Since , the 3-day-festival has presented features, documentaries, and short films, and has invited guests to discuss the different programme focuses. The festival is aimed not only at football fans, but at everybody interested in the social and political aspects of the sport — aspects which are attracting more and more attention.
Through these two exceptional characters, the film offers an authentic look at the world of Swiss football. All three language groups contribute to the cultural life of Brussels as European capital. This KV Mechelen fairytale begins with the European Cup Final in , where the young team of mostly unknown players defeated the star-studded Ajax Amsterdam This documentary follows the remarkable European campaign of the smallest town ever to win the European cup. The first one took place in April in Paris. With films screenings, exhibitions and other activities, the main goal was to promote an alternative football, to show that football and art fit together.
Since then the festival has grown and it is today considered as an important actor of alternative football in Paris and nationwide. The aim is now to broaden the scope of the festival activities all year round. The festival was created to fill this gap and to offer Brazilian audiences the opportunity to experience the magic of the cinema and the passion of the football together in a unique cultural experience. This film is a humorous ode to the legendary tribune. Terzo Tempo Solidarity Soccer Film Festival aims to use sport activities, particularly soccer, as an instrument for solidarity and networking, an experience of equality and as workshop for integration and collective participation.
Daniele, Marco and Andrea were all born in and were once young talents with the A. Roma football team. But this was a tough life for year-olds. Through interviews and archival footage, the three protagonists share their hopes and fears and discuss whether success is a matter luck or timing. Yokohama Football Film Festival looks on their behalf, focusing on the latest football films, and includes some old masterpieces. In our festival you can enjoy para-football workshops, football art exhibits, discussion sessions, and a party.
And we introduce Asian football culture to our football family all over the world. Nach einem miserablen Turnier wird ihr nahegelegt zu gehen. Doch Natsu glaubt an die Mannschaft und will trotz allen Mobbings und fehlender Anerkennung weitermachen. Natsu is a football assistant for her high school team. As the only woman, her job is to wash the kits and provide the drinks. When the team asks her to resign following a terrible defeat, Natsu fights to stay in spite of her pitiful role and bullying by the boys. Director Takuma Satos uses football to paint an image of modern Japanese society in which goals and success are worth more than passion and love.
When the team captain announced his retirement in , it was met with tears from fans and players alike. Director Milan Skrobanek accompanies the three clubs through their season highs and lows and offers a glimpse behind the scenes. Damit verbunden sind schwere finanzielle und strukturelle Einschnitte. Energie Cottbus is the poster club for the Lausitz region of Germany, and put Cottbus on the map for many people.
The film follows the club as it faces relegation into the second division from the perspective of fans, players, and managers. In spite of the situation, the film asks how the club retains its loyal following — and receives a heart-warming answer. So hat man, nach dem allgemeinen Mitleiden, wieder Luft, sich auf die respektable Leistung des Vereins in dieser Spielzeit zu konzentrieren.
Die Kamera ist immer nah dran, begleitet die hochsympathischen Spieler in die Kabine und auf den Rasen, und zeigt, dass sogar der harte Alltag in der 3.
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This film gets off to a terrible start — at least from the perspective of Hostein Kiel fans, who are forced to relive the moment when they lost the relegation game in extra time against Munich. This official FIFA film revisits the historical event. Sein einziges Angebot kam vom Zweitligisten Nottingham Forest, einem Club, der auch schon mal bessere Tage gesehen hatte. His only job offer came from a run-down 2nd Division club called Nottingham Forrest. This miraculous story shows how Clough transformed his players into a world-class team.
Und obwohl eigentlich keiner von ihnen wirklich Ahnung hat, gelingt das Wagnis. Fairytales can happen, even in the highly paid world of the British Premiere League. When Swansea City Football Club was rescued from bankruptcy by an Australian businessman, its unhappy fans collected money and bought the club themselves. This is a classic underdog tale told with plenty of Welsh charm. Beim Turnier selbst schafften es die Underdogs beinahe bis ins Halbfinale. To qualify they not only had to beat teams like Portugal and Italy, but faced resistance from political groups and the Church at home.
Interviews and archive footage bring this remarkable story to life. Am It is six weeks before the end of a disastrous season for Barnet Football Club. In the face of impending relegation and a forced move out of their home stadium, fans and personalities associated with the club give candid, funny interviews that document the end of an era for this modest, unglamorous North London club. Unser Respekt.
Als Shmuel Rosenthal in den 70ern als erster Israeli in der Bundesliga kickte, war das eine Sensation. In the past, Turkish football was better known for the corruption, fanatical atmosphere and riots than for the game itself. But the Gezi park demonstrations changed things. This documentary shows how Turkish fan culture has to battle the commodification of the sport as well as state repression.
Ein mexikanischer Fan besucht bereits zum Calabash is the story of the first African World Cup, told through the lives of its unheralded heroes. In the weeks leading up to the tournament, different characters offer their perspective on a divided society, where the ultimate showcase of national pride is revealed to be a mere illusion. Wichtiger sind die Trikots in den Farben der Favelas. Mal ist die Kamera ganz nah, mal oben, mal unten. A gripping documentary about the professional club Tijuana Xoloitzcuintles, which is close to the US border.
A work of art attains a multitude of meaning in relation to the possibilities of approaching itself from various angles and viewpoints. In other words, a work or art becomes plural through the multiple dimensions of meaning spheres it tackles along. Moreover, the multitude of a piece lies on the expansion of the socio-spatial dialectic of the piece, where the social relations in production are both space forming and space contingent.
Plan B, is a site-specific installation that of which has been specially commissioned by curator Fulya Erdemci for the Turkish Pavillion of the 54th International Venice Biennial. The condition of Venice as a city of canals, that of which is surrounded by water, rather than divided, or surrounding, influences Erkmen in a way in which she decides to reflect on the condition of water and its substantial position — not only geographically but also socially. The water treatment plant sources its water from the sea, filters and clarifies its salt and minerals to the stage that it becomes drinkable supply and returns back to where it has sourced.
The subject of the piece, water, circulates in the space, invisibly while the constellation of engines and pipes mark the place of the work. Plan B, through its physical and functional means, redefines, modifies, transforms the place of the exhibition, which solely rests upon placing works of art on display. Moreover, its futile utilitarian function of treating water stakes its sculptural formation, its visual presentation while surrounding its audience in the sonic space of the engines. Erkmen, constructs a system of relations and more significantly makes it visible through experience of an audience as a witness and as a visitor.
Her work for the Turkish Pavilion is one of the highlights of the 54th Venice Biennale. While Ayse Erkmen and I look for a place to talk about Plan B, her work for the Turkish Pavilion, a skinny girl in a silver mini skirt is teetering around on eight-inch high-heeled platform shoes. But the daughters of collectors and gallery dealers sometimes dress this way. The girl and her companion find a table, and we are left with two lonely chairs.
The work consists of a water treatment facility of the kind the German Federal Agency For Technical Relief brings to assist areas in conflict. But the difference here is that the construction appears in Venice as a contemporary sculpture. Ayse Erkmen connected the water tank, ultrafiltration, and pump system with meter-long purple, red, green, and turquoise-colored pipes and expanded it in size. The facility draws water from the canal in front of the pavilion and deposits it each hour back into the brackish water of the canal, meticulously cleansed of salt, purified, and remineralized.
How did she come up with the idea for this useless, but large-hearted action? The Turkish Pavilion is the only room in the Arsenale that has large windows facing the canal. And because I come from Istanbul, a city that is just as defined by water as Venice, it seemed logical to make the water in front of the pavilion the point of departure for a site-specific installation. Whenever I discover water at an exhibition location, I always have the feeling that I should work with it. The river divides the city there into two halves.
That was why I shipped three passenger ferries complete with crew from Venice, Istanbul, and Japan on container ships to Frankfurt for them to resume their normal ferry service on the River Main. Did she immediately come up with the idea to redirect the water into the pavilion? I wanted something to happen with the water, to transform it into something else.
That was because the room very much resembled a factory hall with its leftover machine parts and electric devices. And so I wanted the space to become a production site again. But why is this project called Plan B—and what was Plan A? But that seemed far too didactic to me. Visitors probably would have enjoyed Plan A.
That seemed closer to the idea of art. By the way, last week, in a bookstore, I found a study on sustainability titled Plan B. Was this reference clear to Ayse Erkmen from the beginning? The sculpture is a functioning system. The grid is indeed a byproduct of the necessity of the system. But the colors, at least?
Violet seemed like a good color to me for the dirty salty water. After the initial purification stage, the water flows through red pipes. In the green segments, the water is already clean and can be used for showering or to do laundry. From the corner of my eye, I observe how the silver-colored girl and her friend leave theirs. But the energy it requires to change our seats now, in the middle of a conversation, seems too high. The extra-large bag, made from natural-colored cotton fabric, was designed by Konstantin Grcic, one of the most influential contemporary industrial designers.
At the same time, the bottom extends the life of the bag if it has to carry pounds and pounds of information material—as is usually the case at the Biennale. How did the collaboration with Konstantin Grcic come about? Each country and each artist here gets a bag to carry the catalogues.
I wanted something special. If there has to be a bag, then it should be a part of the exhibition. I thought of Konstantin Grcic because I know him and because I knew that he always comes up with brilliant ideas for functional objects—besides which, although he has designed all kinds of things, he has never designed a bag. A water purification facility is another challenge altogether, of course.
How long did it take to transport it there and set it up? All of the components come from Germany, from a company in Celle, where the firm rented a space the size of the Pavilion to set up the facility exactly as it would be in Venice in order to test whether or not it would work. Later, it was packed aboard a small truck and transported to Venice, where it took us ten days to install it. The canal water that is treated now in the Turkish Pavilion must surely be very dirty?
As strange as that might seem. I also thought it would be awfully filthy. In one hour, the facility can purify 2, liters of water. After the end of the Biennale, it has to serve its original purpose again, of course, which is to generate hygienic water for areas in conflict. Before it was set up in the Biennale, it was installed in a sausage factory in Germany whose production was endangered by a flood. Dies zieht sich durch ihr gesamtes Werk. Aber wer ist Ayse Erkmen?
Ich benutze die soziale Ordnung, ich gebrauche sie als Element. Ich benutze Environment und Sozialsystem manchmal direkt, manchmal indirekt. Auch wenn es sich um eine dauerhafte Installation handelt, ist sie eingebunden in den Takt vor Ort. Die Einbindung in die Umgebung kann auch formal ausgerichtet sein. Wie finden soziale Kontakte statt? Wer oder was dominiert Ort und Situation? Der Ort wird zum Knotenpunkt eines komplexen Beziehungsgeflechts, in dem sich sprachliche, literarische und kulturelle Ebenen miteinander verbinden.
Ayse Erkmens Kunst zielt auf Konstellationen zwischen dem Werk, seinem Standort und vielen damit verbundenen kulturellen, historischen und psychologischen Aspekten. Am Anfang steht die investigative Auseinandersetzung mit dem spezifischen Ort, seiner architektonischen Beschaffenheit, Geschichte, Funktion und ideologischen Bedeutung. Erkmens Vorgehen ist analytisch, reflektiert und sensibel zugleich. Durch Erforschung und den Versuch, einen Raum zu verstehen. Istanbul-Biennale beteiligte. Transportmittel und Transportweg verschmolzen miteinander.
Man konnte ihn nicht betreten, sondern, von einem Seil museal auf Abstand gehalten, nur anschauen: ein manisch zwischen den Ebenen vagabundierendes rares Relikt, in seiner Aufgeregtheit ein Portal zur Besinnung. So gewinnen die Interventionen eine anhaltende Wirkung aus ihrem ephemeren Dasein. Ayse Erkmen verhandelt auch solch fundamentale Daseins- und Erkenntniskategorien wie die Zeit auf leichte und humorvolle Weise.
Ihre St. Bleiben Ayse Erkmens Arbeiten schon durch die zeitliche Begrenzung ihrer Eingriffe in Bewegung, sind viele der Installationen auch durch das Moment der Bewegung selbst gekennzeichnet, allerdings nicht im Sinne schlichter Kinetik. Vielmehr zeigen sie ortsbezogene Situationen als Prozess. Bank an. So wird die Geste des Ausstellens letztlich selbst zum Inhalt der Ausstellung. Die Ansprache des Betrachters wirkt auf eine spezifische Art unausgesprochen.
Erkmens Schaffen basiert auf dialektischem Denken, ist dialogisch organisiert und empfiehlt diskursives Handelns. Whether in the exhibition hall or in the public space, she sensitizes us to the structures and situations, both historical and contemporary, that are present at a given site. With a minimal intervention and using nothing but the lighting equipment already present at the site, she thus created a light installation that revealed the hidden structures of the White Cube.
As early as the late s, Erkmen began to work with found materials and architectural situations. The lighting rails became barriers in the space, seemingly marking areas around the centers of the rooms not to be entered by the visitor and constraining his or her movement to corridors along the walls. Although the fundamental idea was comparable, this intervention, drawing on a very different spatial and technical existing situation, was markedly different from the confusion of fluorescent lamps at the Hamburger Bahnhof fifteen years later. The fluorescent tubes are legible in this context as the minimalist objects the visitors to a gallery expect, and by lighting the room from below, they create the dramatic illumination that would stage an artistic installation in space.
Yet they are also the same sources of light that, discreetly installed in the ceiling, are used to create what is considered ideal lighting in a museum, the neutral space known as the White Cube. Erkmen disrupts the fiction of a neutral space: the proportions of a room, doorframes, windows, outlets, light switches, and lighting equipment—even when the designers of a space attempt to render them as imperceptible as possible—are never neutral, they merely fade into indistinctness in our habitual perception.
These included screens in various corners of the rooms showing movies featuring the silent-movie start Henny Porten, whom the Nazis put under house arrest in these same rooms because her husband was Jewish. With the project Ghost, which she developed in for Thyssen- Bornemisza Art Contemporary, Erkmen once again addresses a set of historical issues. The countess brought Beethoven in contact with noble patrons, who subsequently supported the composer financially.
This soprano can be heard as a ghostly voice from nine speakers installed at the palace in a spacious room it has more than square feet illuminated by twelve lamps. Yet we may also read the title of her work as an indication of its largely immaterial character, of the intangibility of both the voice and the light installation staging the room itself, which will be dissolved and disappear once the exhibition is over. By rearranging and contextualizing a composition by Beethoven, she opens new perspectives and invites associations that go far beyond the historically factual.
In this sense, she not only transforms the many-voices canon, reducing it to a single soprano voice, she also dislocates it from its original domain of meaning. In a comparable manipulation, Erkmen in created a work entitled Image for the Kunstverein Arnsberg using five close-up photographs, selected from five different categories in an image database, that largely blocked the doorframes. This sort of highly versatile glossy photograph, an image from a world of ideal happiness, is usually ordered by advertising agencies and magazine editors, who then contextualize it with captions, writing, or other images and use it as a visual message transmitting a particular attitude toward life or a stereotypical idea or belief.
The oversized and technically perfect photographs, far from being innovative visual creations, follow simple compositional schemata to create standardized depictions of fantasies of escape and idealized everyday situations. In the sparse rooms of the Kunstverein, the artist thus unmasks the aspirations and yearnings of our lifestyle-hungry society, ideas that are almost aggressively pushed by the media, as vacuous, empty shells that do nothing but encourage unsatisfiable expectations. As in Ghost, the artist always conceives her works as site-specific, taking into account not only the given architectural situation, but also historical and social circumstances.
This builds an element of indeterminacy into the language that has to do with the versions of events as filtered through the mind of a third unnamed person or the speaker himself or herself—with a confluence of stories, a superimposition of perspectives. She had ferryboats shipped to Frankfurt am Main aboard other, bigger ships: one each from her native Istanbul, from Venice, and from Shingu, Japan. The three ferryboats were unloaded in Frankfurt and for one month served as ferries on individual routes on the river Main.
Fares were set to match actual rates in the various places of origin, so that a trip on the Japanese Kumano No. A comparison of these fares indicated the value of labor and the level of economic prosperity in the different regions; even in her initial conceptual draft, Erkmen had selected exclusively western-oriented and fairly affluent countries. On the one hand, these temporary additional ferry connections served as a new and popular means of public transport. As in Participation Kunsthalle Bern, , she exhibited the freight elevator, usually in service only during exhibition preparations and otherwise hidden beneath the exhibition hall, by having it stand out roughly eight inches above the floor.
The intervention involved no installation work or transportation of parts and could be altered or reversed at any time. By stopping the elevator for a moment, Erkmen succeeded in creating a literally temporary work that, unlike Ghost, required no new materials. Working on the boundary between art and non-art, Erkmen displaces our habits of perception, directing our attention to disregarded spatial as well as social relations that disrupt our fixation on a certain horizon of experience.
Her oeuvre is as multi-faceted as the many different contexts in which she develops her works. Based on the premise that, rather than developing a defined formal language, she always works in site-specific ways and with—usually temporary—interventions, the oeuvre she has built over the past three decades is nonetheless highly consistent. Her works sensitize us, altering the way we experience our everyday lives and putting our habits of perception to the test, opening up new horizons and possibilities.
Supporting columns and pillars are generally disliked by any gallerist as they take up valuable exhibition space. This is why at art fairs they are mostly hidden in the small storage areas of the exhibition booths — tightly hung with small masterworks, reserved for exclusive viewings. Using the bare white walls to create a sculpture, where previously nothing existed. Whether this is sculpture or conceptual art the work becomes even more engaging as the ribbon has its own story. Depending on the space the nets are either thrown over white walls or hung uselessly off them.
The knots, pulled tight, form a seam down the column, to the left and right of which the otherwise uncovered column is unpretentiously exposed. The Physics Room is no pure white cube space. The space is softened; mid-morning the warm streams of sifted sun flow through the monochromes, lighting the space with a pastiche glow. Running the length of the space is a patterned rug designed by the artist, and constructed by local artisan carpet manufacturer Dilana rugs, who Erkmen stumbled across while exploring the neighborhood.
It is too narrow to be seen as a domestic rug, too short to fit another gallery space. Made specifically for this setting, relocating the rug would render it useless. It features a roughly-drawn sketch, a simple gesture that recalls the act of doodling when the mind is otherwise occupied.
Perhaps a thought the artist had when staring from the gallery window down onto the High Street scene. Dull in comparison to the blinds, it is a natural, dirty cream through which black lines loop. The colour of coffee one might say, reflecting the common scent of coffee that rises from the street below. The images are spectacular, yet generic, and retain little sense of place. Erkmen selected 84 images, and compiled them into a continuous DVD loop in which the sequence is slowly revealed, one by one, as if downloading from the internet.
The positioning of the gallery is the focus of Level Two, a video work Erkmen made during her stay here. The banner had became unstitched from its pole in a bout of bad weather and thrashes around, the wind crashing it against the building. The turbulent slapping creates a violent noise, hinting that this is the role galleries should occupy, pushing against structures, pressing action in the current climate. The word is a common expression in the local vernacular, an idiosyncrasy that Erkmen enjoyed. As the title hints, underlying this installation is a wry sense of humour that sees the simple repositioning of something familiar into something somehow foreign.
She is not interested in permanence. She has developed exhibitions in many countries around the world; in each place a project develops site-specifically, responding to the peculiarities of the space she encounters. Each situation demands a different conceptual response, through which she works with ideas and materials that relate to the context.
Once an exhibition is over only fragments remain. One commonality throughout her projects is a poetic aesthetic sensibility. The minimalist elegance of her work acts as an entry point to the context she explores. Her work presents a wonderfully poetic, witty, playful engagement with the environment in which she operates. London: Black Dog Publishing, Als ich durch den U-Bahnhof Alexanderplatz hastete, stie0 ich zufallig auf die Klanginstallation. Wie schon Gertrude Stein bemerkte:. Ein Genie zu sein, nimmt vie1 Zeit in Anspruch. Man muss so viel herumsitzen und nichts, aber wirklich nichts tun.
Dennoch arbeiten sie einer konstruierten Wirklichkeit - im filmischen Sinne -entgegen. Schicht um Schichtwird freigelegt, um eine Art Wahrheit zu finden. Ich schreibe dies auf dem Flug nach Neuseeland, inmitten eines leeren Raumes. Turhan Ilgaz, İstanbul, , ss. Naturally enough, her works thus vary considerably from one another and so her oeuvre has no readily discernible outward appearance.
Appropriations and Approximations 4 The appropriation of words, images, signs, gestures, ready-made products or even spaces is part of this method. Entitled Taklit Imitation , the installations in Izmir from and Istanbul from set the first accents in this direction.
In each of these exhibitions Erkmen re-enacted a street situation resembling a sculptural configuration: a blazing fluorescent tube rose out of a pile of bricks, each of which had her initials imprinted on it. For the Istanbul variation, the bricks were encased in metal. When related to her text in the publication accompanying the Izmir exhibition, which soberly describes how Erkmen left a flat near Taksim Square at 2.
Erkmen appropriated the word for the title of her solo exhibition in the gallery Barbara Weiss, Berlin. At times the titles of works refer to these states, without however, thanks to their playful subtlety, ever dictating to the viewer what they should be thinking or feeling. Whilst the moving wall is a semblance, in the experiential moment of this fake wall moving towards or away from one, the person within the installation is simultaneously led back to their essential sense of self, to existence.
Evoking a reflective visualisation of a room was the key theme of her installation Bu Galeri This Gallery, , p. The form of the installation imitates the floor plan of the Galerie Deux in Tokyo, a copy of which the artist had received from the organisers in advance to help her plan her work. What is it supposed to achieve? Or rather, what does it trigger in the viewer? Once the viewer recognises the cinematic allusion, recollections of earlier times are activated, times when the logo of the US film production company Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer MGM graced the opening credits of almost every major film, sparking a sense of tingling anticipation: one was to be shortly immersed in another world full of opulent images.
The roaring lion stands for the bold, glorious years of moviemaking — but soberly considered, also for an entertainment medium that lacks depth. Such a corporate logo not only evokes nostalgic, personal memories, but moreover general ideas about art and its meaning and place in society.
In this context the lion epitomises the idea of the freedom of the arts, of art that may develop unburdened by ulterior functions and exploitative misappropriation. Although the aesthetic slogan is not haloed around Chambal, the defiance stance it expresses is clearly evident in his facial expression. Even without recognising the source of inspiration, the intermeshed layers of meaning generated by mimesis are touched on. The longer the viewer watches the sequences, cut into an endless loop, the more human the animal appears.
The provocative gesture remains disturbingly amusing precisely through its endless repetition. Once the viewer becomes aware of the exchange of roles, and moreover should they catch on to the allusion to the Leo of MGM, then they may well sense more subtle, perhaps even mournful tones behind the roar.
Perhaps they derive intellectual delight from the recognition. It is, however, left to the viewer whether this recognition is to be read in terms of a transformation of the quoted scene. What is inevitably provoked in the viewer by the confrontation with the lion is the imitative instinct: the sheer delight in imitating. The other is suddenly oneself: we are at once a beastly-human and a human-beast. Generating Alarm: Activating Insight Deutsche Bahn is another video of extremely short length, lasting just eleven seconds.
Nonetheless, the film weaves and holds the viewer in a spell, or more precisely leaves them holding their breath: accompanied by a deafening drone similar to that of a jackhammer or a helicopter, the video shows from above a section of a lighthouse which is about to be swamped by a surging wave. The precarious aspect of the situation: the viewer is witness to a frightening scene, with a man, tiny in the perspective of the camera, stepping out of the lighthouse door, completely oblivious of the danger he has just exposed himself to and so helplessly at the mercy of the fate about to befall him.
But before the wave engulfs him, the film abruptly ends. For a few seconds there is a blacked-out sequence, and then the film restarts from the beginning.
We have no idea how the drama ends. At the very last minute he was able to escape back inside, reported the magazine mare. The photographer Jean Guichard had captured from the helicopter the moment directly before. The photo became world famous and is unrepeatable […]. It was this noise — the accompanying caption states it clearly — that had put the life of the keeper at risk; it was the reason why he had stepped out of the lighthouse in the first place. But without the helicopter there would never have been a spectacular image.
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With the replicated perspective and the noise the viewer is automatically placed in the role of the photographer sitting in the helicopter. Here mimesis serves to enable the viewer to relive — again and again — the scenario, contrary to the unrepeatable claim made by the magazine text. The imitation of reality and art induce us, on the one hand, to query the craving for sensational images; on the other hand, it appropriates for itself the obtrusive aggressiveness.
It generates alarm, leaving the viewer perturbed. Picking up on earlier employed forms and materials and setting them in new contexts has the character of an inner process, extracting a further, topical facet from their qualities. This is strikingly evident in a work developed for the Folkestone Sculpture Triennial, which brings the notion of mimicry, already implanted in Whitish from p. For example in the Berlin version of Imitating Lines from p. Self-referentiality possesses an important ancillary function: it enables Erkmen to produce variants and so keep up with the ever-increasing invitations to take part in exhibitions.
The artist is all too aware that this demands a balance between an enlivening and solidifying allusion to her earlier work. In this vein, she has accompanied the conception of the present Berlin exhibition, which ties into that of the catalogue as an attempt to provide a survey of her work, with skepticism, doubting whether an exhibition planned as a retrospective, which may match her created work in quality and quantity but not its essence, is capable of conveying and sustaining the newness of the unexpected.
They are not to know from the outset how they are to deal with it. It has to seem as if it has come about by chance. As if something has happened. Ikon Gallery, Birmingham, Manchester , p. The quote from Edgar Wind used here as a motto is taken from this issue, ibid, p. Secession, Vienna , p. The circumstances are special and the meeting at first one-sided, for Jane, meanwhile working in a peepshow, cannot see the male customer on the other side of the mirrored pane of glass.
In this interaction oscillating between painful alienation and a gentle drawing nearer to one another, the glass pane mirrored on one side is an ingenious device. Via a monitor, the viewer could marvel at Nastassja Kinski alias Jane with her subtle facial expressions and pink angora sweater in infinite loop. The editing out of the male film partner was a minor but extremely decisive intervention, involuntarily catapulting passers-by into the role of the film figure Travis and thus entangling them in a web of attraction and voyeurism, of coming closer and timidity.
Nonetheless, it has left a lasting impression on me. Perhaps this is because here, with the help of the device of the one-sided mirrored glass, a motif — ultimately invisible! This was particularly evident in the work Portiport, which was shown in Frankfurt the same year as The Pink Sweater. Portiport was part of the opening exhibition in the series Zuspiel held in the Kunsthalle Portikus.
For this purpose she chose seven industrially manufactured metal detectors and placed them between the Corinthian columns of the stylized neo-classicist portico to the former Frankfurt city library, at the time home to the Portikus, a gallery for contemporary art. Most visitors interpreted the transposing of these security detectors into an artistic context as an allusion to a latent threat.
For foreign visitors, who — like the artist herself — were used to the everyday surveillance of public places and buildings like hotels, bars and cinemas in their various native countries, the detectors had a more reassuring impact, conveying a sense of security. No matter how different the reactions calculated by Erkmen may have been, the work resulted in a heightened perceptual sensibility of the site itself, for in the moment of transition from one area to another it also marked modes of inclusion and exclusion.
I want to form a condensation of reality. There are undoubtedly connecting elements and congruencies in her works, for example a certain visual reduction of the minimal artistic interventions, as well as frequent linguistic-textual markings. The actual works are preceded by an intensive study and consideration of the site, its history, its architecture and its social context.
In order to be able to respond to the specific circumstances of the site intended for a work, the artist must first nurture and develop a feeling for this site. And I want to be the person in-between who helps these things to become visible. Of course these do not have to be logical reasons, they are my reasons. The posters feature portraits of a young woman looking thoughtfully and aloofly at the camera and a pensive young man smoking.
Both persons are relatives of Erkmen, her grandmother and great uncle; they were separated in the wake of the political events triggered by the genocide of the Armenians around , during which their father was killed. While the sister stayed in Istanbul, the brother emigrated to Khartoum in Sudan. Official ceremonies are held here on national holidays, so too demonstrations in support of various causes. Between and almost a million Armenians lost their lives, but Turkish authorities have refused to recognise that the murders and expulsions of this period constituted genocide, deploying any means to prohibit publications claiming the contrary.
The charge was later dropped on the grounds of a legal technicality. Although she employs posters in advertising boards, her artistic intervention in public space is anything but loud, intrusive or attentionseeking; once again it is succinct and precise, the means are extremely reduced, her artistic strategy subtle, indeed subversive. While the artist has revealed the fates befalling the portrayed persons in an interview with the journal Radikal, and so disclosed the historical-political context and the political brisance of the work, not every passerby needs to know about the complexity of the work or indeed understand it.
Erkmen had seen illustrations of various types of landmines in a Red Cross catalogue and artistically reworked them in a diverse array of variations: produced in wood, cast in ceramic, embossed on tiles, computer-animated, employed as a screensaver like in to save, staged as a seductive consumerist object in shop windows. Daniel B. Hauptmann's " Die Versunkene Glocke.
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- Principles of Osteoimmunology: Molecular Mechanisms and Clinical Applications;
Early Influence of German Literature in America. Frederick H. Wordsworth and Wilhelm Muller. Elizabeth A. Adolf Gerber. Syntax der Rieser Mundart. Egestorff's Translation of Klopstock's " Messias. Germanic Etymologies Francis A. Walther's " Fourth Group" of Bible Translations.
Goethe's Vorklage C. William Prettyman. James Taft Hatfield and Elfrieda Hochbaum. Wilhelm Hauff's " Lichtenstein. Eggert, Goethe's Iphigenie auf Tauris. Hermann B. As Volume I will soon be exhausted it has been found necessary to limit the sale of separate numbers. Back numbers can be had as follows: Volume I, Nos. Volume II, Nos. It must certainly be regarded as a curious fact that that very scene of the Classical Walpurgis-Night, which seems to have been conceived first of all, and was the principal cause for the composition of the whole Night, should finally neither have found a place in the second nor in the third act of Goethe's Faust.
Various explanations of this have been advanced. Loeper supposed that Goethe convinced himself that the scene might dramatically be dispensed with. But we now know that Goethe clung to it until after he had finished the entire Wal- purgis-Night. Veit Valentin maintains: 'die strenge Folge- richtigkeit seiner Entwickelung der Handlung verbot es ihm Goethe , in die durch Zauber fur eine Nacht lebendig gewor- dene Geisterwelt eine Handlung einzuschalten, die in der mit bleibendem Dasein ausgestatteten natiirlichen Wirklichkeit der antiken Gotterwelt vor sich gehen miisste.
Richard Meyer says : ' der geal- terte Dichter traute sich dann doch die Kraft dieser Rede Fausts vor Proserpina nicht mehr zu,' an explanation to which one should only resort after all others have failed. Calvin Thomas thinks that it was 'probably because, in addition to the intrinsic difficulties of the theme, Goethe perceived that it would not really render the fiction of the third act any more intelli- Evolution of the Walpurgis-Night and the Scene in Hades.
Whatever of truth there may be in the one or other of these explanations they have not touched upon the principal reason. This principal reason must be sought in the peculiar and rather unforeseen evolution of the Walpurgis-Night, which shall be traced in the following pages. The prose outline of the Classical Walpurgis-Night is gradu- allv evolved from June 10, , to December 17 of the same year, and mainly between November 9 and December During the next three years there are few evidences of work, though the great thought which changed the whole aspect of the Night, the transformation of Homunculus from a chemical manikin into an entelechy belongs to that period.
The bulk of the continuous poetical work was accomplished between Janu- ary 1? After an interruption of two months and a half the work was resumed again June 12, and apparently finished in a very short time, for June 18 an outline of the scene in Hades appears under the title of a prologue to the third act, and in a letter of June 25 the completion of the Classical Wal- purgis-Night is mentioned in a manner which shows that it is no longer uppermost in Goethe's mind.
At some date between June 18, , and February 17, , the scene in Hades was also abandoned in the form of a prologue to the third act, for the entry of the latter date in Goethe's diary, which is corrobc- rated by a notice of Eckermann's, says: ' Wurde das Manuscript vom 2. Theil des Faust in eine Mappe geheftet,' and three days later we read in the same place : 'John vollbrachte das Ein- heften der drey ersten Acte von Faust im Manuscript. The introduction to the Helena drama of June 10, , gives nothing but an adumbration of the scene in Hades.
The remainder of the Wal- purgis-Night is still wanting. The schemes of November 9 and 10? The scene in Hades is outlined more definitely, and even the arguments of the speech before Proserpina are given, while the name of the speaker, probably Manto, is not indicated. The Anki'nidiguiig of the Helena drama of December 17, based on a draft of December 15, gives an elaborate outline of all events between the close of the first part and the beginning of the Helena drama, in lines, of which are devoted to the Classical Walpurgis-Night, and 40 to the scene in Hades.
Now the laboratory scene is immediately connected with the Walpurgis-Night. Homunculus, who is a ' wohlgebildetes Zwerglein,' not an entelechy, declares that the classical Wal- purgis-Night is taking place during that very night and upon this statement Faust, Mephistopheles, Homunculus and Wagner start at once for Thessaly. Strange to say, Wagner alone has a definite purpose in view. He takes a bottle with him in which to collect the elements for a chemical mate of Homunculus.
At first the travelers meet with Hrichtho and Erichthonius. The latter soon develops an affection for Homunculus which elicits malicious remarks from Mephistopheles. Faust, not Mephistopheles, engages in an abstruse conversation with a Sphinx, which becomes still more confused by a Griffin and an Ant joining in it. Kmpusa, who here enters separately, causes restless impatience by ever new transformations. The Sphinxes, Griffins and Ants appear multiplied innumerably, and all mon- sters of antiquity ' Chimaeren, Tragelaphe, Gryllen' and num- berless many-headed serpents are running to and fro.
Harpies circle about like bats, Python comes in several specimens, and the Stymphalian birds are whizzing through the air. Part of those present rush toward the sea. The travelers pay little attention to all this. Homunculus picks up phosphorescent atoms for the chemical woman. Wagner puts them in his bottle and is beset by countless ghosts of Pompejans and Csesareans who try in vain to possess themselves of those atoms with a view to a regular resurrection of their bodies.
Then the attention is directed toward the centre of the plain where Enceladus, in order to glorify this night, is causing an earthquake and forming a new mountain ridge. Natural phil- osophers, Thales and Auaxagoras, who on such an occasion could not be lacking, get into a violent dispute concerning the phe- nomenon, the one upholding the Neptunistic and the other the Plutonic theory.
Auaxagoras predicts a shower of meteors which fall immediately thereafter from the moon. For that he is praised by the crowd as a demigod while his opponent is forced to retreat to the sea. After the shower of meteors and the retreat of Thales, Pygmies come swarming forth from the chasms of the new mountain and avail themselves of the upper arms and shoulders of the giant as a play and dancing ground,, while myriads of Cranes, screaming, circle about his head and his hair, as if the latter were impenetrable forests, and announce an enjoyable contest before the close of the general festival.
Meanwhile Mephisto has made the acquaintance of Enyo. Though her grand homeliness almost causes him to lose his composure and become insulting, he restrains himself, tries to gain her influence on account of her high ancestors and makes a treaty with her, the open conditions of which are not of much consequence, while the secret ones are all the more important. The transformation is not mentioned as such.
A pedagogical conversation with this 'Urhofmeister' is, though not interrupted, at least disturbed by the Lamiae who keep passing between Faust and Chiron and would have led Faust astray, if he had not received 'das hochste Gebild der Schonheit' in his mind. Chiron meanwhile explains the max- ims according to which he has instructed the Argonauts and Achilles, but is sorry to say that they lived and acted afterward just as if they had not been educated.
When he hears of Faust's intention, he is glad to meet once more a man who desires the impossible, offers him his assistance, carries him through all the fords and sands of Peneus, shows him where Per- seus caught his breath on his flight from the Romans, and takes him to the foot of Mount Olympus. There they meet a long pro- cession of Sibyls, many more than twelve. Chiron describes them as they pass by and commends his charge to Manto, the thoughtful and kindly daughter of Tiresias. The latter reveals to Faust that the way to Orcus is just about to open, and when it does open they begin the descent.
On their path they meet the head of Gorgo and, if Manto had not thrown her veil over Faust, neither a trace of his body nor of his soul would ever have been found again in the uni- verse. They arrive at the crowded court of Proserpina, by whom Faust is welcomed as another Orpheus though his request is found a trifle singular. Manto makes a speech in which she asks for Helena's release on the strength of the precedents in the cases of Protesilaus, Alceste, Eurydice and Helena herself.
The queen is moved to tears and gives her consent. The three judges to whom they are directed find that the other time Helena had been allowed to return to Hades on condition that she be limited to the island of Leuce. Now she is to return to Sparta only and to appear there truly alive, while it is left to her suitor to win her favor. Here the Helena drama begins. In this outline the four travelers wander through the Classi- 6 Evolution of the Walpurgis-Night and the Scene in Hades. Their adventures predominate over the description of the characters and events of the Walpurgis-Night proper at the ratio of two to one.
The action of Seismos, now still called by the mythological name of Hnceladus, takes place and is duly commented upon by the philosophers, but the possibility of a living counterpart, which was contained in Hoinunculus, had not yet been discovered by the poet, nor did Galatea offset the Phorkyads. All events are merely strung together and no attempt at real dramatic compo- sition has yet been made because a leading idea to bind up the whole is still lacking.
The actors of the land are partly the same as in the final form, but their elemental natures or inter- ests have not yet been made prominent and only the Pygmies and Cranes are connected with Seismos. The Sirens are so far the only representatives of the sea.
The entrance of any of the great gods, except Proserpina, or of any of the heroes was con- templated now just as little as afterward. A month later, in January, , the speech before Proserpina, probably by a lapse of memory on the part of Goethe or Eckermann attributed to Faust instead of Manto, is mentioned once more.
After that there is no further information concerning the poet's occupa- tion with the work until Lines must have been composed on or after August 29? That is, leaving out of account the last item, because it is on the very threshold of the year , some desultory work on the scene with the Sphinxes, Griffins, Ants and Ari- maspeans, where Mephistopheles had taken the place of Faust, had been done previous to the last days of the year That Goethe's plans of the Classical Walpurgis-Night had in the mean time undergone far greater changes may, however, be A.
Fanst was now so deeply affected with his longing for Helena that he had to be carried to Thessaly in order to be restored to consciousness. Hence he could no longer be employed as a vehicle for the exposition and, as we have seen above, Mephis- topheles had taken that place. Mephistopheles went to Thes- saly to satisfy his amorousness with the Lamiae. Hence these had to be transferred from Faust to him.
Homunculus had no longer a body but started out to find one. Hence the adventures with Erichthonius and Erichtho and with the ghosts of the Pompejans and Cesareans had to be abandoned and the sea scene added. Wagner had lost his purpose and hence was compelled to stay at home. Thus the great outlines of the Classical Walpurgis-Night must have been fixed before, January 1, or thereabouts, the continuous work on it was begun. January 17 Goethe reads to Eckermann the scene of Mephis- topheles with the Griffins and Sphinxes, parts of which had been written so long ago.
January 20 he reads to him the scene 1 wo Faust nach der Helena fragt und der Berg entsteht,' the latter probably being a fragment, part of which at least had been composed during the last days of the preceding year. January 24 work has been commenced on the scene with Chiron which at that time was not intended to contain all it does now, because even in the revised form of the scheme of February 6, ' Chiron iiber Manto sprechend Fausten bey ihr einfuhrend.
Uberein- kunft ' still follows after the sea scene ; he hopes to be done ' in ein paar Monaten. Auch gehe der Gegenstand mehr ausein- ander als er gedacht. March 1 Eckermann expresses his astonishment at the size to which the manuscript had grown within the few weeks, that is about since January March 7 Goethe has been obliged to lay aside his Walpurgis-Night because of other pressing work. As the diary informs us, this time was utilized by the copyist for the ' Hauptmunclum. The same conclusion is reached from the fact that he then was still in hopes of finishing the whole Walpurgis-Night that includes at that time, as we shall see hereafter, the scene in Hades before Eckermann left for Italy, that is by the middle of April.
In spite of this the work comes to a sudden standstill no more than one week later, for after March 28 the entries in the diary concerning work on Faust cease. Only after a lapse of two months and a half the Walpurgis-Night is taken up again and apparently finished June 17 or 18, or very shortly afterward.
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In order to discover the cause of this delay we must try to determine the exact state of the work during the period from March 28 to June In the first place the notes given above show that the work on the sea scene had been commenced, while the existence of lines , , , on the back of a play bill of June 12, , prove that it had not yet been completed. In the second place the scheme of February 6, as was mentioned above, gives part of the scene of Faust with Chiron after the sea scene which makes it probable that that part had not been finished either.
The fact that lines A. Hence apparently part of the close of the sea scene, part of the scene of Faust with Chiron and Manto and the scene in Hades were lacking at the time. A similar though not quite so definite a conclusion may be reached by a careful examination of Eckermann's letter to Goethe of September 14, , in which he says : ' Zu meiner grossen Freude habe ich aus einem Hirer letzten Briefe in Genua ersehen, dass die Liicken und das Ende der ' Classischen Walpurgisnacht ' gliicklich erobert worden.
Die drei ersten Acte waxen also vollkommen fertig, die ' Helena ' verbunden, und deinnach das Schwierigste gethan. Thence they were forwarded to Genoa where Eckermann and Goethe's son were staying at the time, who left there in the early morning of July The only notice concerning the Walpurgis-Night is in the letter of June 25 and reads : ' Wenn Eckermann, bey soviel Lockungen und Verfiihrungen, noch beysammen und ein riickwarts blickender Mensch geblieben ist, so sag ihm : Die Walpurgisnacht sey vollig abgeschlossen, und wegen des fernerhin und weiter Nothigen sey die beste Hoffuung.
This inference of his own again can only be based on his knowledge of the manuscript of the Walpurgis- Night which Goethe let him have April 14, and which he dis- cussed with him on the 18th, four days before his departure. Hence the Walpurgis-Night had ' Liicken ' and lacked the ' Ende ' at that time. Now good fortune will have it that the Goethe and Schiller archives actually possess a manuscript which offers the Wal- io Evolution of the Walpurgis-Night and the Scene in Hades. It bears on its ' Umschlag ' in Goethe's own handwriting the title : ' Classische Walpurgisnacht erstes Mundum.
In the former case it would contain at least all the continuous work down to March 13, and possibly also the not very large amount done during the next two weeks, in the latter it would comprise everything down to March This manuscript has Liicken ' and lacks the 1 Ende' though most of those ' Liicken ' were rather gaps on the paper than in the composition and hence never filled.
It is stitched together and hence was fit to be given out of the house. It is not only stitched together but it was also never completed though there are several empty pages at the close. Hence it represents the state of the work when it had come to a stand- still and reached a temporary conclusion. For all these reasons it may not only be maintained that this manuscript is the iden- tical one which Eckermann examined the ' zweyte Reinschrift ' does not seem to have been put together till February of the following year , but also that it represents the state of the Classical Walpurgis-Night between March 28 and June 12, barring some separate groups of lines and possibly a few addi- tions made by Goethe during that period which did not seem to him as of enough importance to chronicle in his diary.
According to the ' Erstes Mundum ' the state of the Classical Walpurgis-Night from April to June was, therefore, as follows : The first scene was completed. The scene with Chiron ended with Chiron's account of Hercules, the relation of the Argo- nauts being put in parentheses. The following scene lacked only the twenty lines of the monologue of Mephistopheles, which precedes the entrance of the Lamiae, since lines and which are now not counted as part of the manuscript belonged to it formerly.
The sea scene lacks the A. The important matters which had not yet been finished therefore were : the second part of the scene with Chiron including Manto's part, the procession of Galatea with the wonder of Homunculus, and the scene in Hades. That the scene in Hades was still being seriously con- templated at the time when the close of the scheme of February 6 was revised is proved by the very fact of that revision. If Goethe had not actually thought of writing the scene, he would not have gone to the trouble of altering its plan.
That it was still intended early in March, when the space for the remainder of the scene with Chiron was left, appears from the smallness of that space which suffices at most for lines. This could, therefore, have accommodated only the conversation about Helena and Manto so that at least the arrival at Manto's and her promise of aid must still have been planned for the place after the sea scene where we found them in the revised form of the scheme of February 6.
This arrival at Manto's and her promise of aid, however, could not stand alone and forlorn by themselves, but needed the scene in Hades for an appiti. That it had not been abandoned in April either may finally be inferred again from the letter of Eckermann quoted above. For if Goethe in his conversation with him on April 18 had hinted at the possibility of embodying the scene in Hades in the third act, Eckermann would not have said in reply to the com- munication concerning the completion of the Classical Walpur- gis-Night : ' die drei ersten Acte waren also vollkommen fertig, die 'Helena' verbunden, und demnach das Schwierigste gethan.
What was now the cause of the sudden halt in the work and the long delay in its completion? It was not Eckermann's absence because he did not leave till April 22 when Goethe had expected to be done. The only answer is that, as Goethe thought seriously of the conclusion of the sea scene, he became conscious of the great difficulty, if not impossibility, of retaining the scene in Hades under the circumstances and yet very naturally was extremely reluctant to sacrifice that very scene from which the entire Walpurgis-Night had grown and which would have furnished the most appropriate prepara- tion for the entrance of Helena.
Whether, as seems to result from our preceding deductions, this was the time when the scene in Hades was excluded, or whether it had been given up a little while before, the development of the poetic Walpurgis- Xight had deviated so far from the old prose outline that the scene had to be excluded for dramatic reasons. This is the proposition which will now be proved by an examination of the dramatic structure of the Walpurgis-Night. Before beginning this examination, however, a word must be said upon the work as a whole. The Classical Walpurgis-Night contains a wonderful wealth of thought and imagery.
The lover of Greek mythology finds here not only the characters of the land and the sea which speak and act and appear on the stage, but also much else which the study of Greek poetry and art has endeared to him. He beholds the Titans playing ball with Ossa and Pelion. He perceives Zeus with his thunderbolt enthroned on Mount Olympus or battling with his brother in the fury of storm and sea. He sees Leto ending her wanderings on the newly-risen island of Delos and her son Apollo leading a blissful life with the chorus of the Muses on Parnassus. In the same way the characters and events of the heroic age unfold before his mental eye.
Hercules, hero of heroes, is seen, and the Argonauts, each in turn ; L,eda and Zeus, Helena freed from Theseus and wedded to Achilles, Orpheus descending to Hades and Oedipus pausing before the A. Then is a vision of Paris and the Iliad extending to the fall of Troy, and of Ulysses and the Odyssy from the cun- ning of Circe and the horrors of the Cyclops to the hospitable shores of Scheria. But the naturalist also finds much to interest him. Seismos is not only mythological personage but elemental phenomenon. The Sirens speak at times as representatives of Neptunism, while Anaxagoras and Thales maintain a scientific standpoint throughout.
The ancient god of transformation expounds the modern laws of evolution and the flames of Homunculus on the sea are first regarded as a manifestation of Eros and immediately afterward as the element of fire. To mythology and science, which with the greatest art are blended into one is added much other thought and suggestion, and according to Goethe's own admission some ' gute Spasse ' and some ' Piquen ' withal.
The examination of the dramatic structure of this wonderful work should be made from the standpoint of the work itself and not from that of the drama as a whole. The Faust tragedy does not conform to the ordinary dramatic rules, but has standards of its own. Says Goethe to Eckermanu concerning the fourth act : ' Dieser Act bekommt wieder einen ganz eigenen Charakter, sodass er, wie eine filr sich bestehende kleiue Welt, das iibrige nicht beriihrt und nur durch eineji leisen Bezug zu dem Vorhergehenden und dem Folgenden sich dem Ganzen anschliesst.
Dem Dichter liegt daran, eine mannigfaltige Welt auszusprechen, und er beuutzt die Fabel eines beriihmten Helden bios als eine Art von durchgehender Schnur, um darauf aneinanderzureihen was er Lust hat. Its subject is the contrast of the world of the land and its wonder, the action of Seismos, which is followed by the fall of the rock from the moon, with the world of the sea and its wonder, the beginning by Homunculus of corporeal existence or the evolution of animal life.
These aristeias of the land and of the sea can of course not lead up to the appearance of Helena, but have another scope which was also acknowledged by Goethe himself when he wrote to Eckermann : ' ich. Homunculus reveals to Mephistopheles the existence and the date of the Night and actuates him to go. Faust here retrieves his consciousness which he has lost at the close of the first act and, even without the scene in Hades, makes us reason- ably expect that his descent in the company of Manto and with her good cheer will have a share in bringing about the entrance of Helena in the third.
Mephistopheles meets the Phorkyads whose shape he considers so useful for himself that he assumes it until the end of the next act. But all this, possibly with the exception of the Phorkyads, is purely episodical from the stand- point of the leading events of the Walpurgis-Night proper.
Faust himself disappears before they have really commenced. He appreciates Greece, but he does so because it is Helena's country. He has a glance for the Sphinxes, the Sirens, the Ants and the Griffins and expresses his sentiments concerning them and the recollections connected with them in the grand line: Gestalten gross, gross die Erinnerungen, A. Indeed, it is almost surprising that this Faust should still engage in a conversation about the Argonauts instead of asking at once after Helena, and it is only natural that at one time Goethe actually thought of sacrificing that paragraph as is learned from the parentheses in the 'Erstes Mundum.
He does not notice the rumble of the earthquake which disturbs the rest of Peneus, and he is gone when the action of Seismos begins in good earnest. Chiron and Manto, with whom he has most to do, do not meet with any of the other main actors of the Walpurgis-Night, and seem to exist only for him. Mephistopheles, to be sure, does not stand quite so much aloof from the central action. The amorousness which has been aroused in him by the prospect of meeting the Lamiae domi- nates his sentiments, but does not preoccupy him to the exclu- sion of everything else. Until he sees the witches he is, therefore, especially on account of his ignorance of most things ancient, quite a suitable, and at the same time humorous, vehicle of dramatic exposition.
After he has caught sight of the objects of his longing, however, only his fear of getting lost retains him for another moment between the Sphinxes and, as soon as that fear is allayed, he starts in pursuit of the Lamiae hoping for what he considers the greatest of pleasures. Denn wenn es keine Hexen gabe, Wer Teufel mochte Teufel sein! In Mephistopheles' eyes even the action of Seismos is a Brocken feat : Das heiss' ich frischen Hexenritt, Die bringen ihren Blocksberg mit. Nothing of the geological standpoint here which he occupies in the fourth act.
While thus the Night would not be any longer a Walpurgis-Night without Mephistopheles and the Lamiae, the action of Seismos, and what clusters around it, would be just as complete without them. The Lamiae do not seem to pay any attention to it at all, and Mephistopheles, though respecting it as a Walpurgis-Night feat, is filled by it only with the fear of not refinding his landmarks. Dramatically he does not become useful ag-ain until he elicits the words from the Oreas which contrast the old mountain with the new and lead over to the Phorkyads who, by their very nature, are debarred from joining the other characters.
In Xacht geboren, Nachtlichem verwandt, Beinah tins selbst, ganz alien unbekannt. Only Homunculus, as we shall see hereafter, is both a most attentive witness of the principal action of the land and an absolutely indispensable factor of the action of the sea. The Night begins with the prologue of Erichtho and the descent and separation of the travelers. This is followed by the exposition proper which prepares the way for the designs of Faust and Mephistopheles and introduces the three principal purely mythological actors of the land existing at that time, the Sphinxes, the Griffins and the Ants, and the Sirens, the chorus of the sea.
The great turmoil of monsters for which the prose outline provided has wisely been discarded. Seismos and Homunculus, the impersonations of the wonders of the land and of the sea, are A. While the Ants show greed for gold, the Griffins both that and inhospitability toward Mephistopheles, the Sphinxes kindness toward Mephistopheles and Faust but distrust toward the Sirens, the last proclaim love and joy and a cheerful welcome to every one.
The first rumble of Seismos, which disturbs Peneus in his dreams, gives us a premonition of what is to come. The real action of Seismos, which constitutes the wonder of the land, does not begin, however, till the episode with Chiron and Manto is closed and we return to the Sirens, Sphinxes, Griffins and Ants. In the very moment before the great earthquake the Sirens, speaking this time like philosophers whose mission it is to convince the ill-starred believers in the Plutonic theory of their sad error, proclaim their: Ohne Wasser ist kein Heil!
Horrified and ready to flee they extend a most courteous invitation to all to accompany them to the sea : Fort! Schauderhaft ist's um den Ort. Now Seismos, mythological personage and elemental phe- nomenon in one, has his sway. The Sphinxes, who look upon his action from the mythological standpoint, detest and defy it. The Griffins and Ants make an effort to enrich themselves by it.
His own larger creatures, the Pygmies, overbearingly enslave their smaller kin and the helpless Ants, and wantonly slay the peaceable Herons. The Cranes of Ibycus prepare revenge. Meanwhile the scene with the Lamiae and what follows pro- ceeds. The Oreas declares the mountain of Seismos a ' Gebild des Walius. Allein was ich bisher gesehn, Hinein da mocht' ich mich nicht wagen. Then the philosophers appear. To this Thales confidently retorts: Im Feuchten ist Lebendiges entstanden and in the next moment Homunculus, who is to be the visible proof of this theory and to set the wonder of Seismos at naught, asks permission to join them.
Soon the Cranes begin to wreak bloody revenge upon the cruel Pygmies, and the rock from the moon by means of which Anaxagoras attempts to save his people crushes both friend and enemy. Thales turns away from this spectacle, saying: 'Es was nur gedacht. With this they leave for the sea, where Homunculus will stand a better chance.
Nun fort zum heitern Meeresfeste, Dort hofft und ehrt man Wundergaste. Now comes still the last manifestation of the land ; after the A. Thus we finally arrive by the sea, whose praise the Sirens have sung and where Thales expects more comfort for Homun- culus and himself.
Nor are we disappointed. After the disgust, greed, bloodshed, hatred, death and hideousness which we have just witnessed, we find joy, good-will, peace, love, life and beauty. While the principal action of the land was delayed by the scene with Chiron and Manto, retarded by the episode with the Iyamiae and only loosely connected with the Phorkyads, the sea scene is both well engrafted upon the preceding part of the Night and continuous and well rounded in itself. Two actions, closely intertwined from the outset and rising higher and higher, tend to a double climax in one.
The one of these actions is the preparation for the appearance of Galatea which culminates in the arrival of her train, the other is the progress of Homunculus which reaches its supreme point when he commences corporeal existence at her feet. The Sirens, the ' Damonen ' of the bay, call on fair Luna not to allow herself to be dragged impiously down from the sky, but to shine gracefully and peacefully on the concourse on the glit- tering waves below.
The lovely sounds of this invocation allure the Nereids and Tritons from the deep. Both the Nereids and Tritons and the Sirens wish for the propitious presence of the Cabiri, and the former hasten to Samothrace in their quest. In the mean time, Thales and Homunculus apply for advice to Nereus.
The aged god tells them that his bad experiences with Paris and Ulysses have made him loath of counseling and begs them not to spoil his rare humor. He is looking forward to the arrival of his daughters, the Graces of the sea, whose beauty has no equal either in Olympus or on the land, and he rejoices especially in anticipation of seeing Galatea, the most beautiful of all, the heiress of Venus' temple and chariot of shell.
Yet the very thought of the honor and beauty of his most beloved daughter softens his heart and he realizes that he should not deny advice. Hinweg zu Proteus! Fragt den Wundermann : Wie man entstehn und sich verwandeln kann. Now the Nereids and Tritons return with the fabulous gods of Samothrace, the saviours of the shipwrecked, whose presence is another guarantee of the peace of the night. Wir bringen die Kabiren, Ein friedlich Fest zu fiihren; Denn wo sie heilig walten, Neptun wird freundlich schalten.
While the Sirens affirm their devotion for them and both they and the Nereids and Tritons continue their praise, Homunculus and Thales exchange a less favorable remark which is echoed by Proteus, who though heard is not yet seen. For a few moments the god of transformation eludes Thales and Homunculus by his usual tricks, but Thales is a friend of his and knows how to deal with him. So Proteus appears in human form, becomes interested in the ' leuchtendZwerglein,' and gives even more information than he was asked. He does not only state how Homunculus must commence existence, but adds to this a word about his further evolution, because unlike to the further development of the action of Seismos this could not be repre- sented on the stage.
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Im weiten Meere must du aubeginnen! Da fangt man erst im Kleinen an Und freut sich Kleinste zu verschlingen, Man wachs't so nach und nach heran Und bildet sich zu hoherem Vollbringen. At the same time Proteus' words are as it were confirmed by Homunculus himself. He is pleased with the soft air of the sea and has a presentiment that it will be conducive to his growth. Hier weht gar eine weiche Luft, Es grunelt so und mir behagt der Duft! Still further to assure the success of this procession, the Telchines of Rhodes arrive with the trident of Neptune as the most certain pledge of the continuance of the peace and tranquillity of the sea.
Heartily welcomed by the Sirens, they speak wonderful lines in praise of Helios and Rhodes. Yet what they say about the statues which they have pro- duced does not meet with the approval of Proteus and, once more and for the last time, land and sea are directly contrasted. Thus Homunculus is taken out into the sea in order to be wedded to the ocean, and both Thales and Proteus avail them- selves of this opportunity to emphasize once more his evolution. Not by any sudden or violent procedure, but according to eternal laws, he will slowly grow from stage to stage to man.
Now everything is ready for the double climax. Galatea's train with all its glory is at hand. Doves announce it ; Psylli and Marsi conduct it ; amid the circles of her sisters, who bring with them sailor boys they have lovingly saved from death, Galatea herself appears on her resplendent chariot of shell, drawn by her dolphins.
The sight of her beauty inspires her aged father with joy and longing and raises Thales' conviction of the truth of his views and his enthusiasm for them to the highest pitch. Alles ist aus dem Wasser entsprungen! Alles wird durch Wasser erhalten! Ocean, gonn' mis dein ewiges Walten. If the ocean did not send clouds and create brooks, rivers and streams, what would be the mountains, the plains and the world?
Seismos claims are contradicted. A few moments more and Thales' dearest persuasion finds its visible and palpable demonstration. While in the volcanic disturbance of the land Homunculus could not find anything which appealed to him, in the gracious moisture of the sea all seems charmingly beautiful. In dieser holden Feuchte Was ich auch hier beleuchte 1st alles reizend schon. He can no longer control his longing. He strives toward Galatea ; the waters seem to be touched with the pulses of love, his glass is shattered against her shell 1 ; the wonder of the sea is accomplished.
The manner in which it is done is directly traceable to the Amor who guides Gala- tea's dolphins in Raphael's famous picture.