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- L'importation de la littérature hébraïque en France
- BIBLIOGRAPHIE DE LEÏLA SEBBAR
I could be wrong. For me, the master of this idiom is Henrik Ibsen. In England, of course, you have great philosophical-political-satirical theater dating back to George Bernard Shaw. In my country, the playwrights have tended to address psychological rather than political or philosophical themes. Let me take this occasion to put in a plug for my friend Alfred Boudry, who occasionally works for my French publisher, Au Diable Vauvert, and who has a written wonderful elliptical play called "Patience des Nuages," among others.
Quel accueil public et critique ont connu vos premiers romans? The title was "The Story of the Dog Family," and I would categorize it as a comedy-of-manners about talking canines. Evidently I stumbled upon my preferred genre, humorous fantasy, quite early in life. So I guess Emily Morrow was my first publisher. The hypothetical descendents of a self-extinguished humanity decide to put a handful of guilty survivors on trial for "crimes against the future" "Ainsi finit le monde".
And so on. The idea arrived in my brain as a vivid elongated image, a kind of Cinemascope movie shot of a supertanker towing an enormous human corpse. This experience was a lot less mystical than it sounds. Whose body is it? Where are they taking it? If God is dead, might not atheists be as distressed as believers, since their worldview has now been invalidated as well? Qu'en pensez-vous? Yes, I wanted these people to be quirky individuals as well, but their symbolic value came first, which perhaps limits their appeal.
But with "Le dernier chasseur" I was under no such constraints. Science fiction writers play the opposite game, taking abstractions and imagining them as physical realities. We turn symbolism on its head. Did you know that Jesus Christ is very concerned about your interest in God? Have a nice day. Voltaire and Benjamin Franklin and their peers, far from being the heroes of political progressives, were now seen as apologists for the repressive technocratic systems to come.
Meanwhile, the small but vocal New Age minority was continuing to espouse its usual anti-Enlightenment ethos, in which science becomes a rather superficial endeavor, disconnected from the cosmic essence of things. The terrible irony is that this almost universal rejection of the Enlightenment comes at a time when the Enlightenment is most needed. George Bush and Osama bin Laden are really two faces of the same coin, the debased currency of mindless theism.
Today I learned that in the state of Texas, adopted children are now being taken away from their gay parents and put in orphanages. So I would have to say — as you suggest — that the spirit of the witch hunts is still very much with us. Rouard made that choice. I shall probably go to my grave wondering what, if anything, this claim has in its favor. An American philosopher I admire, Thomas Nagel, says that God is a "place holder" — in the sense that a mathematician would use that concept. In other words, we plug the word "God" into the gaps in our knowledge, doing our best to forget that "God" actually explains nothing, because it immediately raises the question, "But how did God come to be?
Though I would add that, for me, the interesting problem is not "Does God exist? So on the evidence of this one case, I would say that I much admire Taoism.
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My tentative title is "Bigfoot and the Bodhisattva. Also, I wanted to implicitly satirize the provincialism of Western religion, particularly as it is practiced here in the United States. For most Christians in my country, the only religion that matters is their own, and the only God worth thinking about is the Jehovah of the Bible. My Corpus Dei is precisely that sort of artifact, a three-dimensional Rorschach test onto which various bewildered bystanders project their conflicting ideologies. Theatre in particular is a driving force of revolution for example, the rise of the drame as political manifestation , and one would expect it to enjoy a dramatic increase in popularity and therefore reception, as this was undoubtedly the genre for politics.
However successful a literary work from a female writer, this would never be enough for her to make a living. Indeed, as English Showalter outlined, writing for women at this time was not a livelihood, but merely a form of self-expression, if not an obsession. This was the Age of Enlightenment, an age of tolerance and freedom of expression, in its theories and philosophical discourse certain historical events may point to the contrary, however, such as the affaire Calas and affaire du chevalier de la Barre , two cases of injustice and intolerance through religious fanaticism.
It was a pan-European intellectual movement of the eighteenth century, thought to cover much of the seventeenth century too. Third is cultural emancipation, which stipulates that the emergence from immaturity is a historically progressive process, which is achieved on the personal level Sapere Aude! As long as the subject performs his duties to the state in the private sphere, he may engage in critical discourse in the public sphere. According to Kant, freedom to publish and debate publicly would gradually enable people to develop the tendency to free thought.
Once developed, this affects the character of a people, who, gradually, become more capable of free action, which would eventually influence government. Intellectual freedom must, therefore, precede and prepare the way for greater political and civil freedom, or in other words, Enlightenment. Enlightenment, however, is not just about reason. Regardless of any privileges or difficulties for women wishing to write in this Age of Enlightenment, there were many women who were writing, albeit from privileged backgrounds. As stated above, most of these women were writing not to make a living; rather, this was their need for self-reflection and expression.
Only when we get into the nineteenth century do we see women begin to make a living from their writing. There are several exceptions, such as Madame de Riccoboni, who was forced to make a living off her writing and theatre in the eighteenth century. A significant step in the development of journalism, the name refers to the classical god Mercury, the messenger of the gods and the god of commerce. The Mercure became the uncontested arbiter of literary taste and the paper of record for news about the court and court society for subscribers in the provinces.
Though the editorship was known to be in support of the Enlightenment project, the publication displayed a tone of reticence and restrain, and an apparent muted support. By ignoring the Church, they limited support for Enlightenment, in that they were promoting a secular view of the world. Marmontel briefly edited the journal between and , before moving onto the similar Journal des Dames.
At this time readership had grown from to between the years and Censer, Approaching Revolution, management of the periodical fell into the hands of Charles-Joseph Panckoucke. Napoleon ceased its publication in , but the review was resurrected in , and last published, under its present format, in until resurrected at the end of the nineteenth century, by Alfred Vallette and his fellow salonniers. Literary criticism in this age was still about the respect of established rules.
After the s, it turned to an analysis of the functions of literature and the comparative merits of each genre Dion, The evolution of the press in French Revolutionary society is also discussed in Darnton and Roche It is true to say that many women were writing during the Revolution both in France and abroad , despite their inability to make a living out of it, and despite their marginalised position in the literary canon and world of culture.
Many were taking to the genres in which they were under-represented. However, with their political pamphlets and theatrical pieces, they were innovating, to the extent that Mme de Gouges produced a political play.
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It is also true to say that theatre was a very active genre at this time. It is the only worthwhile night school for adults, the only means by which the public, the most unassuming and the most educated, can be put in touch with conflicts of the highest scale]. Despite this range of female writers, the state journal for France during the Revolutionary period reviewed virtually none of these authors.
The only female authors reviewed in the Mercure during the period to were:. It is interesting to note that both these authors are English women, and were reviewed in translation. While the project may seem disappointing in terms of the volume of results for the WomenWriters database, it did raise some interesting points about the development of the Mercure during the period , and the literary climate of the French Revolution — specifically it raised the question of why the state journal of the Revolution was not reviewing, and by implication supporting, the female talents of the day.
Although these findings are perhaps surprising, they do allow us to define a small corpus which we may examine in detail, and for this reason the analysis of these two reviews will form the basis of this article. The majority of literary work which was reviewed by the Mercure during the Revolution, apart from theatre, was non-fiction. This ranged from universally topical issues such as the dangers of smoking, to works which were indicative of their historical context, such as debates on education, divorce and associated morality, and the glorification of Jean-Jacques Rousseau, who tied into the debate on education, due to the nature of his works and theories.
The main literary genre and medium during the Revolutionary years was the theatre. Nearly plays were reviewed by the Mercure during the period , and it is very interesting to see when these plays were reviewed, ranging from 52 in , to one in This is indicative of the historical context, as one would expect that the production and reviewing of literature would decline sharply during the years of the Terror for more on the historical context, see Andress The total number of works of fiction that is to say novels mainly, but this also includes short stories and poetry reviewed during the period was 46, of which two were by female authors.
As for theatre, there were no women playwrights reviewed during the period. The total number of plays reviewed during the period was , which is broken down on the following graph:. In spite of the large number of women writing during the Revolutionary years, and of their innovations in doing so, none of these women were reviewed by the state journal during the period to In fact, there were only two women reviewed out of a total of fictional reviews, including theatre. Mrs Inchbald was born in into a family of middle-class Catholics in Suffolk, England, and was later to become one of the most famous female writers of her time.
She wrote not only novels, but was known as a critic and playwright too. Published in , seven years after the theatrical work Mogul Tale; or, The Descent of the Balloon which was to mark the beginning of her year career, A Simple Story was her first novel. This was an era that stipulated that all literature have a suitable moral lesson, and Mrs Inchbald provided one: women should have a proper education, an argument in contrast to that of Rousseau, who believed that women should be trained simply to please men.
It is therefore not difficult to see why this text was chosen by the editorship of the Mercure. This tight round basket existed in the Xth century. As for the second category, the basic constitution is made with wood. It is that which is employed to cross the streams or the rivers.
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The majority of the people who advance the sampans are young girls. This is why there are many stories of love born of these boats. If a Vietnamese man was used to crossing the river in his youth, this could probably incite in him intense regrets, memories and emotions when he has the occasion to return to the river bank to take the vat. He feels more or less distressed when he learns that the oarswoman, the girl whom he continues to pity the fate and whom he is not far from falling in love with is no longer there.
L'importation de la littérature hébraïque en France
Probably, she is now the mother of a family or she has joined another world but she is no longer there to welcome him with her charming and ingenuous smile. He is not long to recall that he no longer has the occasion to hear her refrain, or to see the sides of her worn tunic flying in the wind of the river during the crossing.
It is in this unusual context that he feels an indescribable affliction. He regrets missing so many occasions to find his dock, his river, his native land and to leave for too long in the lapse of memory the eternal charm of the sampan, that of a Viet-Nam bygone. She tries to hide him in her sampan. Once peace is returned, this young man becomes an important communist cadre. The girl tries to find him because she continues to harbor deep feelings for this man.
By reading the following verses,. The reader could realize that he is also caught up as so many other Vietnamese by memories that he thinks of erasing from his memory with the passing of the years. It is no longer worth seeing each other again It is best to leave definitively when one loves intensely. One misses the chance to be at the rendezvous One no longer hopes when the sampan has already left It is no longer worth seeing each other again It is best to leave definitively when one loves intensely.
What becomes of her at this moment? Is she dead or happy? Does she deserve the life she leads? One can go up or descend the current… of the river Love… one can go up or descend the current..
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These are the questions that the reader overcomed by memories continues to ask intimately. It is also the deep sadness, the poignant pain of the one who no longer has the occasion to find the freshness of his youth through the sampan and its dock which he was accustomed to take at a distant time.
Run my river Why be tormented? The river erases all Even memories of the heroes…. French version. His success was not slow.
BIBLIOGRAPHIE DE LEÏLA SEBBAR
This has provoked not only an earthquake in Vietnamese public opinion but also a hope to see draining in its trail a new generation of young writers without shady deal and having an independent and critical mind that seemed almost non-existent up until then in the Vietnamese literature. His readers including the diaspora find in him not only the talent of a writer but also the boldness to break the taboo and the unspoken kept until then by customs and a system fallen into disuse.
At present, he is considered a great Vietnamese writer. With his much sober style, he succeeds in sensitizing easily the reader because he uses metaphors and allusions with his raw language to describe the reality of today in Vietnam, the one with all alienation presently forming the social fabric of the country. Selecting typical situations and characters in his novels and tales, he makes us uncover with terror all the contradiction of the Vietnamese society, all the unbearable truths, the gangrene of the Bad, the collapse of moral values of a society.
He dares to display in public forum the collapse of a system, to scour the social flesh with his black humor and his freezing realism. He succeeds in showing us all the facets of society through his short and bare passages with a talent of a storyteller and that of a writer in total breaking off with the generation of writers compromising with the regime. If he succeeds in building news with an astonishing ease, it is a great deal due to his growing up in the countryside with his mother during his youth, and to his training as a historian when he attended teaching college in in Hanoi.
He preferred to stay in Vietnam in order to be able to write his tales, to reveal the true nature of a system and to express the anger and hidden feeling of a human being crushed by years in mud, war and deprivation. Although he has never been in politics, he is always a suspect in the eyes of the Vietnamese authorities because of his liberal words that shake state apparatus. He embodies the symbolic expression of the state of mind of the whole people in search of a stolen and lost treasure.
Review, have been fired. A campaign of denigration in the official media was launched in the past. Despite censorship, threats and intimidation, the courageous newspapers continue to publish today his collections. The characters in his tales are human beings sexually, morally and socially alienated. They are ordinary people that are thrown, by the ups and downs of life and the system, in perversion, humiliation, abuse, lunacy and profit. He expiates a mistake of not knowing how to protect himself. He prefers an honorable death to an ignominious life.
He was buried with all military honors. He was a great man. One sees profit and cronyism growing in all layers of society and new people. Each country has its own customs, said by Mr. Like everyone in Vietnam, he tries to find a solution to his daily needs and above all to give a meaning, a signification to his existence like his character Mr. In spite of a bitter heritage, he is at least content of the consolation though his tales and stories. It is a question no one can give an answer to. Only the future politics of Vietnam will tell us. English version. V ietnam possesses an important literature, ancient as well as modern.
Because of Chinese influence, the ancient literature was written in Chinese characters. The Vietnamese literature tried to develop and freed itself from the Chinese model since 15th century, not only in style but also in theme. It is one of the most beautiful monuments of the Vietnamese literature.