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  1. Unasylva - Vol. 2, No. 5 - News of the world
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I allude to the use of a wooden main instead of a cast iron one, for carrying the water about twenty-five miles from Richmond Mills to the city, together with an interval of about two miles of sixteen-inch main of double-riveted and soldered galvanized sheet-iron. This last was substituted for wood on account of its superior strength on that portion of the line at which the pressure of the water is the greatest. The wooden main is in sections of about sixteen feet in length, and is formed of staves of pine or hemlock two inches thick, carefully prepared by machinery.

They are twenty-four inches in diameter at the down stream end and twenty-eight inches at the upstream end. They are strongly banded with wrought iron hoops one quarter of an inch thick by from one and one half to two inches wide, and tightly driven at intervals of from one to two feet apart according to the strain brought upon them by the pressure of the water. They are thoroughly coated outside with warm tar. Owing to the completeness of the machinery at the work shop, and to the systematic course of proceeding, these pipes are prepared with such rapidity that a mile in length of them can readily be furnished in a week.

Both the wooden pipe and those of galvanized iron have been subjected to thorough tests to prove their entire adequacy so far as strength is concerned. As to their durability we must, of course, rely upon the results of experience elsewhere for forming an opinion. About thirteen miles, or one-half of the entire length of the wooden main, has already been laid, extending from near the city southward, also many crossings of natural streams and canals throughout the line. The crossings are all buried below the bottoms or beds of the channels, the pipes follow the undulations of the ground.

All the pipes laid in the city itself, are of cast-iron, and very in diameter from four to sixteen inches. Reprinted here Disastrous Fire at Williamsport. A disastrous fire visited our city yesterday morning completely destroying the large wooden pipe mills of Mr. John a Woodward, situated on the South side of the basin, nearly opposite Elmira St. Woodward being desires of filling the order, decided to start up this morning and manufacture them. The coal oil lamp which lighted his operation being nearly burned out, he extinguished and lighted another lamp and proceeded to fill the one which he had been using; owing probably to the warmth of the lam generating gas, an explosion occurred.

Woodward naturally threw the blazing lamp oil from him and they fell in the brick floor, breaking the lamp and spreading the oil over the floor, and in less time than it takes to tell it, the whole side of the mill was in flames. Woodward estimates his loss in the neighborhood of , on which he has an insurance of 85, in the Lycoming Mutual insurance company. The sheds and outhouses of the main building containing all the manufactured stock, were saved.

The large wooden pipe mills of John A. Woodward, at Williamsport, were burned on Tuesday morning, the fire originating from the explosion of a coal oil lamp. One to sixteen inches, in sections eight feet long. Factories at Elmira, N. Mich , has failed. Commenced business about the 1st of June, Fanning, read March 30, On July 25, , John A. Woodward and Thomas B. With numerous tables and illustrations , by John Thomas Fanning.

In he built a saw-mill here, and in , having previously removed his grist-mill, he erected a woolen-mill on the same site. He was a captain in the war of , and had command of the "Tillaborough Company" of about eighty men. He was afterwards major of New York State militia. The woolen-mill of L. YAUNEY is a large stone structure, 40 by 80 feet and 4 stories high, with a dye-house attached, 38 by 40 feet. It was erected in by the present proprietors, who commenced the manufacture of woolen goods the following year. The building is conveniently arranged, the first floor being used as a finishing department, the second for warping and weaving, the third for carding, and the fourth for spinning.

It is furnished with three sets of cards, spindles, and all other machinery in due proportion. It is run by water power and heated by steam. Smith and Henry B. Smith, of same place. The business of manufacturing wood pipe with the Wyckoff patent augur was first started in Chicago, by Thomas B. Farrington and J. Temple, and in a stock company was organized, and extensive works started here. In January, , this company was succeeded by the Michigan Pipe Company. The officers are I. Hill, president; C. Jennison, vice-president; H. Smith, secretary and treasurer. These gentlemen are all well known citizens of Bay City, and the works are now doing a very extensive and successful business.

The pipe which they manufacture is being used in nearly every state, and the past year they have been crowded to their utmost capacity to fill orders. They manufacture water pipe, steam pipe casing and gas pipe, also chain pumps and tubing. Their works cover about ten acres, and give employment to an average of fifty men.

In the Spring of the present salt block was built. The well was sunk by the old Atlantic Salt Company, and was one of the first salt wells sunk here. This institution is now one of the important contributors to the prosperity and wealth of Bay City. Wilcox, superintendent of the works, came to Bay City with the original company in , and has held the position of superintendent every since.

He is a native of Ohio, and has been engaged at some kind of mill work for the most part of his life. He was with the company at Three Oaks, Mich. He is a very competent man, and when the present company was organized the managers gladly retained him in the place he had filled so many years.

He is a native of Oneida Co. When thirteen years of age he shipped aboard a whaling ship, and for nine years followed sailing, visiting nearly every part of the world. In he returned to his native land, and in went into the service, where he remained two years, as Captain of Company C, One Hundred and Eleventh Ohio Volunteers. In he settled in Bay City, and has held his present position since the works first started. He has a wife and three children.

Smith and others; Same v. Michigan Pipe Co. When in England, in i, Alexander L. Holley, of Troy, heard so much said respecting Henry Bessemer's discovery of a process by which pig-iron was decarbonized to convert it into steel, that on his return to Troy he induced John A. Griswold and John F. Winslow to become his partners in purchasing the American patents of the distinguished English engineer, bearing dates of February 12 and of August 25, In the summer of , A.

Holley went again to England, where in the following spring he obtained the right of making Bessemer steel in America. Witbeck, in , and to which he conducted water from the Defreest fulling mill by a "trunk made of juice boards and plank. Allen, of Denver, Colorado.

Unasylva - Vol. 2, No. 5 - News of the world

Babcock, C. Smith v. Miles Ayrault , 71 Mich. We are prepared to furnish upon application plans, specifications and estimates for water works, and will construct them complete, ready for distributing water. Wyckoff, of Elmira, New York. Hawks, Engineering News June 13, Wooden Water Mains. Bridgeport, Conn. Hawks on wooden water mains.

Hawks refers to a wooden main at the water works at Manchester, N. It is mentioned as something entirely new. The Bloodwood. See Part II, page Usually a small or middle-sized tree, but sometimes attaining a great height, with a persistent scaly or flaky bark. Umbels loose, several-flowered, mostly in a terminal corymbose panicle, the peduncles slightly compressed or angular. Flowers rather large, on pedicels of 2 to 4 lines.

Calyx-tube, when open, broadly turbinate, 3 or 4 lines diameter, often dilated at the margin. Operculum, short, hemispherical, umbonate or shortly acuminate. Stamens attaining 5 or 6 lines; anthers very small, but ovate, with distinct parallel cells opening longitudinally.

Ovary short, flat-topped. Seeds large, ovate, more or less bordered by a wing, usually narrow. Corymbosa , from the Greek korumbos , or Latin corymbus , a summit. Hence the term corymb , in botany, where the stalks of the individual flowers are gradually elongated, so that the flowers are brought approximately to the same level or top, or summit. The inflorescence of the Bloodwood see Plate is not a perfect corymb. It exudes abundance of kino popularly known as "gum" — hence, "gum-tree" , and, when freshly exuded, this has all the appearance of a stream of blood.

So freely does it flow, and so like blood is it, that sometimes the appearance of the ground at the foot of one of the trees is quite startling. It is one of the few eucalypts that enjoys but one vernacular name. At the same time there are some other Bloodwoods in various parts of the Australian States. Forester G. Brown states that its name amongst the blacks of the Port Macquarie district was " Bookeybarng," the word "barng" signifying "tree. By those of southern Queensland it used to be called "Boona.

Jardin Noisette. If the very young. In common with all other Eucalyptus leaves those of the Bloodwood contain some Eucalyptus oil, but not in quantity sufficient to make its extraction commercially profitable. Over thirty years ago Mr. Joseph Bosisto distilled a little for experimental purposes. Recently Messrs. Saponification Number. Pinene, eucalyptol, aromadendral, sesquiterpene. This tree flowers at a very early age, and very profusely. It is in consequence much visited by parrots, and bees and other insects. As far as beetles are concerned, the trees about Sydney flower too late in the season for the flower-haunting beetles, but a number of the fossorial wasps Scolias and Thynnus are very fond of this tree, and so also are a few of the late beetles.

The shape of the fruit in this species is referred to at p. It covers the whole of the trunk and extends to the tips of the smallest branches. It is of a reddish-brown colour, and is often blotched with blood-like stains of kino. The late Dr. Joseph Bancroft stated that charcoal was made from Bloodwood bark by the aborigines of Moreton Bay, and used by them as an antiseptic application to wounds.

This particular species was chosen, I imagine, from the scaly nature of the bark, which facilitated charcoal-making. It is liable to shell concentrically, the spaces thus formed being often filled with the red astringent substance known as "gum. It does not split at the ends when exposed to the sun, as many of our timbers do. It is valuable for such purposes as require a durable timber. For posts in the ground, and for use in culverts, it is all but imperishable. The great drawback to this timber is its liability to gum-veins, but in spite of this I look upon much of the prejudice against Bloodwood as unreasonable.

It would be unacceptable for export, as we have abundance of better timbers, but I certainly think it ought to be used more than it is where readily available. Where not too defective, I should look upon it as an ideal timber for wood-paving. By too defective I refer to cases where the timber shells too much; but the presence of gum-veins of moderate width, in timbers such as this and Grey Gum, I would not look upon as an important defect in wood-blocks, as this astringent " gum" tends to preserve the block rather than injure it.

I have seen timber rejected for wood-blocks because of gum-scabs and gum-veins, which would, of course, be inadmissible in a furniture wood, for instance, but which would in no way be detrimental to a wood-pavement. The scrupulous care which is insisted upon in some contracts to reject wood-blocks because of gum-veins, sometimes degenerates into mere faddism, and it is only possible to select so severely, because at present we have an enormous timber supply to fall back upon.

I would, therefore, recommend the framing of wood-block contracts in such a way as to allow the inspecting officer some latitude in dealing with timber containing gum-veins. I would like to see it used increasingly for such work as this; it would economise ironbark. It is very resistant to white ant. The old wharf at Port Macquarie is laid without piles, with Bloodwood stringers and Bloodwood bed, which have been down forty years, and are now perfectly sound.

It is stated to be the most durable timber in the Cape Hawke district. When it shells, it is of course useless, but when it is solid when it is felled the sun never opens it out. In fact, Mr. Breckenridge, a man of very great experience in timber, says that no timber stands the sun better. Forester Rudder says of it:— It is not apt to warp, or rend in seasoning, and is excellent for fence-posts and sleepers, and wherever round timber is required for use in culverts and bridges and for ballast logs, and for ground work generally, is in my opinion, not to be surpassed, as it is as lasting, and not so combustible, or subject to the white ant, as ironbark.

For fuel in furnaces it generates more heat than any wood I know. District Forester Rotton, of Nowra, reports:— As it seasons it reduces in weight, probably more than the wood of any other tree of the Eucalypt family. Though soft when green it is not an easy timber to work, and does not present a neat finish owing to the numerous running rings and gum-vessels it contains. It is not an uncommon occurrence for a piece of this wood of the length of a railway sleeper when squared to open out from end to end as soon as the gum in the ring dries up.

It is this defect that renders the wood useless for railway sleepers. The rings develop as the tree grows older. Bloodwood of young growth may be used as rafters and corner-posts of rough buildings, and will last for many years. When freshly exuded it has a distinct smell, which appears to be characteristic, and is soon recognised. It is something of a vinous odour. Much of the kino exuded becomes entangled in the scaly porous bark, but one frequently comes across quite a store of the substance through tapping the communication with the reservoir which has collected behind the bark, or between the concentric circles of the wood.

The passage gets choked up with indurated kino, but picking off the substance often causes the stream to flow afresh. It is the most brilliant in appearance of all the kinos. It is exceedingly friable, and it is highly astringent. When freshly collected from the outside of the tree it contains over 80 per cent. The, blacks used to chiefly employ this kino for tanning the skins of animals. Their modus operandi was to skin the animal, put in the "gum" and some water, tie up, and shake the skin " bottle " until the tanning, was complete.

Fishermen frequently use the bark with its entangled kino for tanning their nets. The late Archdeacon King noticed Mellitose-manna on the leaves of this tree to a small extent when they are pierced by a beetle Anoplognathus cereus. Speaking of the east slope of New England, Mr. Crawford writes to me: " I saw a Eucalyptus corymbosa of 4 feet in diameter, height approx.

Another of 4 feet, and height 70 feet. It is also found on the coast ranges, where it attains a greater magnitude than in the coast country. It is only found on the eastern slopes of the high table-lands. It is very widely diffused in Queensland, extending to the northernmost part of that State, and is abundant withal. White, Pale, or Pink Bloodwood. At the London Exhibition of , Mr. Charles Moore, of the Botanic Gardens, Sydney, exhibited two samples of timber marked lviii and lix, in the Catalogue of N. Timber of great strength, and very durable, both in and out of ground.

Used principally for posts and beams. Both are equally common, and are used for the same purposes. Footnote Page a. Maiden's "Useful Native Plants of Australia," p. The "Smooth-barked Bloodwood" is now more usually known as "White" or "Pale Bloodwood," and I desire to draw further attention to it.

The late Rev. Woolls, "Flora of Australia," p. There is no doubt, I think, that the "Pale Bloodwood" is a distinct species. The timber is, when fresh, of a pale pink, although in process of time it turns nearly as dark as ordinary Bloodwood. It seems also to have fewer kino-veins, and it is undoubtedly very much more fissile. It seems to be very much more sparingly distributed than ordinary Bloodwood.

It seems always to occur with that species, and I would suggest that it may be a hybrid, one of whose parents is the Bloodwood. I have specimens of the timber from Eight-mile Plain, Brisbane J. Boorman , also, from Glenreagh, 28 miles from Grafton, on the Coffs Harbour road. District Forester Wilshire says of it:— The Pale Bloodwood is used in culverts and blocks for buildings, and both extensively for posts, it being recognised as a very durable timber for ground work.

District Forester Rotton in sending excellent specimens from the parish of Numba, in the Shoalhaven District, makes the following report:— I am acquainted with the pale-coloured Bloodwood, known as White Bloodwood amongst timber men. This tree occurs but rarely in my district; it grows sparingly in the parishes of Nowra, Tomerong, Currumbene, and Wandrawandrian, county of St. By carefully observing the trees when going through a forest, this tree is revealed only rarely in my district in a tall, very straight barrel, with bark of a light brown colour, not so rough as that of the Red Bloodwood, and having shallower and straighter furrows, the cubed face appearance being fairly well maintained.

I have never seen a tree of any considerable girth measurement, and timber-getters insist that it seldom grows to large dimensions; average about 5 feet 6 inches girth. The wood differs altogether from that of the Red Bloodwood. It is pale in colour, fine in fibre texture, very soft, easy to work, and as it is not ringy is capable of presenting a pleasing finish when carefully treated. The wood is almost absolutely free from rings and gum-vessels, a fact, I should say, that would leave little reason to believe that the bark is not very rich in tanning properties.

The wood loses considerably more weight than the Red Bloodwood as it seasons. The tree occurs too rarely in my district to afford any illustration of its merits in general use. In small quantities it has been used in ship fittings at the yards of Mr. Dent, at Jervis Bay, owing to its durability, combined with lightness.

My acting Forest Guard, Mr. Kennedy, informs me that about fifteen years ago he found a small grove of White Bloodwood growing in company with Blackbutt, Red Bloodwood, and Mahogany, on private property at a place called " Long Nose," at Greenwell Point, in the Shoalhaven District. He was a contractor at the time, and squared two of the trees for the walls of a culvert.

He assures me that the wood to-day shows barely a trace of decay, though it has been in use for fifteen years, and was subject to being wet and dry alternately ever since.

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Excellent specimens have also been received from District Forester Hardiman, from the parish of Bohnock, county of Gloucester. In the Agricultural Gazette for September, , p. It had a paler-coloured bark than is usual with Eucalyptus corymbosa, and showed no external gum-stains. I was informed that the timber shows no gum-veins; if so, the only important objection to Bloodwood is removed, I had no opportunity of seeing the timber, and this tree 3 or 4 feet in diameter , Lad its lowest branch at such a height from the ground that I was unable to make any botanical observations.

Earlier I wrote:— Occasionally Bloodwood is found pretty free from concentric gum-veins, or the veins are wide apart. When this is the case it is sometimes cut up for lining boards in country districts, and for this purpose it is much liked. Both these paragraphs refer to the timber now under review. In Proc. Baker described this Bloodwood under the name of Eucalyptus intermedia. For a number of years I looked upon this tree as Eucalyptus terminalis , F. The Eucalyptus terminalis from the dry interior Eremaean region necessarily differs in appearance from the fresher green of the coast; it varies gradually as we proceed coastward.

As we proceed north the fruits of Bloodwood get more habitually eggshaped, i. Before me, as I write, are no less than fourteen specimens of such Bloodwoods, from the Macleay River up to Rockhampton in Queensland, all coastal and all labelled terminalis by Mueller.

Science, , p. I agree with Luehmann as regards Eucalyptus dichromophloia and Eucalyptus pyrophora , and I have my doubts as to the specific rank of two other Bloodwoods, viz. I think there have been too many names applied to the Bloodwoods. I do not at present follow Luehmann in making terminalis a variety of corymbosa, as I fully believe in the individuality of the White Bloodwood, and feel that it is probably something more than a mere variety of ordinary Bloodwood. If Mueller's view that this Pale Bloodwood is the coastal form of Eucalyptus terminalis is wrong, then we must adopt Mr.

Baker's name of Eucalyptus intermedia. At present there are in the National Herbarium at Sydney some herbarium specimens of Eucalyptus corymbosa and Eucalyptus terminalis , collected over a very wide area, and I am also indebted to Mr. Baker for a specimen of his Eucalyptus intemedia. Except in those instances in which I have also specimens of the timber, I am simply unable, in the majority of cases, to separate them into corymbosa and terminalis. The matter is further complicated by the fact that the White Bloodwood of "poor ridgy country along the coast of southern Queensland" is Eucalyptus trachyphloia , F.

The timber appears to be identical with our Pale Bloodwood. The fruits are smaller, but the leaves, in the coast districts, are very similar. I trust that the many readers of this "Forest Flora" will, in the interests of forest science in New South Wales, furnish me with further particulars of the occurrence of White or Pale Bloodwood, and also favour me with small axe-cuts of the timber, together with corresponding twigs in flower and fruit. Then we shall be able to settle, once for all, the limits and synonymy of Eucalyptus corymbosa , Eucalyptus terminalis , Eucalyptus intermedia and Eucalyptus trachyphloia.

I will figure some of these forms later on. Plate The Bloodwood Eucalyptus corymbosa, Sm. Twig, bearing flowers. Fruits, urn or urceolate in shape. No; quite ripe, but well showing the constricted shape. A and B from Sydney district. Fruits from Byron Bay, N. Fruits collected by Robert Brown "East coast, ". Eucalypus corymbosa, Sm. Photo presented by Mr. Eucalyptus corymbosa, Sm. The aboriginal name given me by an aboriginal woman for this tree is "Cooloul or Coolool," at Ulladulla. Seeds of this species from the Port Jackson district are plump, with solid angles, and with little or no wing.

As one proceeds northwards the seeds flatten and become more winged. By the time Rockhampton, Queensland, is reached, the seeds are very flat, and resemble Casuarina seeds. The timbers are red, and appear to be like that of the common bloodwood in each case. Eucalyptus seeds are worthy of fuller investigation. Again, there is the bloodwood of this district, in my opinion equal to ironbark for railway-sleepers. I have asked the Commissioners to give it a trial alongside ironbark, and see which had longest life.

They refuse, but do not say why. I have had it in the ground over twenty years, and still good Ironbark is getting scarce. I have taken great interest in the timbers of this and the Clarence district for the last twenty-five years, so am not writing about what I do not understand. There is no doubt our timber should be a better asset for New South Wales than it is. The waste at the present time is enormous, and, to a very large extent could be remedied if competent men had the looking after our forests. Pullen, Woolgoolga. It seems to always grow on sedimentary formation.

Genus Callitris.

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Male amenta. Imbricate in a young state, but as the anthers expand the scales are lifted from the attachment, become peltate and more or less valvate in oppearance. B ; anther-cells 2 to 4 see plate 48, fig. Female amenta of 6 or rarely 8 scales, more or less distinctly arranged at the time of flowering in 2 whorls, without any enlarged outer empty scales.

Ovules or carpels. This is a slip on Bentham's part. The ovules cannot be called carpels. Fruiting cone. Fertile seeds see plate 48, fig. E and G , and sometimes apparently formed of abortive ovules see plate 48, figs. N and N1. Trees or shrubs, with slender terete, or three, or rarely four, angled branches. B , the decurrent midribs forming the angles of internodes as in Casuarina.

Female cones. The genus was established by Ventenat on an Australian tree to which no specific name was attached, but which is probably C. The name Callitris is derived from the Greek kalos , beautiful, of which the comparative and superlative are kallion and kallistos. They are undoubtedly beautiful trees. Callistris is synonymous with the Frenela of Mirbel, who, in , substituted the name Frenela on account of the similarity of sound between Callitris and Calythrix!

The well-known North African tree often known as C. Following shows the synonymy of the genus:— Frenela , Mirb, in Mem. I, xxx , ; Fresnelia , Steud. II, i, ; Parolinia , Endl. In Australia there are thirteen species of Callitris , and some of them have varieties more or less marked, so that there are a goodly number of Australian Cypress Pines. Four of the species Roei , Drummondii , Actinostrobus , and acuminata are confined to Western Australia.

Callitris is exceedingly variable over our territory of millions of square miles, and interpretation of some of the forms must be carried out in a philosophic spirit. It is impossible to take one character and insist too strongly upon it. I agree with Robert Brown that the fruit is the best indication in this genus. But the fruits vary, as I shall abundantly show; so also do the branchlets, and every other part of the plant.

Field knowledge is indispensable to a proper understanding of this genus. Sometimes they are of a more or less pendent habit at the top, e. The foliage is dimorphic in some species. This is particularly observable in C. Bentham also observed it in C. So far as I know, these are the only three species of which dimorphism has been recorded, but extended observation will doubtless augment the list.

I see no advantage in making a drawing of the foliage of each species, as there is a considerable amount of similarity between them. In the branchlets the vertical lines including the angles are much more accentuated when the plant is dry, i. There seems to be but little difference between the seedlings of the various species.

Where Bentham describes the male amenta he used the expression, "Solitary or three together, or usually three together. Staminiferous flowers. On the lower margin of the scale are the anthers or pollen-bags. They are always one-celled, roundish or elongated linear in Araucaria , and amongst themselves mostly little or not at all connected.

The scale is structurally the filament; we see a small scar, which is the point of attachment to the plant, and the oval bodies at the base are the one-celled anthers, the "anther-cells" of Bentham. These anthers lie in shallow depressions in the scale. According to Bentham, the Australian species have two to four anther-cells.

He, however, never gives the number of anther-cells on the scale as a distinguishing character between the several species. Attention is drawn to the terminal scale in C. I have not seen attention drawn to it, although it can scarcely have escaped notice. Pistilliferous flowers. Annales du Mus. This is important as showing what Robert Brown who described several species chiefly relied upon.

These fruits vary much in size; those of C. They usually persist on the branches for many years. In these species one can always find large numbers under the trees and on the young wood, but in some other species, e. The fruits can be provisionally classified according to the columella, viz:— Columella, a single triangular pyramid: verrucosa , robusta , columellaris , propinqua , Muelleri.

Columella , more than one, and irregular in shape perhaps formed of aborted ovules : calcarata , cupressiformis , Macleayana. The colour of the cones is greyish-brown. Macleayana are rather dull as regards lustre; C. Muelleri , and C. Some of the fruits have points on the scales or valves. For example, C. They are marked in C. The fruits of C. They vary somewhat in the number and shape of the wings. The seeds of C. Macleayana are different from those of the other species. An attempt will be made later on to describe the colour of the seeds of some of the various species ; the colours vary somewhat, but we do not yet know the amount of variation in the case of each species.

The seeds are packed in rows conformably to the scales, and the scars or cicatrices showing where they have been attached to each scale, give the inside of the fruit a tesselated, appearance, which is often distinctly ornamental in character. Its great power of resistance to insect pests — it is said to be absolutely resistant to white ant, but that is overstating the case.

Sulman and Power, architects, in showed me a piece of. Cypress Pine that had been undoubtedly attacked by white ants. Nevertheless, Cypress Pine is about the very last timber that white ants will attack. It lasts well in the ground, yet it is not the most durable timber for posts in parts of our western districts, but its great practical advantage is the facility with which it splits. Some of the species, the Red or Black Pine in particular, produce very showy timber; in fact, many of the planks are so gorgeous in appearance that care is required in using it for decorative purposes lest it should have too overpowering an effect.

At the same time, much of the timber is of a quiet, handsome character. The prevailing colour of the figure is brown of various shades. Drawbacks to Cypress Pine timber are its brittleness; it has none of the soft yielding characters of Baltic Deal or Californian Redwood. It will therefore stand but little transverse strain, and a nail can hardly be driven into the wood without previous boring, for fear of splitting the timber. Another drawback is its great inflammability. It may readily be dressed up to a smooth and glossy surface. Principal uses. It is used to an enormous extent a couple of hundred miles or more back from the coast for house-blocks, linings, and ceilings of houses.

Land carriage would effectually stand in the way of our profitably shipping this timber, even if an outside demand were to spring up for it, of which we have no evidence at present. It is one of the most luxurious firewoods I know of; it burns well, and in burning emits a delicious fragrance very generally admired. This may appear to be only a trifling matter, but I think that minor uses of our timbers and above all, utilisation of waste should be looked to.

In developing such enterprises of magnitude as the wood-block trade, or the getting out of railway sleepers and timbers for bridge work, we should not lose sight of the smaller possibilities of some of our timbers. Nevertheless, Mr. Forester J. Postlethwaite, of Grenfell, a man of great experience with western timbers, being asked to give a list of the best six fuel woods of his district, adds the caution:— I do not give Pine as a good fuel wood for general use as it is too dangerous, throwing out sparks and burning too fiercely, but it is the best for heating boilers and bakers' ovens.

Cypress Pine is often known as Colonial Pine in the districts in which it grows, and confusion has arisen, ere now, in interpreting "Colonial Pine" in contracts. White Ants and Cypress Pine. Following is some evidence in the matter:— If only fully matured timber be used, that is the dark yellow-coloured wood, ants will not touch it. It is only the light yellow-coloured timber which is cut from trees not fully grown or matured that the ants will attack.

I find from inquiries that white ants attack this timber either growing or when fallen, so far as the sapwood and bark is concerned. They will also attack the fresh cut timber before the sap dries. There are four varieties recognised in the western districts. These are white, red, and yellow see C.

Both Black and White Pine are of a very durable quality, and are extensively used in the building trade, for which they are much prized on account of their white ant resisting qualities. I have examined pine timber that has been in use in buildings for forty years, and find it still perfectly sound.

I consider it is a great oversight that this timber is not introduced by the building trades into Sydney, where the white ant is so destructive. A house in my district is built of hardwood, with the exception of the ceilings and lining-boards. A set of pigeon-holes, 9 feet x 4 feet, made out of imported pine, in one of the rooms, is, together with all the wood in the building, excepting our own colonial pine cut in the district, showing signs of white ants.

The palings round this building are also of imported pine, and although only of seven years' standing they have now to be pulled down on account of the white ants eating the boards, and replaced by palings made out of the locally-grown pine. Other houses in the same town, with palings of Colonial Pine, standing over fifteen years, show no signs of white ants. Exudation Australian Sandarac.

Milligan was awarded honourable mention. This is one of the most valuable of Australian Footnote Page a. Notes on Sandarac will be found in Spon's Encyc. Notes on Australian Sandarac will be found in papers by me in the Proc. Gazette N. There are no statistics available in regard to the importation of Sandarac into these colonies, but to bring it here at all is a veritable "carrying coals to Newcastle. I can hardly cite a better instance than that of Australian Sandarac. Here we have a product absolutely and entirely identical in chemical and physical properties with a well-known article in regular demand.

The collection of Australian Sandarac is one of those minor industries which could be readily undertaken by a family of children. As the resin flows from the Cypress Pines it could be accumulated in clean dust-proof tins until a sufficient quantity was obtained to be sold to the local storekeeper, who would again sell to the wholesale chemist, or wholesale oil and colourman of Sydney.

Sandarac is usually graded. There would be no difficulty in grading locally our local product, while any surplus available for export could be shipped without grading if found expedient. I have no means of getting at the consumption of Sandarac in this State, but we ought to be able to supply the local demand, and have a good surplus for export.

The mealy appearance on Sandarac resin which has remained too long on the trees is well known, and can be easily removed by a weak solution of potash, as suggested by Mr. Ingham Clark. Samples thus treated take on a bright fresh appearance, as if freshly exuded. It may be pointed out that the solution in weak potash of this external coating would be utilised by soap-makers.

Nothing need be wasted. Another method which may be suggested is to treat the Sandarac with rectified spirit. The resin at once assumes a beautifully fresh appearance, while both the spirit and the dissolved resin may be readily recovered, as every soap or varnish maker knows.

Picking and grading can be done by children with facility into two or three sorts; and Mr. Ingham Clark's advice not to neglect this, should be borne in mind, for it will pay. In a mixed parcel the price tends to that of the most inferior portion of it. I reiterate the statement made in one of my articles, that the collection of Sandarac from our Cypress Pines will pay. I say there is money in it, and it will not only pay children to collect but grown-up people too. Seventy shillings per hundredweight leaves a handsome sum to the collector when all expenses are paid, and inasmuch as in many districts large quantities are available, particularly where the pines have been ringbarked or felled.

Conversely it follows, that if two specimens of Sandarac are of different qualities, the explanation is to be found in the circumstances above enumerated. What is the best season to collect Sandarac or to bleed trees in a particular district is only to be learned by experience, and I think I have said enough to show that it is worth the trouble to try and find out. Henry has recently published a valuable and exhaustive research on the Cypress Pine Resins or Sandaracs. He finds the resins to be identical in composition, and to consist of a mixture of resin acids and terpenes, separable by steam distillation.

From the latter pinene has been isolated and identified. Two resin acids have been isolated and examined: one is named inactive pimaric acid, and for the other the name callitrollic acid has been retained. The research was carried out in the laboratories of the Imperial Institute, London, of which Mr. Dunstan is Director. According to Balzer Archiv. Tetraclinis quadrivalvis contains about 1 p. Theoi l has a brownish colour, a pleasant strongly aromatic odour, reminding of the odour of pines. In the cold it becomes viscid, and apparently separates a steareoptene-like substance.

Cypress Pines and our Poets. Let me briefly touch upon our Australian poets and Cypress Pines, which do not, however, appear to have much stirred the poetic fire.


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I only give four quotations, — two referring to the hills of the Southern table-land and two to the Western Plains, celebrated for their pines, the home of the pine-scrubs and of those forests of pines which will be more valued as they become scarcer. Charles Harpur speaks of — "With leafy breath of piny mountains. Patterson, in his "Snowy River," has — "And down by Kosciusko, where the pine-clad ridges raise Their torn and rugged battlements on high. Ord — "They chased him thro' timber, to where the tall pines Rose out of the sandhills, set close as a furze.

Spencer, in "O'Toole and M'Sharry," sings — "In the valley of the Lachlan, where the perfume from the pines Fills the glowing summer air like incense spreading. Its delicious perfume is borne on the air for miles, and is often the first intimation that the weary traveller experiences that he is approaching a human habitation, and that his long journey is drawing to a close. Fruit-cones large, angular, pointed, the junction of the valves prominent, the leaves branchlets markedly dimorphic Macleayana. Fruit-cones globular, strictly valvate, the junction of the valves usually neither prominent nor furrowed.

Specimens of Murray Pine robusta from Mildura, Victoria, are markedly furrowed. Exterior not smooth; columella pyramidal. Fruit-cone warted all over verrucosa. Cone valves alternately smaller, foliage glaucous, and with comparatively thin pedicels interior species robusta. Foliage bright green coast species columellaris. Fruit-cones greyish-brown, nearly smooth.

Cones globular.

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Columella pyramidal. Branchlets coarse coast and mountain species Muelleri. Branchlets rather slender, cones sparingly warted propinqua. Columellas several interior species calcarata. Cones rhombohedral, rather small, clustered on short branches cupressiformis. So far as I am aware, no results of oil distillation of any of our native Cypress Pine timbers has yet been published.


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Ironclad Beef. Copabella, Southern District. Bed Oxide of Copper, at depth of 30 fathoms ; lode, 4 feet thick. Peelwood, 10 miles south of Tuena. Carbonates and Bed Oxide of Copper. Carbonates and Sulphides of Copper. Sulphides and Black Oxide of Copper. Armstrong Copper Aline, near Bathurst. Sulphide and Black Oxide of Copper. Gordon Brook, Clarence Elver. Eed Oxide and Carbonates of Copper.

Jacqua Copper Mine. Peehvood, 10 miles South of Tuena. Peel- wood, 10 miles South of Tuena. Carbonate of Copper, at depth of 20 fathoms. Peelwood, 10 miles South of Tuena. Case C. Auriferous Quartz. Pembroke Eeef, 6 miles from Trunkey. S] ring Creek, near Braidvvood, Pioneer Line of Eeef ; depth. Star Eeef, Solferino. Lombardy Eeef, Solferino. Spa Eeef, Nerrimunga. Gold in cleavage planes of clay slate, sandstone reef, Cowarbee, Mur- rumbidgee District.

Yield, 5 ozs. Yield, 1 oz. Gold in brown iron ore. Xeio South 1 Tales, 5 Auriferous Quartz, reef 1 foot thick, depth 10 feet, Louisiaua Eeef. Southern Cross Heef, Solferino. Spring Creek, near Braidwood. Milliam the Birst Eeef, Kerrimunga. Eureka Claim, Xerrimunga.

Grove Creek, 10 miles from Trunkey. Gold in Quartz. Auriferous Quartz, Kangaroo Eeef, Xerrimunga. Auriferous Porphyiy Dyke, 15 yards wide, at depth of 67 feet, near Eorbes. Auriferous Quartz, at depth of feet.

GENERAL INFORMATION

Old Gulgong Eeef, 1 miles from Gulgong. Stream Tin. Cases H and G. Tent Hill, near Vegetable Creek. Eothschild's Mine, Vegetable Creek. Boro Creek, Tumbarumba. Wylie Creek, Xew England. I 6 Neiv South TFciles, Head of Euby Creek. Hall, Bros. Herding Yard Creek. Yellow Waterholes, near Vegetable Creek. Tin Ore Shoad Stones. Grampian Hills, Vegetable Creek. Euby Creek, New Euglaud. Assay, 76 per cent. Wylie Creek, New England.

Oban, Ncav England. Cassiterite alluvial. Prom Mr. Glen Creek. Grain Tin. Australian Tin Smelting Company, Sydney. Near Maryland, Queensland Border. Black Sand. Stanniferous Wash Dirt. Gulf Tin Mining Co. Crystallized Tin. Pyrmont Tin Smelting Works, Sydney. Neio South Wales, 7 Bald Rock Creek. Lode Tin. Britannia Tin Mine, near Inverell. Tin Ore Cassiterite in Quartz. Lode Tin, from the Mole Tableland, near Tenterfield. Tent Hill, Vegetable Creek. Graveyard Creek, near Vegetable Creek.

Moonbah Ranges, near Snowy River, 40 miles from Cooma, three lodes from 1 to 2 feet wide, strike north and south. Myall Creek, near Bingera. Older Tertiary Miocene Drift, Tin-bearing. Stannifer Mine, Inverell. Wash Dirt. Rose Valley Mine, Vegetable Creek.

Elsmore Tin Mine, New England. Mowamba, County Wallace, Monaro District. Erom the Mole Tableland, near Tenterfield. Tin Ore. Quartz Crystals, enclosing crystals of Cassiterite. The Mole Tableland, near Tenterfield. Case F. Garnetiferoiis Schist. Washpool Creek, Solferino. Petrified Wood. Castlereagh Eiver, from Mr. Brown, M. Wentworth, Lucknow Gold Field, from Mr. James Jackson. Bland, near Forbes. Opalized Wood. Bloomfield, near Orange, from Mr. Talcose Schist. Upper Silurian, near Bathurst. Dendrites in Granite, near Mount Lambie, from Mr.

Schorl, from tin-bearing granite. Chalcedonic Quartz. Herschellite in Basalt. Metamorphic Slate, Silurian. Sheppardtown, Adelong Creek. AYagga AVagga. Gem Sand. Diamond District, Two-mile Flat, Mudgee. Eocky Eiver. Samples of drift, from Diamond Fields, Bingera. Middle Creek, New England. Serpentine, near Barraba. Lewis Ponds Creek, AVellington. Old Gulgong Eeef, Gulgong. Quartz Crystal, from Carboniferous Conglomerate. Coerwull, Bowen- fels, from Mr. Quartz Crystals, Hill End, from Mr. Fish Eiver Caves, from Hon. Lucas, M. Quartz and Mica, Devonian Granite. Fish Eiver, from Mr.

Big or Castlereagh Eiver, from Mr. Jasper, from vein in Tertiary Basalt. Newstead, New England. New South Wales, 9 Fragment of Tree, two feet in diameter, embedded in basalt, Inverell. Mica Schist. Wagga Wagga. Fluor-spar in Deronian beds. Mount Lambie. Quartz Crystals. A Obsidian Stones. Fish Eiver, near Bathurst, from Mr. Sulphuret of Mercury. G-ranite veins, intruding Devonian beds. Porphyritic Trap intruding Carboniferous beds. Case E. From Dpper Coal Measures, Jamberoo. Analysis, 49'28 to 56 per cent, metallic iron. Magnetic Iron. Hear Barraba. Brown Haematite. Coal Eange, Clarence Eiver.

Concretionary Ironstone. Hewstead, Hew England. Stalactitic Iron Ore Limonite. Lithgow Valley. From Mr. Titaniferous Iron. IMicaceous and Magnetic Iron Ore. Magnetic Oxide of Iron. Analysis, 40'89 per cent, metallic iron. Iron Ore Garnet Eock. Case D. Average yield of 5, tons of this quartz gave 11 dwts. Lachlan District. Assay, 4 oz. Auriferous Wash Dirt. Tertiary Auriferous Cement with Silicate of Iron.

Two-mile Elat,. Cudgegong Eiver. Clarke, M. Auriferous AYash Dirt. Home Eule Lead, Home Eule. Auriferous Eerruginous Quartz Drift with Bed-rock. Jones and Party. Auriferous AY ash Dirt. Prospecting Claim, Canadian Lead, near Eorbes. Nil Desperandum Lead. Lady Belmore Line of Eeef,. Yield, 19 oz. Erom Mr. James Daw'. Old Hill Eeef, Adelong. Average yield, 8 ozs. Lady Belmore line of reef Braidwood. Sebastopol Eeef, near Junee. Assay per ton : — gold, 1 oz.

Broken Auriferous Quartz. County of Clive, from Eev. Depth, 45 feet. Petrified AYood. Neio South Wales, 11 Deptli, feet. Yield 4 oz. Yortli Williams Claim, Adelong. Auriferous Quartz burnt. Yield, 12 oz. Depth 60 feet. Lady Belmore line of reef, Braidwood. Depth, 30 feet. From Lewis E. Sulphide of Antimony. Galena in Quartz. Carbonate and Sulphide of Lead and Sulphide of Copper. Nundle Gold Field. Near Gundagai. Near Wallerawang. Lunatic Beef. New England. Depth, feet. Presented by Mr. Seymour C. Stewart, J. Eurongilly, Murrumbidgee District. Junee Beef. Depth, 40 feet.

Depth, 70 feet. Auriferous Brown Oxide of Iron. Alfred-town Beefs, near Wagga Wagga. Hill End, from Mr. Goodrich Copper Mining Company, county of Gordon. Green and Blue Carbonate of Copper. Armstrong, B. Assay, 24T9 per cent, copper. Cow Flat, near Bathurst. Green Carbonate of Copper ferruginous. Goodrich Copper Mine. Sulphide of Copper with Galena. Copper Ingot. Carangara Copper Mine, county of Bathurst. Carangara Copper Mine, county of Batluirst.

Sulplide of Cojipcr. Armstrong Copper Mine. Copper ; 4 dwts. Gold, 6 ozs. Silver, per ton. Red Oxide of Copper. Assay, 30 per cent. Cow Hat, near Bathurst. Cow Blat, near Bathurst. Ophir Copper Mine, county of Bathurst. Goodrich Copper Mine, county of Gordon. Bobby Whitlow Copper Mine, near Bingera. Clay-band Iron Ore. From Coal Measures. AYal- lerawang Iron and Coal Company. Mount Lambie, Veins in Hawkesbury Rocks, Lithgow Valley. From the Hon. John Lucas, Minister for Mines. Devonian beds. Clay-band Iron Ores. Analysis, 46'42 per cent, metallic iron.

Sulphuret of Lead. Mylora, near Tass. Dudley Adams. Mylora, near Yass. From reef 2 feet thick. EVom depth of feet. Argentiferous Quartz. Clarence District. Assay : — Silver, ozs.. Gold, 17 dwts. Lombardy Reef, Solferino. New South Wales. Argentiferous Quartz, with large cubical iron pyrites. Sulphuret of Antimony. Analysis, G7 per cent, antimony. Ingot of Tin. Leonards Smelting Company. Assay, 99'9 per cent. Tin in bars. Lode Tin in euritic granite. Terago, county of Argyle.

Beceptaculites Clarkei, or Australis. AVellington District. Two miles Xorth-TTest of Molong. Favosites polymorpha. Gambola Paddock, near Molong. Limestone Bocks, South of and adjoining Wellington Caves. Murchisonia r Quedong. Haly sites catenipora. Molong, near E. Stem of Crinoid. Leptoena and Spirifer. Lepidodendron notbum. Eange, 10 miles north of Goulburn. Lambie, near Eydal. Favosites Gotblandica. Tbe Gulf, Turou Eiver.

From tbe [Eev. Modiola, Ebyncbonella, Ac. Encrinite stems. Pecten, Spirifer, and Eb3mcbonella. Otopteris ovata. Stroud, Port Stephens. Otoi teris ovata. Otopteris ovata and Calamites. Otopteris ovata and Spbenopteris. Xeic South Wales. Fossil Plant Stem. Spirifer, Productus, etc. Productus cora. Brush Hill Creek, county of Brisbane. Xortheru District. Northern District. Quarryhylong, county of Northumberland. Parish of Doon, county of Durham. Northern EKstrict. Spirifer, Eenestella, Productus, etc. Quarryhylong, county of Nor- thumberland.

Encriuite stems. Parish of St. Aubin, county of Durham. Eucrinite stems. Chaetetes radians. Calcareous concretion. Dry Creek, near Barraba, county of Northum- berland. Conularia torta. Conularia tenuistriata. Belleroplion, spirifer, Pacliydomus? Spirifer and Productus. Pachydomus and Pleurotomaria. Pachydomus gigas and Favosites. Pacliydomus gigas. Pecten and Bellerophon. Inoceramus Mitcbellii. Crinoid stem. Spirifer vespertilio. Productus, Penestella, Crinoid stem. Cajola Creek, ITlladulla. Sj irifer. Spirifer yespertilio. Paleozoic — Upper Coal Measures.

Yertebraria Australis.

Glossopteris Browniana yarious forms. Glossopteris Browniana various forms. Glossopteris Browniana. Year APallerawaug.