and deformations on external walls.
Emptied joints and loss of binders are the most important factors that may cause a weakening in these cm thick walls. Problems of Materials Materials are visually examined by grouping the problems of each material in order of emergency. Stone, timber, mortar, plaster, iron, roof tiles and paint are recorded according to the visual observations made. Stone decay was detected at lower levels of the buildings, areas under the eaves and on the corners. Discoloration, crusts and salt deposits on stone surface are the most widely seen problem types on these areas.
Besides these, rising damp causes joint loss in the upper levels and serious problems in the whole structure by loss of its binders Figures. Timber Problems Observed problems on timber are due to the lack of maintenance — preservative waxes, polishes. Structural Timber Problems: There are not any serious problems of structural timber, except in some empty buildings.
Ceilings, if maintained, preserve their properties in good condition. Architectural Timber Problems: Capillary cracks and discoloration as a result of damp are found especially on shutters. The man-made problems are most common like the bursting and deformation of shutters. External timber architectural elements, exposed to environmental conditions, have more problems like discoloration, capillary cracks, deformation and material loss.
Mortar Problems Mortar is the material having the most severe problems Figures. Loss of mortar between the joints is especially seen on the walls, from which the plaster is completely detached. Slight deformations on the walls with emptied joints have been inspected. At the advanced stage. Proposals for these repairs and maintenance are prepared to be used as guidelines for users and a conservation program.
Similar building types have collapsed and proved the severity of the problem. Although grouting is not widespread in Turkey, it is the best method for consolidating these buildings. The important point in consolidating the masonry with a liquid binder is to select a binder that is compatible with stone and former mortar. When the mortar in the joints is weathered, the stones become vulnerable to damage and material loss on stone surfaces are seen.
Permeability, porosity, density and other properties of mortar and stone must be recorded. A permanent dampness can occur in stone that is very harmful. Cement based mortars in contact with stone can introduce sodium or potassium sulphate 3 and must be avoided, not only in the preparation of mortar but also in every stage of repairs. Cure of Rising Damp There are two sources of water causing rising damp: rainfall and underground water.
The comprehensive method of overcoming the excess water is a better drainage system. Like stone the worst problems are areas under eaves, lower levels of frontal walls, and corners of the jambs due to dampness. Soiling and crusts are also seen deposited on plasters. Where plaster is detached, stone and mortar are prone to problems. As plaster is the protective layer, the maintenance of plaster is very important. As the stones of these buildings are closer to cut-stone, they do not let exterior particles, salts and humidity in as much as the rough cut stones. Metal Problems The metal elements are iron in all of the traditional buildings.
Problems of metals do not show much variety. Oxidation, inspected especially on shutter hinges, and supports is the main problem. Almost all unpainted iron elements, like doors and shutters, are oxidized. Masonry Repairs During the repair of masonry, a minimum of stone replacement must be done. Only the buildings, which lost plaster and mortar in joints, started to have small loss and detachment of stone problems.
There emerged small gaps and cracks, which may weaken these stones. Grouting and Re-pointing Grouting seems to be a appropriate method for some of the buildings,. Plastering and Painting Plastering: After grouting and re-pointing, plastering the external walls is necessary. All of the buildings in the area need plaster repairs, except the ones that have never been plastered. The properties of plaster must be compatible with former plaster and stone. If the plaster is more porous than stone it weakens quickly and if it is less porous it causes the deterioration of stone by transporting salts and vapour.
Painting: Painting is the last step of the maintenance of the walls. Besides the compatibility of properties of paint with the plasters and stones, colours have to be carefully selected for the harmony with the other paints in the district. Some of the plasters in the site are coloured with original colours extracted from plants and earth indigo, madder, i. Substitute timber must be the original type of wood and the moisture content of it must be limited in low percentages.
New timber must be the treated with insecticides. Replacements must be limited within least possible amount. Extraction of moisture from infected timber and providing adequate ventilation must be done before treating with fungicidal paste. Similarly, insecticidal pastes may be applied to infested timbers. Roof Repairs Roofs: The structural timber elements must be repaired, by considering the important points mentioned for timber repairs. Replacement of the broken and missing tiles must be done with same type of roof tiles. Heinrichs, K. Manuals and treaties contain a precious structured repertoire of information on common traditional techniques in the Mediterranean basin.
Up to the I World War, French and Italian textbooks - the present study refers to some of them, - endorsed architectonic identity of local examples that were directly surveyed with reference to analogues applications in ancient well known buildings. At any rate transportation, material availability, recycling and recovering concerns were always dealt with in pre-modern building contracts and documents. Multicultural contact European territories like Southern Spain and Italy were interesting demonstrative laboratories of imported techniques adoption and combination, as well as of styles amalgamation mudejar art.
In such contexts, foreign good technical rules have been locally assumed by adapting materials and accustomed practice. Since the Renaissance, and more systematically since XVIII century, the habit began to classify architecture constructional and formal rules in treaties and manuals. The Grand Tour, the Grand Prix of Rome1 and afterwards more frequent and southwards travels in the Basin, had permitted direct observation, study and representation of Mediterranean buildings in Voyage Carnets.
They were drafted in detail and hypothetically reconstructed by scholars and Beaux Arts academy students2 interested in ancient Greek and Roman construction issues but also in vernacular examples. For minor constructions and vernacular architecture adoption of undressed stone available on site, rejected or coarse roughly dressed stone consented to save more precious quarried stone for ashlars.
Rubbles were picked up from closest plots of land and selected according to dimension and weight. Reuse materials frequently came from ramparts or more ancient existing constructions. It has spread in Mediterranean humble or minor constructions until XIX century, assuring quickness and economy when put into work. All the systems preview maintenance and partial replacement of timber components, that were pre-squared, prefabricated and ready to be assembled on site.
Carpenters used to mark them to facilitate their putting into work. In the piemontese roof, span between battens is proportional to minimum tile width generally almost 20 cm and curvature. Manuals recommend this system as it is particularly light but also easy to put into work, to maintain, to replace, even if it requires a false ceiling when covering living spaces.
Larger tiles with greater curvature permit reducing tiles number for square meter so getting wider span between battens, fewer pieces and lower wood consumption. In some countries dressed wood battens generally 3x4; 5x7 cm are replaced by chestnut timber half-poles. Some manuals specify that necessity for a relevant timber amount make this system more appropriate and more common in Northern countries.
The timber-decking board is frequently substituted by other locally available materials, also appraised as more durable. In Mediterranean countries dressed timber often had to be hauled long distances and was very expensive as a result. Local practice can replace timber planks and rafters by mats of reeds, chestnut poles, undressed branches i. Otherwise, for secondary timberwork and minor primary frame, local manuals advise adopting soft timber i. Manual also specify soft timbers are preferable owing to their fast growth.
Load-bearing elements were prefabricated. Pan de bois with squared timber and colombage with irregular timber are widely used in vernacular architecture not only in Northern Europe Normandy, Alsace, Switzerland but also in Portugal and Turkey. Wattle, as secondary timberwork, could also be made of sea-grape, strawberry or cabbage wood. The whole system was then lime-washed. When the timber frame was in evidence it was protected by beef blood rich of iron oxide and pinecone infusion. Vitruvius mentions it in his Ten Books of Architecture, also explaining its technical limits.
The rendering coat was then applied directly onto the reed mat since it provides excellent key, either to clay, lime or gypsum. Organic cord was usually used to tie dried reed battens. Reeds must have been cut since a year at least. Reeds are highly renewable, easily transportable and widely available. Reeds mats could also be utilised for false vaults and ceilings, with aesthetic but also insulating and aerating functions.
They were supported by a timber frame made of coupled boards inserted in the structural masonry. Superior side is generally lime-washed and inferior one plastered with gypsum. In the traditional building yard, pre-existent elements were reused as well as wastes tiles, bricks, stones and wood. Traditional mechanic assemblages were often reversible, so allowing recycling and reuse. Wood was seasoned in order to give it mechanical, physical and chemical resistance. Ancient glues were derived from vegetal or animal substances casein. Nowadays new manuals supply catalogues of suitable examples to insert pre-modern technological culture into nowadays production, organizational and economic environment.
Survey and interpretation of recurring element types and pathologies are estimated as necessary to put into force a compatible renovation with respect to the original construction principles. A compared analysis of literature with real examples could aid this interpretation work.
Valentini , Milan I had my B. My working area is solar architecture, use of shading devices in architecture, integration of photovoltaics into architecture. Introduction: Buildings are constructed to be a shelter for people. They have to provide comfort conditions for the people as well as being a shelter. This is due to the fact that human beings are not well protected against environmental and climatic factors.
Some animals have fur and this fur protects them from cold weather. But human beings are not as lucky as those animals. They have to provide these conditions on the buildings that they design, construct and live in. Therefore these buildings should be a shelter that protects them from cold weather in the winter and from hot weather in the summer.
Sun is the source of life and we cannot live without it. But especially in some places, it becomes unbearable in the summer time because of the hot weather. These rules have become traditional in time and they are still being used. Solar control has been used for thousands of years by human beings for creating comfort conditions in building interiors. Especially Mediterranean architecture uses solar control a lot because Mediterranean countries have more sunlight than they need and this more energy is not wanted in the interior places. Therefore we need to create spaces that will keep us warm in the winter and calm in the summer.
By the use of the solar control devices, this is possible because the aim of the solar control is to balance the solar energy which enters a building through its windows. For the ones that do not have any shading system, only the mounting system should be added and then the photovoltaic panels can be placed on them.
This is not an uneconomical process due to the fact that new shading system will make the interior more comfortable than its present situation and also will reduce its energy need considerably. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine the use of solar control systems and to make a proposal for using photovoltaic components for solar control in the Turkish Mediterranean architecture. This will be done by examining solar control in traditional Turkish architecture in Alacati-Izmir as case study and use of photovoltaic PV panels for solar control, and by proposing a new method for Turkish Mediterranean architecture for the future.
Solar Control in the Traditional Turkish Architecture in Izmir Solar energy is desired in the houses in the winter, but it is not wanted in the summer. Therefore windows have to be designed very carefully in order to avoid overheating in the summer while getting the maximum solar energy in the winter. Especially solar shading elements are being used for that purpose. These shall be curtains, sun louvers, Venetian blinds, etc These all have the same purpose: to protect the window, therefore the interior of the building from excess sunlight. Shading elements should be designed very carefully.
If the windows are protected with them so strictly, interior cannot be heated with solar energy in the winter. Therefore, there should be a very careful designed balance when they are being used. For this purpose, masks and sun-path-diagrams are being used. The climate has a very important role in designing houses. Izmir has Mediterranean architecture. The summers in Izmir are hot and dry, and winters are warm and rainy.
Due to the fact that the weather is very hot in the summer, all the streets and roads are placed perpendicular to the sea. Besides these, solar control has an important role in traditional architecture in Izmir. As seen in these pictures 1 and 2, buildings are not declined outwards; in spite they are declined inside. That cannot be seen from these pictures but there is a courtyard at the backside, inside the house. This courtyard helps to protect people from excess solar energy by providing shades for them and let them spend most of their time outside the.
Courtyards are climate control spaces. They form spaces that are designed according to wind, sun, hot and cold. They provide shade when necessary, and they provide solar energy when needed. Another strategy is to make north facing walls as thick as possible and to open as less and small windows as possible. That is due to the fact that these walls are the coldest walls of houses in winter and heat can escape from these walls easily.
As similar, west facing walls of houses are designed and constructed as narrow as possible. Another strategy is using long eaves if there is no opportunity to provide a courtyard. These long eaves protect the building from excess solar radiation and also from rain. As similar, shading elements are also used in front of the windows in order to prevent excess solar radiation enter the building. This is unwanted solar energy in the summer. If shading devices are composed of PV components, then this unwanted solar energy can be turned into desired electrical energy.
This is economical due to the fact that no money is paid for the energy source. And if the mounting system is ready, then it is more economic due to the fact that PV panels can easily be mounted on this system. If PV elements are going to be used instead of roof or wall cladding elements or shading devices, they are going to take the solar radiation instead of them, but in spite, they are going to use most of this solar radiation to produce electricity. Some part of the solar radiation will heat the PV panel and this heat will be carried to the interior by conduction.
Thus, not all, but most of the solar radiation will be used to produce electricity. Therefore, the sustainability of the traditional Turkish architecture in Izmir would be achieved because of the fact that these houses would be more comfortable and in addition they would lower the energy need with the energy they produce by using unwanted solar radiation2. Traditional Housing Architecture in Izmir, p. Thesis, p. Altin, M. Conclusion It is important to provide comfort conditions in the buildings.
It is also important to provide the sustainability of traditional architecture with the use of new technologies. This can be done by integrating PV components as shading devices to the traditional architecture in Izmir as well as all around Turkey. This will provide comfort conditions and also will help lowering the energy requirement of houses.
Therefore it. Reproduction of hydraulic lime mortars based on the traditional production technology of ancient mortars from Cyprus. Ioannou, M. Philokyprou, G. Papadouris, K. His work focuses on the characterisation of mortars, stone and brick. Address: 75 Kallipoleos Str. Box , Nicosia, Cyprus E-mail: ioannis ucy. After the discovery of Portland cement in , the latter and its derivatives became the dominant binding and rendering materials in the building industry, mostly due to the standardisation of their production .
As a result, during the last century, there has been a gradual replacement of traditional mortars by highly hydraulic cement-based mortars. The uncontrolled use of cement-based mortars for restoration purposes resulted, in many cases, in extensive damage to cultural heritage, mainly because of their incompatibility with the traditional material . Cement is hard, rigid and impermeable. An experimental. Materials and Methods Mortar sampling was performed on excavations, monuments and traditional buildings.
A slice was used for the preparation of a thin section which was used for petrographic examination of the mortars. The most important physical properties of the ancient mortars i. The analytical study of ancient mortar samples was followed by the laboratory preparation and testing of experimental mortars with similar compositions. This was selected as the proper mixture ratio for restoration syntheses since it is matching with technologies of homologous mortars found in ancient monuments of the wider Mediterranean area [6, ]. In all experimental samples, the aggregates comprised siliceous and calcareous sands.
The mixing of the aggregates and binder with tap water was mechanical and always uniform. Compaction of the samples was carried out in accordance to EN . The samples were prepared using standardised prismatic steel moulds of dimensions 40 x 40 x mm. After casting, the moulds containing the specimens were covered with a glass plate to prevent loss of water by evaporation. Specimens were removed from the moulds after 7 days and they were kept covered with a wet burlap until testing. Carbonate compounds and broken shells were also observed in some samples. Microscopic observations also provided ample evidence of products of boundary reactions.
Reaction rims were observed at the interface between the binding matrix and the ceramic fragments. The presence of hydration rims around individual hydraulic phases is indicative of the existence of a strong cohesion between the constituent elements of the mortars . The results of the mineralogical XRD analysis showed that the binding material of the ancient samples was almost exclusively calcitic. The presence of quartz and other accessory minerals was also evidenced in all samples. Gehlenite was also evidenced in some of the ancient mortars.
The hydraulicity of the ancient samples was determined using the results of the thermal analyses Table 1. The typical lime mortars correspond to less than 1. The latter present the most advanced hydraulic character. This ratio, in relation to the CO2 content Fig. The mortars with the most advanced hydraulic character are concentrated at the bottom of the curve, while. The hydraulic character of the ancient mortars is attributed partially to hydraulic compounds deriving from crushed brick-lime interactions and partially to raw materials, like marly limestones with clay inclusions, employed to produce hydraulic lime [6, 15].
These reactions may, in turn, be attributed to calcium aluminosilicate formations at the interface along the brick fragments, acting as the silicate source and membrane, and lime, which makes the interfacial surface alkaline and causes the chemical reaction. The penetration of lime into the ceramic and the consequent reaction transforms the microstructure of the mortar by reducing the size of the pore radii and augmenting the apparent density.
The presence of high quantities of aluminium, silicon and iron oxides in some samples can be attributed to the addition of clay ceramic material during the preparation of the mortars. Silica content was highest in mortars of more advanced hydraulicity, while the weak hydraulic and lime mortars showed lower values. In contrast, the calcium oxide content was higher in typical lime and weakly hydraulic mortars. The inverse relationship between silicon and calcium oxides is shown in Fig. However, due to the very small size and friable nature of the samples, no valid conclusions can be drawn regarding these properties.
The addition of surplus water in the mix reduced the strength radically. This could be taken as an indication of a weak hydraulic to aerial character. The air-hardening lime mortar B. Mortars with lower porosities and higher mechanical strengths i. The evaluation of the physico-mechanical characteristics of the experimental mortars should be carried out bearing in mind their compatibility with old masonry .
The experimental mortars exhibit lower strengths than the original stone and similar porosities. Therefore, one may assume that they are compatible with the units of historic buildings and can be used for re-pointing and re-rendering. The repair mortars consisted of raw materials locally available. Examination of the physico-mechanical characteristics of the. These are the binding system and the water content. They also thank Dr. Ioannis Maniatis and Dr. Antonis Charalambides for his assistance with the chemical analyses.
Natural hydraulic lime or cement? Cement and Concrete Research 31, Collepardi Degradation and restoration of masonry walls of historic buildings. Materials and Structures 23, Lime based mortars for restoration of historical mortars especially under wall paintings. In: P. Bartos, C. Groot, J. Mortars, cements and grouts for conservation and repair.
Some urgent needs for research. Mortars for restoration: basic requirements and quality control. Historic mortars technologies in Crete and guidelines for compatible restoration mortars. Laboratory investigation of various types of mortars for the restoration of Qasr al-Bint monument, Petra-Jordan. Engineering Structures 23, Physicochemical study of Creatn ancient mortars.
Cement and Concrete Research 33, International Charter for the conservation and restoration of monuments and sites The Venice Charter Thermoanalytical research on traditional mortars in Venice. Study of mortars in the Medieval city of Rhodes. In: M. Spon, Paris, EN Methods of testing cement — Part 1: Determinations of strength. CEN, Brussels. Comparative study of standard test procedures for mortars. In: J. Giessener Geologische Schriften 56, Characterization of structural Byzantine mortars by thermogravimetric analysis. Thermochimica Acta , Moropoulou, A.
Bakolas, K. Bisbikou A holistic way of studying mortars and bricks of ancient masonries for manufacturing compatible repair materials. Laboratory evaluation of various types of mortars for the conservation of Qasr al-Bint monument, Petra-Jordan. Ancient and new lime mortars — The correlation between their composition, structure and properties. Maravelaki-Kalaitzaki Cement and Concrete Research 37, La industria del cemento y las preferencias de los operarios han ido arrinconando el uso de la cal, por muy diversas causas. No es ahora el momento de relatar pormenorizadamente los distintos problemas que comporta el uso de cemento portland en estas obras .
Ed Brau. UPC Avda. La otra roca proviene de Escocia, en concreto de Moray, con varios frentes de cantera abiertos actualmente, y con buenas reservas de material a explotar. En su lugar de origen se conoce con el nombre de Clashach sandstone. Parcerisa, D. McMillan, A.
Building stones of Edinburg. Esbert, R. San Miguel, A. SI, JUN Mr Waked attended many training courses in architectural conservation, and he participated in many national and international conferences and projects. His main research interest is architectural conservation and Rehabilitation of traditional buildings. He is a professor of conservation of cultural heritage at Yarmouk University. Al-Saad is the principal investigator and coordinator of a number of EU funded collaborative projects. Introduction The past human activities had always left traces on the landscape as the thread on canvas Ashmore and Knapp, All of these components were not divorced from the cultural exchange which most of the time enriches the traditional buildings and structures, and provides a special essence for them.
Taking a very important time span of the history of Jordan , this study focuses on the various attributes of the traditional buildings in Jordan, an issue that remain not very well researched until recently. Before and during the Ottoman era AD , the area comprising modern Jordan was divided among a number of continuously changing administrative provinces which comprised Bilad. Being a passage for the pilgrimage to Mecca, Jordan received a special attention by the Ottoman authority, which constructed the Hijaz Railroad in Fraddric, ; Ochsenwald, The Ottoman heavy taxes altered the development of settled life as much as the raids of Bedouin tribes Daher, ; Abujaber, Each village adapted to several cultural and environmental changes through time as being located near historical sites Khammash, ; Knauf, The establishment of Transjordan encouraged the development of a settled life.
Therefore, a considerable progress was achieved in the construction development. The north of Jordan received series of immigrants from Syria and Palestine. These new developments created an immediate need for new buildings in Amman and the other major towns of Jordan. Interesting new structures, which incorporated imported design features and construction methods, were built during the next few decades Al-asad, These buildings included train stations, which were built along the Hijaz Railroad. The stations spread new building materials such as steel beams that were used in the construction of roofs.
Before the establishment of Transjordan, few important structures other than those of the Hijaz Railroad were built, especially in the major cities by master builders from Bilad al-Sham. These structures incorporated Western architectural features alongside local traditional ones, and showed a remarkable use of stone for construction and decorative purposes Al-asad, This type was a single or multi-purpose space. The second type of rural houses was the Yard house Housh , which was. This type dominated over the other types in Jordanian villages due to its compatibility with the environment and daily activities.
This type consists of a number of rooms placed side by side. This type was found in Amman, Jarash and Swaileh Khammash, The other type of urban dwelling in most of the urban buildings followed a tripartite arrangement. The middle section contains an entrance and a major living room. The side sections contain sleeping and service areas. One of the corner rooms is usually located next to the entrance; it may have been used as a reception.
The prototypes for these houses are built in the urban centers of Bilad al-Sham during the early 20th century. Foundation system: In the mountain areas where the topsoil is shallow, Jordanians built their houses directly into the rocks either on a slope or step systems. The mud was replaced by concrete in later periods Al-asad, Walling system: The load-bearing walls were made of rubble stones held together by mud and mixed with thatch making them thick. Barrel vaults and cross vaults made of limestone were the most common.
Arched walls that divided the house space were also used to shorten the distance between the wooden beams. In Jordan valley, these techniques were not applied due to availability of wood. Tree trunks were used as a main beam and reeds as a second beam. After Steel I-beams, which were closely spaced at intervals of about one meter, were generally used to support the roofs. By the end of the s, the roofs were mostly of reinforced concrete mesh Al-asad, , Bushnaq, In urban areas, tiles brought form Palestine and Syria were used.
Opening System: The windows of these houses were usually narrow and long. Flat and arched lintels were common for windows and doors. Wood frames and glass panes were used for the windows. Old Houses of Jordan, Amman Habitat International 28 4. Amman: University of Jordan Press. Archaeologies of landscape: contemporary perspective.
Oxford: Blackwell Publishers Ltd. Mater Thesis. University of Jordan. Amman: Dar Eben Roushed. Journal of Historical Geography 16 2 : Proc of the Conference on the conservation of architecture heritage in Jordan and the Arab world, University of Jordan. Amman, Jordan. Thanks so much, Aditya! I hope to interview the actors and producers soon. Let's see how can I contact them! This is the first interview I read after finishing ADWD, added a lot of sections to my quote collection, beautiful and in depth.
Very nice interview, i really enjoyed reading it. Too bad we have to wait more than a year for The Winds of Winter. Excellent interview! If you could contact the characters it would be awesome! Thanks anyway. Hey, greentings from Brazil! That's a great interview, and also a joy for nerds! Keep on working, dude! Howdy from Texas! I commend you on the great interview. Your conversation with GRRM covered lots of interesting, and new, ground.
Great job. Should you ever interview him again, it would be interesting to address congokong's statement, albeit from a slightly different angle. I would very much like to know how Martin views HBO's season 1, which is very faithful to the books, versus season 2, which takes many liberties with the source material. I love both seasons, but I'm not the man who wrote the stories originally. His take would be very interesting. I'd be very, very interested in interviewing him again.
Let's see. If not, I'd like to interview the actors and the producers of the HBO show. Thanks for posting a comment! It was a very good read, although I must say, halfway through the page I tought there was more to read and got upset when I notice I was at the end of the interview and the other half was made of comments. Thanks and best regards from Turkey :. This is gonna sound runde but I wonder if GRRM has made any plans for the books to be finished by someone else if he died. Very interesting interview. My favorite part was, when he told you about the Frodo badges.
Makes me somehow feel connected to older generations. In a way like "they did such stuff too". Yes, George Martin is a very wise man and knows a lot about fantasy. Hence, he has read not only the big books, but also the small but still good ones during his live. He's definitely a master! L'enveja se'm menja per dins de pensar q hi has pogut parlar. Realment va ser un plaer poder parlar amb el mestre. Amazing and informative! This was some of the best info I've gotten on SoIaF in a long time. Thank you!!! Excellent interview questions! No dull questions asked you really kept Mr Martin on his toes.
Would love your interview spin on the actors of the show if you could. I'd love to interview the actors. I wish I could in the future. Thank you for reading! Well Done!! Side-note: "Perhaps winter is not coming only to Winterfell, but in the real world. Nice interview. Really covered almost everything I wanted to know or enquire about. I just hope he speed up his writing, just in case Covered almost everything I wanted to know or enquire about. Thanks for your comment, Ahmad. Let's cross our fingers he can finish up the books on time! Really enjoyed it, I'm gonna share it right now.
Did you get to interview people from the tv show? I am glad you liked it! I actually haven't manage to interview any of the actors! I eagerly awaits for it Currently George R. Martin is busy writing the sixth volume of the series, which will be called The Winds of Winter. Martin that talks with great enthusiasm about the story and the characters that have made him touch the sky. And yes, Tyrion Lannister is his favorite character. When I get into the room where we arranged the meeting I find an old man with a cap, suspenders, goggles and a lush white beard. He is sitting in an armchair in which he holds as it was the imposing Iron Throne and next to him there is a wooden table with a drink.
He greets me kindly and we cross a few words before the interview. He looks affable and cordial. Eventually I realize that he is also ironic and close. However, he thanks unusual questions and he use to refer to a lot of historical facts.
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He alternates large and intricate sentences with long pauses and phrases left in the air. But he controls much what he says in order not to reveal any unresolved clue he had left in the books. Good evening Mr. Good evening. I think in Spain you are like a kind of a rock star.
Thousands of people are waiting for you everywhere. Bruce Springsteen must be jealous of you My wife is currently in Dublin and she just saw Bruce last night. Martin, you always wear glasses, a cap, the suspenders, and that white beard. These are your symbols. Is that for any particular reason? But at home I wear different kind of hats. If I take it off, nobody would recognize me. You would never have known me. Who am I? And the same with the glasses. If I take them off… Wow, superman! In fact, I planned to send a letter to Mr. I mean, fantasy is very ancient.
We can find it in the Iliad or in the Gilgamesh Poem , but Tolkien turned it into a modern genre, and A Song of Ice and Fire shares some of these patterns but not all of them. A Song of Ice and Fire is a phenomenon that spans a lot of generations. Yes, I know I write very slowly… [ Laughs ]. Then, how can you keep interested so many people having such a wide range of ages to please?
Well, I think a good story is timeless and I see it in my books signings; I see a great mix of people coming from everywhere to get my books signed: old people, young people I have kids as young as ten or eleven, which are too young in my point of view. But, however, they are there, buying the books and getting them signed.
So I am very gratified to have an audience that reaches across generation, gender and racial lines. You are acclaimed to use the point of view technique with mastery. Talk me a little bit about this method. I have used other techniques during my career, like the first person or the omniscient view point, but I actually hate the omniscient viewpoint. None of us have an omniscient viewpoint; we are alone in the universe. We hear what we can hear… we are very limited.
But you have a lot of characters…. If I wrote about it, what viewpoint would I chose? When we go to the head of your characters we can see what they think and we do not have the perception there are just good or just bad…. Who is the hero and who is the villain? The hero of one side is the villain of the other side. Do you use to write the story chronologically? I do not write the chapters in the order you read them. Each of the point of view characters has its own voice and vocabulary. For me, changing from a Tyrion chapter to a Daenerys one, to put an example, is very exhausting.
It demands a lot from me. There are several expressions that you use to repeat a lot. Why do you want to emphasize them so much? A lot of them are not the words of the Great Houses but there are just popular sayings; and some of my readers get annoyed for that, but I do it intentionally. I have learned this technique from Stephen King and I like it very much. Do you remember how you decided where to start the story? I mean, you are sitting down and you wait For me, the story started with the direwolves in the snow and that was the first chapter written; then I wrote the second and the prologue, which comes before all of that, was written later, so the first thing I actually wrote was that scene in the snow.
Everything sets in motion from there. Would you like to change anything of the first books? Yes, I imagine…. Such as…. What would I like to change? By then I had very few references about people of its condition and it was later when I came to know more extended details about his physical challenges. Why do you do that? Well, his work is full of puzzles and enigmas and you have to put a lot of attention on what he is saying. Is there a deeper reason beyond? Why did you decide to do it? My plan, at first, was to write the fourth and the fifth book together, with the action set five years later of the ending of the third book.
I started just five minutes after the end of Storm of Swords and as I saw I had a lot to tell to my readers, I decided to split the story; I decided to divide it geographically instead of chronologically because it would be better to keep the continuity of the action of several characters.
I admit I had a lot of problems of coordination. However, at the end of the fifth book the story of all the characters converge again. Will it keep joined in the sixth book or will you split the timeline again? I want to reunite the plot lines again in the sixth book so, hopefully, they will come back together and you would be able to read about all the characters again. Every title of A Song of Ice and Fire saga is composed by three words. Is it a reference to the fact that the dragon has three heads?
It is not, not really. You just wanna name in patterns, so people can tell that all the books are part of the same series. How many pages have you already written of The Winds of Winter? However, of these pages, only are really finished because I still have to revise the other pages, which are in a rough version and I still have to work on them a lot.
But you have to keep in mind that the last book, Dance with Dragons , was 1. I hope after this tour I can go back home in order to write as a possessed man. I really look forward to publishing it in , but I am really bad for predictions, you may know it. And then, there is another fact: when I finish this saga I will be judged for the quality of the books, not for the speed of my writing.
You have said several times A Song of Ice and Fire is based, in part, on The Wars of the Roses , in which the Lancasters, whose symbol was a red rose, as the Lannisters, fought against the York family, with a white rose as its emblem, like the Starks. Can we expect a similar ending for your saga? You cannot count on that. The Lancasters and Yorks fought themselves to extinction until the Tudors came in. Do you know, then, how will you end up the story?
For me, writing a book is like a long journey, and like any trip, I know the point where I start the journey and the point I wanna get to. I also know a little bit of the route, such as the main cities in which I wanna stop by, and even a few monuments I would like to visit. What I do not know is where I will eat the first night or which songs will be on the radio. Your last book was first named A Time for Wolves Time for Wolves was an earlier title. But it will finally be named A Dream of Spring.
Yes, but it was just a working title. I decided I would use Dream of Spring. Is that for any special reason? The other was too revealing? What do you thing about J. Rowling and her saga? Well… [ He changes his tone, into a lower one ] I wish I have beaten her, what can I say! Rowling has grown up an entirely generation of children into the field and for that I applaud her. Was Storm of Swords your favorite book? Its division into three volumes, in the case of Tolkien, was purely artificial; the same is true of mine. Well… maybe I do, but still, you have a book.
Story, in this case, has to be judged a whole, beginning, middle and end. Of course I will disappoint some of my fans because they are making theories about who will finally take the throne: who would live, who would die… and they even imagine romantic pairings. So I will write the two last books as good as I am capable of and I think the great majority of my readers would be happy with it. Do you use to check the Internet forums in order to see the predictions made by your fans? Nowadays, the most important site is Westeros, but I started to feel uncomfortable and I thought it would be a better idea not to get to these sides.
The fans use to come up with theories; lots of them are just speculative but some of them are in the right way. Before the Internet, one reader could guess the ending you wanna do for your novel, but the other However, now, those The maiden would be the criminal! Have you ever change any of your ideas just because your fans got you?
What I have to remember is that if one person figures out the ending and I have to say that for each correct theory on the Internet are at least 1. People use to see shadows on the wall when there is nothing, but I am aware about that stuff. Photo: Anna Guxens You are an evil writer because you kill a lot of the main characters. How do you manage with that? Well… I want my readers to be emotionally involved in what they read.
Beyond the way to do that I want to state that everybody can die. Mine is not a predictable book like so many others, where you know the hero is safe. My goal as a writer has always been to create a strong fiction stories. I want my readers to remember my books and the great time they had while they were sitting in a comfortable armchair. But who is the hero of A Song of Ice and Fire? Anyone is the hero of its own story Another curious thing of your books is that you give us a lot of hints through the Red God flames, the words of the Ghost of the High Heart or through the visions of the House of the Undying….
You have to look them very carefully to figure out what they mean. Not all of them mean what they seem to mean Surely the plot is very unpredictable despite all the prophecies you give to help us In the Wars of the Roses , that you mentioned, there was one Lord who had been prophesied he would die beneath the walls of a certain castle and he was superstitious at that sort of walls, so he never came anyway near that castle.
He stayed thousands of leagues away from that particular castle because of the prophecy. However, he was killed in the first battle of St. Paul de Vence and when they found him dead he was outside of an inn whose sign was the picture of that castle! The more you try to avoid them, the more you are making them true, and I make a little fun with that. So you always want to frustrate our expectations, am I right? Before I was a writer I was a voracious reader and I am still, and I have read many, many books with very predictable plots. As a reader, what I seek is a book that delights and surprises me.
I want to not know what is gonna happen. There are a lot of expectations, mainly in the fantasy genre, which you have the hero and he is the chosen one, and he is always protected by his destiny. Why your saga is called A Song of Ice and Fire , because of the Wall and the dragons or is something more beyond that?
Fire is love, fire is passion, fire is sexual ardor and all of these things. Ice is betrayal, ice is revenge, ice is… you know, that kind of cold inhumanity and all that stuff is being played out in the books. Which is your favorite character? Do you remember when he came to your mind? In fact, we wrote three different short stories with the same main character, Maris, and once we had them written we decided to put them all into one book with three different parts.
So while we were writing the books we thought about a dwarf who would have been the Lord of one of the islands. He had to be the ugliest person in the world but the most intelligent too. I kept that idea in my mind and it reappeared to me when I was starting to write Game of Thrones. So you kill people, you like Tyrion You are clearly a Lannister. I am member of all houses.
In fact, this morning you wore a Greyjoy T-shirt, so…. I mean, when I write about one character, I am with that character. I have a dozen viewpoint characters and I become all of them in turn. Talk me a little bit about female characters, because they are very diverse They should be different because they are different women with different life experiences. Such generalizations always get you into trouble so I wanted to present my female characters in great diversity, even in a society as sexist and patriarchal as the Seven Kingdoms of Westeros.
Women would find different roles and different personalities, so women with different talents would find ways to work with it in a society according to who they are.