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  2. Dymocks - Liverpool Docks Through Time by Ian Collard, , PaperBack book.
  3. Liverpool Docks Through Time
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Over acres 0. During the s, Irish migrants began arriving by the thousands due to the Great Famine of The Irish influence is reflected in the unique place Liverpool occupies in UK and Irish political history, being the only place outside Ireland to elect a member of parliament from the Irish Parliamentary Party to the British parliament in Westminster.

O'Connor represented the constituency of Liverpool Scotland from to As the town became a leading port of the British Empire , a number of major buildings were constructed, including St.

George's Hall , and Lime Street Station. The Grand National steeplechase was first run at Aintree in Between and , Liverpool attracted at least 20, people from Wales in each decade, peaking in the s, and Welsh culture flourished. Early regular scheduled Liverpool transatlantic passenger travel began in the s with American lines such as Black Ball Line trans-Atlantic packet and Collins Line and in the s with Liverpool based companies' lines Cunard Line and White Star Line continuing throughout the 19th Century.

When the American Civil War broke out Liverpool became a hotbed of intrigue. The prevalence of cotton and slave interests in Liverpool ensured that the city was, in the words of the historian Sven Beckert , "the most pro-Confederate place in the world outside the Confederacy itself. Liverpool was granted city status in , and the following year its university was established.

By , the city's population had grown to over ,, and its boundaries had expanded to include Kirkdale , Everton , [21] Walton , West Derby , Toxteth and Garston. During the first part of the 20th century Liverpool continued to expand, pulling in immigrants from Europe. In an International Exhibition took place in Edge Lane. In , the building of the Anglican Cathedral began, and by the three Pier Head buildings, including the Liver Building , were complete.

This period marked the pinnacle of Liverpool's economic success, when it regarded itself as the "second city" of the British Empire. Bridget's alleged memoirs, which surfaced in the s, said that Adolf stayed with them in , although this is much disputed as many believe the memoirs to be a forgery. The maiden voyage of Titanic in April was originally planned to depart from Liverpool, as Liverpool was its port of registration and the home of owners White Star Line. However, it was changed to depart from Southampton instead.

Aside from the large Irish community in Liverpool, there were other pockets of cultural diversity. Inspired by an old Venetian custom, Liverpool was 'married to the sea' in September Liverpool was also home to a large Welsh population, and was sometimes referred to as the Capital of North Wales. In , and , Eisteddfods were held in Liverpool. The population of the city peaked at over , in the s. Economic changes began in the first part of the 20th century, as falls in world demand for the North West's traditional export commodities contributed to stagnation and decline in the city. Unemployment was well above the national average as early as the s, and the city became known nationally for its occasionally violent religious sectarianism.

When Everton F. The Great Depression hit Liverpool badly in the early s with thousands of people in the city left unemployed. This was combated by a large amount of housing mostly built by the local council being constructed, creating jobs mostly in the building, plumbing and electrical trades. About 15 per cent of the city's population were rehoused in the s and s with more than 30, new council houses being built to replace the slums in the city. The rising popularity of motor cars led to congestion in the city, and in the city gained its first direct road link with the Wirral Peninsula , when the first Mersey Tunnel road was opened.

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The Queensway, as the new tunnel was named, linked Liverpool with Birkenhead at the other side of the Mersey. Many other buildings were built in the city in the s to ease the depression and became local landmarks, with many buildings featuring American inspired architecture.

There were eighty air-raids on Merseyside , with an especially concentrated series of raids in May which interrupted operations at the docks for almost a week. Some 2, people were killed, [27] almost half the homes in the metropolitan area sustained some damage and some 11, were totally destroyed. Over 70, people were made homeless. All four members of The Beatles were born in the city during the war, rising to fame in the early s.

Significant rebuilding followed the war, including massive housing estates and the Seaforth Dock , the largest dock project in Britain. However, the city has been suffering since the s with the loss of numerous employers. By the population had fallen to , Declines in manufacturing and dock activity struck the city particularly hard.

In Liverpool Overhead Railway and its fourteen stations were closed and demolished and in Liverpool Corporation Tramways closed after the last tram ran in Liverpool. In , a private bill sponsored by Liverpool City Council was brought before Parliament to develop a water reservoir from the Tryweryn Valley. The development would include the flooding of Capel Celyn. This, together with the fact that the village was one of the last Welsh-only speaking communities, ensured that the proposals became deeply controversial.

Dymocks - Liverpool Docks Through Time by Ian Collard, , PaperBack book.

Thirty five out of thirty six Welsh Members of Parliament MPs opposed the bill the other did not vote , but in it was passed. The members of the community waged an eight-year effort, ultimately unsuccessful, to prevent the destruction of their homes, which finally occurred in The incident led to a massive rise in Welsh nationalism , and a year later, Gwynfor Evans of Plaid Cymru won the party's first seat in the Carmathen by-election. In the s Liverpool became a centre of youth culture.

The city produced the distinctive Merseybeat sound, most famously The Beatles , and the Liverpool poets. From the s onwards Liverpool's docks and traditional manufacturing industries went into further sharp decline. The advent of containerisation meant that Liverpool's docks ceased to be a major local employer. In , Liverpool became a metropolitan district within the newly created metropolitan county of Merseyside.

The s saw Liverpool's fortunes sink to their lowest postwar point. Although the s, along with the rest of Britain, had brought economic difficulties and a steady rise in unemployment, the situation in Liverpool went from bad to worse in the early s, with endless factory closures and some of the highest unemployment rates in the UK.

In July the infamous Toxteth Riots took place, during which, for the first time in the UK outside Northern Ireland , tear gas was used by police against civilians. In the same year, the Tate and Lyle sugar works, previously a mainstay of the city's manufacturing economy, closed down. The docks had already declined dramatically by this stage, depriving the city of another major source of employment. About this time the scourge of heroin, always present in port cities, began to rise.

Liverpool City Council was dominated by the far-left wing Militant group during the s, under the de facto leadership of Derek Hatton although Hatton was formally only Deputy Leader. The city council sank heavily into debt, as the City Council fought a campaign to prevent central government from reducing funding for local services.


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Ultimately this led to 49 of the City's Councillors being removed from office by the District Auditor for refusing to cut the budget, refusing to make good the deficit and forcing the City Council into virtual bankruptcy. The conduct of Hatton and the militant tendency had even come under the scrutiny of Labour Party leader Neil Kinnock , who was keen to remove the militant tendency from the party as part of the attempt to make it electable again. At the same time, the Conservative government of Margaret Thatcher was deeply unpopular in Liverpool, with the Conservatives share of the vote in most local council and parliamentary elections being consistently low throughout the s.

On 15 April , 96 Liverpool F. This had a traumatic effect on people across the country, particularly in and around the city of Liverpool, and resulted in legally imposed changes in the way in which football fans have since been accommodated, including compulsory all-seater stadiums at all leading English clubs by the mid s.


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  • Many clubs removed their perimeter fencing almost immediately after the tragedy, and such measures at football grounds in England have long since been banned. In particular this led to strong feeling in Liverpool because it was widely reported in the media that the Liverpool fans were at fault. The Sun sparked particular controversy for publishing these allegations in an article four days after the disaster. Sales of the newspaper in Liverpool slumped and many newsagents refused to stock it. Three decades later, many people in the city still refuse to buy The Sun and a number of newsagents still refuse to sell it.

    Other media outlets including the Daily Star and Daily Mail also printed similar stories in which the behaviour of Liverpool fans was alleged to have been a major factor in the tragedy. There was further controversy surrounding the tragedy in March when a verdict of accidental death was recorded on the 95 people who had died at Hillsborough the 96th victim did not die until , much to the dismay of the bereaved families, who had been hoping for a verdict of unlawful killing, or an open verdict, to be recorded; and for criminal charges to be brought against South Yorkshire Police.

    This verdict was eventually replaced by one of unlawful killing at fresh inquest 25 years later. It has since become clear that South Yorkshire Police made a range of mistakes at the game, though the senior officer in charge of the event retired soon after. The success of Liverpool FC was some compensation for the city's economic misfortune during the s and s. The club, formed in , had won five league titles by , but enjoyed its first consistent run of success under the management of Bill Shankly between and , winning a further three league titles as well as the club's first two FA Cups and its first European trophy in the shape of the UEFA Cup.

    Following Shankly's retirement, the club continued to dominate English football for nearly 20 years afterwards. Everton F. The club had enjoyed a consistent run of success during the interwar years and again in the s, but after winning the league title in went 14 years without winning a major trophy, although they did hold onto the First Division place which had been theirs since Then, in , Everton won the FA Cup under the management of Howard Kendall , who had once been a player at the club.

    The Everton side of the mid s included some of the highest rated footballers in the English league at the time; goalkeeper Neville Southall , winger Trevor Steven , forwards Graeme Sharp and Andy Gray , and Gray's successor Gary Lineker. Everton have enjoyed an unbroken run in the top flight of English football since , although their only major trophy since the league title in came in when they won the FA Cup. This match was played just five weeks after the Hillsborough disaster.

    A similar national outpouring of grief and shock to the Hillsborough disaster occurred in February when James Bulger was killed by two ten-year-old boys, Jon Venables and Robert Thompson. The two boys were found guilty of murder later in the year and sentenced to indefinite detention. A general economic and civic revival has been underway since the mid-nineties.

    Liverpool's economy has grown faster than the national average and its crime levels have remained lower than most other metropolitan areas in England and Wales, with recorded crime per head in Merseyside comparable to the national average — unusually low for an urban area. In recent years, the city has emphasised its cultural attractions. Tourism has become a significant factor in Liverpool's economy, capitalising on the popularity of The Beatles and other groups of the Merseybeat era.

    In June , Liverpool won the right to be named European Capital of Culture for , beating other British cities such as Newcastle and Birmingham to the coveted title. The riverfront of the city was also designated as a World Heritage Site in In October , Liverpool and London continued with wildcat strikes after the end of the official CWU strikes that had been ongoing since June in a dispute with the Royal Mail over pay, pensions, and hours. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Main article: Liverpool Blitz.

    The Oxford Names Companion. Oxford: the University Press. The Online Etymology Dictionary.

    A Time Tour of Liverpool!

    Museum of Liverpool. Retrieved 2 April The History Files. Retrieved 3 April History of Liverpool. Retrieved The Free Dictionary. To celebrate this historic complex of dock buildings and warehouses, which opened in , here are 19 historic Albert Dock photos you need to see. The Albert Dock was the first British structure to be created from cast iron, brick and stone, featuring no structural wood.

    Liverpool Docks Through Time

    At the time of its opening, the Albert Dock was regarded as a ground-breaking docking system, as it allowed ships to be loaded and unloaded directly from and to the warehouses. As a result, it became a popular storage destination for valuable items, such as cotton, tea, brandy, silk, sugar, ivory and tobacco. Unfortunately, the docking system was unable to effectively accommodate the replacement of sailing ships to steam-powered iron ships due to their tight entrances.

    Whilst the Albert Dock spread out as far as the Pier Head to accommodate the vessels, the storage began to diminish significantly by the s. The above image shows a busy Albert Dock landing stage in This is one of the rare 19th century photographs of the Albert Dock.

    This is mostly likely because it was part of the Dock Estate, so was not open to the public. The Albert Dock may have failed to have prepared for the rapid development of shipping technology, but it continued to run profitably. The photo above shows a busy landing stage at the Albert Dock, with horses transporting valuable goods to and from the port.

    This photo was taken in the Albert Dock in Five years after this image was snapped, electric lighting was installed for the very first time throughout the dock. However, the technological feat was not enough to attract commercial activity to the complex of docks. This photograph was taken in of Stanley Dock and the Tobacco Warehouse. It was in the s that all commercial shipping activity ceased.

    Ships still docked at the port, but the complex of dock buildings mainly served as storage of goods transported by barge, rail or road. Due to the size of the warehouses, the Albert Dock remained profitable until the s. The above photograph was taken sometime in the mids, with a naval reserve squadron of sloops moored alongside the C block of warehouses, possibly before the start of the Second World War, which started in Between to , the Albert Dock was requisitioned by the Admiralty to provide a base for hundreds of ships, such as merchant ships, submarines, landing craft and small warships.

    It was the only time in history that so many ships berthed at the Albert Dock. Two hard-working dockers chat on the dock that continued to play a role in the city of Liverpool until the s. Thousands of workers were also exposed to asbestos dust, which resulted in the progressive and disabling disease asbestosis.

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    Two years later, the Albert Dock was given Grade I listed building status. Many people will recognise the Pumphouse — which now serves as a popular pub on the Albert Dock. The above image was snapped back in — and the Albert Dock closed three years later in , following the collapse of the Mersey Docks and Harbour Board and the scheme to demolish the dock. The Albert Dock fell into disuse in the s, as shown in the snap above. As you can see in the photo, part of the Albert Dock failed to be restored from the damage of the Liverpool Blitz Once welcoming ships into the port every day, the docks are derelict, with not a sign of life to be seen.