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Revista de Contabilidad-Spanish Accounting Review
  1. Desafios a la ponderacion
  2. Constitutional Adjudication In Colombia: Avant-garde or Case Law Transplant? A Literature Review
  3. Program on Information Science at MIT Libraries
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The Cambridge Law Journal 70, no. Kudlich, Hans and Ralph Christensen. Sieckmann, Jan-Reinard. Pawlowski, Hans-Martin. Winkler, Markus. Review Kingreen, Thorsten, Juristenzeitung 70 , Editorship 1. Reviews Simmonds, N. In: Jurisprudence 4 2 , S. Januar Nr. Klatt M ed , Jurisdiktionskonflikte Nomos Matthias Klatt III. Journal Articles 1. Universidad Externado de Colombia Matthias Klatt 9. Controle judicial ponderado: Trad.

DOI: Book Chapters and Commentaries 1. Walter de Gruyter Review: Lahusen, Benjamin. Neues Von Sprache und Recht. Marcial Pons, Jahrhun- dert. Alber Nomos T Feteris and others eds , Legal argu- mentation and the rule of law Eleven International Publishing Case Comments 1. Der Beschluss des Bundesver- fassungsgerichts vom 9. Das Urteil des Bundesverwaltungs- gerichts vom Higher Education 1. Indeed, the box plots of Fig. These results indicate an important flaw in the CSR-CI: its score is not robust for most of the firms, as shown by the uncertainty analysis. According to the sensitivity analysis, this uncertainty is due to missing data..

However, the problems we identified when constructing the CSR-CI show that these indices should not be used deliberately. We identified two types of problems: those related to the availability of information and those related to technical issues.. The first one was the lack of information concerning key social issues of the electric utilities. The second one was the lack of bottom-up established goals for the industry at the firm level.

The electricity utility industry need a global initiative stating social goals at the firm level which should be defined by their stakeholders Wilde-Ramsing, Problems in terms of technical issues were related to the properties of CSR data. Among them, we identified: mix of continuous and categorical indicators, non-normal distribution of indicators, lots of missing data, the presence of outliers, small sample sizes at the industry level and low correlations between indicators. These problems condition the weighting, normalization and aggregation methods chosen.. The homogenization of CSR measurement would minimize the impact of the mixed data problem, and better reporting should reduce missing data.

A third type of problem would be the normalization, weighting and aggregation methods, but this aspect was not explored in the paper in depth. However, as shown by the sensitivity analysis, the weighting scheme has a minor effect on a firm's shift in rank, especially if we compare it to the one caused by missing data. This suggests that missing data is a more important problem in the robustness of a CSR-CI than issues related to the normalization, weighting and aggregation of indicators.. This study also found that correlations among indicators may be low. This result is a consecuence of the multidimensionality of CSR.

Although CSR is multidimensional concept, this does not mean that a single measure capturing all its components, such as a CI, is an appropriate measure Wood, Another valuable finding is that uncertainty and sensitivity analyses should be performed to assess the robustness of the CSR-CI Singh et al. If we had not performed these analyses and had used the indicator to test hypotheses, we would have obtained misleading results.. It allows the quality of the information to be assessed as well as its properties.

We constructed a CSR-CI for measuring social outcomes in the electricity utility industry, describing the difficulties of working with CSR information and proposing solutions. The construction of a CSR-CI is a complex task requiring conditions which are difficult to meet in practice: perhaps an impossible mission.

The process entails subjective decisions which require an understanding of the CSR concept and an assessment of the properties of CSR indicators.. If we want reliable measures, their construction should be rigorous and transparent throughout the stages of the process and uncertainty and sensitivity analyses should always be performed..

Since this study questions the reliability of CSR-CI indicators, it also has implications for past research. We have not found any studies which applied uncertainty and sensitivity analyses to these ratings. Thus, these measures may have flaws similar to the ones identified in this study. Indeed, these ratings have been seriously criticized.

Although these organizations play a key role gathering and providing CSR information, what is questionable is the misuse of these ratings by researchers, since the final decision about which measure of CSR to choose is in our hands. This is a call to the academic community for more stringency when using aggregated measures of CSR in our research.. A limitation of this study is that the CI constructed is industry-specific and just focuses on the social dimension. However, since this industry was used for illustrative purposes, the properties and problems of CSR information identified remain valid..

The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest.. Hokkaido Electric Power Co. Consolidated Edison, Inc. Dominion Resources, Inc. Public Service Enterprise Group Inc. Tohoku Electric Power Co. Tokyo Electric Power Co.

Desafios a la ponderacion

Source : Asset4 database. Employment growth over the last year. Number of full- and part-time employees. Percentage of employee turnover. Does the company claim to provide a bonus plan to at least the middle management level? Does the company claim to provide its employees with a pension fund, health care or other insurances?

Total salaries and benefits divided by net sales or revenue. Has an important executive management team member or a key team member announced a voluntary departure other than for retirement or has been ousted? Total number of announced lay-offs by the company divided by the total number of employees. Has there has been a strike or an industrial dispute that led to lost working days? Does the company claim to provide day care services for its employees? OR Does the company claim to provide generous maternity leave benefits?

Does the company claim to provide generous vacations, career breaks or sabbaticals? OR Does the company claim to provide flexible working hours or working hours that promote a work-life balance? Total number of injuries and fatalities including no-lost-time injuries relative to one million hours worked. Percentage of employees represented by independent trade union organizations or covered by collective bargaining agreements.


Does the company claim to favor promotion from within? Does the company claim to provide regular staff and business management training for its managers? Does the company promote positive discrimination? OR Has the company won any prize or award relating to diversity or opportunity? Percentage of women managers. Average hours of training per year per employee.

Does the company report or show to use human rights criteria in the selection or monitoring process of its suppliers or sourcing partners? Does the company report or show to be ready to end a partnership with a sourcing partner if human rights criteria are not met? Does the company provide training on environmental, social or governance ESG factors for its suppliers?

Does the company distribute any low-priced products or services specifically designed for lower income categories e. Does the company voluntarily share licenses, patents, intellectual property or useful technology with developing countries, or allow generics under specific conditions? Does the company make cash donations? Does the company make in-kind donations, foster employee engagement in voluntary work or provide funding of community-related projects through a corporate foundation?

Has the company received an award for its social, ethical, community, or environmental activities or performance? Does the company claim to cooperate with schools or universities? Total amount of all donations divided by net sales or revenue. Source : Asset4 database.. Inicio Revista de Contabilidad-Spanish Accounting Review Measuring corporate social responsibility using composite indices: Mission impos ISSN: Measuring corporate social responsibility using composite indices: Mission impossible?

The case of the electricity utility industry. Descargar PDF.

Constitutional Adjudication In Colombia: Avant-garde or Case Law Transplant? A Literature Review

Juan Diego Paredes-Gazquez a ,. Autor para correspondencia. Under a Creative Commons license. Table 1. Table 2. Table 3. In a practical sense, it should be reconsidered how researchers use composite indexes to measure corporate social responsibility, as more transparency and stringency is needed when constructing these tools.

Composite index. JEL classification:. Palabras clave:. Texto completo. Thus, we can assume that CIs are useful measurement tools, but only if they are constructed following a transparent process. Discussion section discusses its implications in CSR research, and the last section includes the conclusions and limitations of the study.

We divided the construction process into six stages: 1 theoretical framework, 2 indicator selection, 3 exploratory analysis of indicators, 4 multivariate analysis, 5 normalization, weighting and aggregation and 6 uncertainty and sensitivity analyses. Theoretical framework A CI is not a single, isolated measure, but the outcome of a theoretical review that justifies its construction.

Table 1 summarizes the four groups of theories and approaches to explain the meaning of CSR. Groups of theories and approaches to define CSR. Sets of indicators for measuring CSR in the electricity utility industry. Source : Own work.. Academic studies related to CSR in the electricity utility industry. It takes into account stakeholders considerations.

Table 4. Indicators included in the composite index. Net employment creation EM2. Number of employees EM3. Personnel turnover Salary SA1 P. Salary benefits SA Salaries SA3. Salaries distribution SA4. Salary gap Working conditions WC1 P. Working environment WC Working benefits WC Injuries WC4. Trade union representation Equality and training ET1 P. Equality and training ET Managers female-male ratio ET3. Human Rights and supply chain management VS Product responsibility VS Community VS Total donations.

P: Parceled indicators. Table 5. Descriptive statistics. Table 6. Factor analysis of mixed data: eigenvalues. Table 7. Uncertainty analysis input factors. CSR-CI uncertainty analysis. Source : Own work. CSR-CI sensitivity analysis. Annex I. Hong Kong is considered a special administrative region.

Annex II. Afgan, M. Carvalho, N. Energy system assessment with sustainability indicators. Energy Policy, 28 , pp. Asif, C. Searcy, A. Zutshi, O. An integrated management systems approach to corporate social responsibility. Journal of Cleaner Production, 56 , pp. Multidimensional poverty: Composite indicator of multidimensional poverty. Journal of Corporate Citizenship Issue, 40 , pp. Sustainability reports as simulacra? Accounting, Auditing and Accountability Journal, 26 , pp.

Bouten, P. Evaraert, L. Van Liedekerke, L. De Moor, J. Corporate social responsibility reporting: A comprehensive picture?. Accounting Forum, 35 , pp. Cai, H. Jo, C. Doing well while doing bad?

CSR in controversial industry sectors. Journal of Business Ethics, , pp. Cameron, P. Microeconometrics: Methods and applications. Cambridge University Press, ,. A three-dimensional conceptual model of corporate performance. Academy of Management Review, 4 , pp. Chatterji, D. Levine, M. How well do social ratings actually measure corporate social responsibility?. Chen, M. Measuring corporate social performance: An efficiency perspective. Production and Operations Management, 20 , pp. Cherchye, W. Moesen, N. Rogge, T. Van Puyenbroeck.

Social Indicators Research, 82 , pp. De la Cuesta, E. Pardo-Herrasti, J. Identification of relevant indicators of CSR performance through the use of multi-criteria techniques. Innovar Journal, 55 , pp. De Leon, K. Corporate Governance, 8 , pp. Blancas-Peral, F. Guerrero-Casas, M.

Cannibals with Forks: The triple bottom line of 21st century business. Capstone, ,. Escofier, J. Escrig-Olmedo, M. Lights and shadows on sustainability rating scoring. Corporate social responsibility: A business contribution to sustainable development. COM, , pp. NACE Rev. Statistical classification of economic activities in the European Community.

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Eurostat, European Commission, ,. Evans, V. Strezov, T. Assessment of sustainability indicators for renewable energy technologies. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, , pp. Fraser, A. Dougill, W. Mabee, M. Reed, P. Bottom up and top-down: Analysis of participatory processes for sustainability indicator identification as a pathway to community empowerment and sustainable environmental management.

Journal of Environmental Management, 78 , pp. Revista de Contabilidad[nl]Spanish Accounting Review, 16 , pp. Gallego-Carrera, A. Sustainability assessment of energy technologies via social indicators: Results of a survey among European energy experts. Energy Policy, 38 , pp. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis of the human development index. Garriga, D. Corporate social responsibility theories: Mapping the territory. Journal of Business Ethics, 53 , pp. Giambona, E. Composite indicator of social inclusion for European countries. Social Indicators Research, , pp.

Alternative approaches to the construction of a composite indicator of agricultural sustainability: An application to irrigated agriculture in the Duero basin in Spain. Journal of Environmental Management, 90 , pp. Springer, ,. Gray, S. Accountability and human rights: A tentative exploration and a commentary. Critical Perspectives on Accounting, 22 , pp.

Global Reporting Initiative, ,. Grupp, M. Indicators for national science and technology policy: How robust are composite indicators?. Research Policy, 33 , pp. Hair, R. Anderson, R. Tatham, W. Helio International working document, ,. Horton, S. Multiple imputation in practice: Comparison of software packages for regression models with missing variables. American Statistician, 55 , pp. Ioannou, G. What drives corporate social performance? The role of nation-level institutions. Journal of International Business Studies, 43 , pp. Jung, S. Exploratory factor analysis for small samples.

Behavior Research Methods, 43 , pp. Khadka, H. Comparing a top-down and bottom-up approach in the identification of criteria and indicators for sustainable community forest management in Nepal. Forestry, 85 , pp. La Rovere, J. Soares, L. Oliveira, T. Sustainable expansion of electricity sector: Sustainability indicators as an instrument to support decision making. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 14 , pp. Legros, I. Havet, N. Bruce, S. The energy access situation in developing countries.

A review focusing on the least developed countries and Sub-Saharan Africa. Prisma Social: Revista de Ciencias Sociales, 11 , pp. Item parceling in structural equation modeling: A primer. Communication Methods and Measures, 2 , pp. Carrasco-Gallego, B. Has the CSR engagement of electrical companies had an effect on their performance? A closer look at the environment. Mitchell, A. May, A. Modi, S. McDade, D. Lallement, J. Synthetic indicators: A revision of aggregation methods. Social multi-criteria evaluation for a sustainable economy. Navarro Alvarado, J. Hinojosa Palafox, M. Comparative study of sustainability of the electrical power industry in Mexico and its northern border region.

Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 15 , pp. Nicoletti, S. Scarpetta, O. Summary indicators of product market regulation with an extension to employment protection legislation. The best and the rest: Revisiting the norm of normality of individual performance. Personnel Psychology, 65 , pp. A methodology for CSR reporting: Assuring a representative diversity of indicators across stakeholders, scales, sites and performance issues. Journal of Cleaner Production, 16 , pp.

Handbook on constructing composite indicators. Methodology and user guide. OECD Publications, ,.

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Energy poverty. How to make modern energy access universal. Theorising corporate social responsibility as an essentially contested concept: Is a definition necessary?. Journal of Business Ethics, 89 , pp. Onat, H. The sustainability indicators of power production systems. A literature survey on energy — growth nexus. Multiple factor analysis by example using R. Paruolo, M. Saisana, A. Ratings and rankings: Voodoo or science?. Measuring CSR image: Three studies to develop and to validate a reliable measurement tool.

An effective algorithm for computing global sensitivity indices EASI. Quintano, R. Castellano, A. Influence of outliers on some multiple imputation methods. Reynolds, K. Moral discourse and corporate social responsibility reporting. Journal of Business Ethics, 78 , pp. Rhemtulla, P. Brosseau-Liard, V. When can categorical variables be treated as continuous? A comparison of robust continuous and categorical SEM estimation methods under suboptimal conditions. Psychological Methods, 17 , pp. Saltelli, S. Uncertainty and sensitivity analysis techniques as tools for the quality assessment of composite indicators.

Salvati, C. Substitutability and weighting of ecological and economic indicators: Exploring the importance of various components of a synthetic index. Ecological Economics, 68 , pp. Scalet, T.

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CSR rating agencies: What is their global impact?. Journal of Business Ethics, 94 , pp. Fischer, J. Methods of measuring sustainable development of the German energy sector. Applied Energy, , pp. Scott, S. Cocchi, J.

Defining a fit for purpose statistically reliable sustainability indicator. Sustainability Accounting Management and Policy Journal, 5 , pp. Sheng, Z. Is coefficient alpha robust to non-normal data?. Frontiers in Psychology, 3 , pp. Shuddhasattwa, R. The linkage between energy consumption and income in six emerging economies of Asia: An empirical analysis. International Journal of Emerging Markets, 6 , pp. Shwartz, J. Burgess, D. Benefit-of-the-doubt approaches for calculating a composite measure of quality. Singh, H. Murty, S. Gupta, A. An overview of sustainability assessment methodologies.

Ecological Indicators, 15 , pp. Stamford, A. Sustainability indicators for the assessment of nuclear power. Energy, 36 , pp.