- Most Downloaded Articles
- Log in to Wiley Online Library
- Egyptian-Coptic Linguistics in Typological Perspective
- Approaches to the Typology of Word Classes
Lexical Strategies The reference to the information source can be expressed by employing lexical items, as mentioned above. They occur autonomously or in combination with grammatical strategies of evidentialty. They can modify the meaning of an utterance or intensify its evidential meaning.
Quotative markers, comparative conjunctions, evidential particles, adverbial expressions as well as semigrammaticalized markers derived from verbs of perception can be considered lexical markers of evidentiality an overview is given in table 2. Among the markers of lexical evidentiality the quotative particles are undoubtedly the most discussed ones, especially in connection to indirect speech Shanidze , Hewitt , Boeder , , Harris and Campbell , Kvachadze , etc.
In the literature there are also some insights on inferential and reportive markers of evidentiality within investigations about conjunctions Dzidziguri and mood Jorbenadze , Sharashenidze , Harris etc. The origin of the particle [—o], which is used mainly for quotations in the third person, is obscure. The quotative markers can generally be cliticized to each constituent of the sentence. Usually they are used as direct speech markers.
The particle [-metki] is used to codify firsthand information. In the first person quotations the speaker uses [-metki] to report a statement made or thought by himself in the past. In this case [- metki] serves as a marker of direct evidentiality i. The particle [-metki] generally takes a final position within a sentence: 11 damagviandeba-metki.
In contrast to [-metki] the quotative markers of the 2nd and 3rd person codify the second hand information. The quotative marker [-o] also reports second hand information. In contrast to [-metki] and [-tko] it does not necessarily specify the information source which can be common knowledge for others. The particle [-o] occurs often in proverbs. For a detailed discussion about quotative markers see Shanidze , Hewitt , Boeder , , Harris and Campbell , Kvachadze , Giacalone and Topadze Boeder , It does not reflect directly the meaning of the contained elements Kavtaradze It may co-occur with the evidential perfect, but not obligatorily.
It indicates that the speaker does not have direct knowledge of what he is retelling, it normally does not contain epistemic assessments and does not cast doubt on the reliability of the utterance. It also appears in less formal registers of the written language. Apparently lit. In many contexts they may be used synonymously. In some context of illusory perception such as dreams, etc… it can have an inferential interpretation. Be hungry:PRS. The derivation of evidential markers from comparative constructions is a typologically widespread phenomenon.
Wiemer a, Wiemer Wiemer observes for Slavic languages that evidential elements developed from comparative constructions are inclined to oscillations between inferential and reportive domains. The clitic [—savit] grammaticalized as evidential suffix which can be cliticized to the finite verbal forms Jorbenadze, Kobaidze, Beridze , Amiridze Conclusions Summarizing results of the present discussion we can conclude that evidentiality in Georgian is a functional, semantic category.
Marking the information source is not obligatory and it depends on the choices of the speaker. Evidentiality can be expressed by various grammatical and lexical means: direct evidentiality is codified by unmarked forms of TAM and by the first person quotative marker [-metki], whereas indirect evidentiality and its sub-domains of inference and hearsay are encoded in the TAM-paradigms, which have developed evidentiality as a secondary meaning, or can be conveyed by lexical means. There are no overt morphological i.
As reflected by the analyzed data, the encoding of evidentiality in Georgian is not restricted to the indirect evidentiality, as sometimes claimed in the literature. The claim according to which Georgian marks only indirect evidentiality second hand information is valid for some grammatical strategies e. In contrast to the grammatical strategies which developed evidentiality as a secondary meaning, like the perfect, some lexical strategies may have evidentiality as unique meaning.
The evidential value may overlap with the epistemic one within a marker, as demonstrated by a large number of lexical means. However, such overlap is not obligatory, as for instance in the case of the perfect, which is not compatible with the epistemic elements. The Georgian perfect, which has developed an evidential value in addition to other meanings, corroborates the claim made by some authors Aikhenvald , De Haan , Wiemer according to which evidentiality and epistemicity are two different notions, both at the conceptual and functional level.
References Aikhenvald, Alexandra Y. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Amiridze, Nino. Arabuli, Avtandil. Aronson, Howard I. The Interrelationships between Aspect and Mood in Bulgarian. Folia Slavica 1, 1. Georgian: A Reading Grammar. Columbus: Slavica Publishers. Boeder, Winfried. Evidentiality in Georgian. Speech and thought representation in the Kartvelian South Caucasian Languages. In: Reported discourse: a meeting ground for different linguistic domains Typological Studies in Language 52 , ed.
Amsterdam: John Benjamins, Chikobava, Arnold. Kartuli enis zogadi daxasiateba [A general characteristisation of the Georgian Language]. Chikobava, Tbilisi. De Haan, Ferdinand. Semantic Distinctions of Evidentiality. Dryer, David Gil, Bernard. Oxford: Oxford University Press, — Coding of Evidentiality.
De Lancey, Scott. Linguistic Typology 1, Dzidziguri, Shota. Kurze Grammatik der georgischen Sprache. Friedman, Victor. Toward a typology of status: Georgian and other non-Slavic languages of the Soviet Union. In: The elements: A parasession on linguistic units and levels, ed. Chicago Linguistic Society, The coding of evidentiality: a comparative look at Georgian and Italian.
In: Evidentiality between lexicon and grammar, Italian Journal of Linguistics, n. Givon, Talmy. Evidentiality and epistemic spaces. Studies in Language, 6, Guentcheva, Zlatka. Harris, Alice C. Georgian Syntax. A study in relational grammar. Cambridge Studies in Linguistics, vol. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Diachronic Syntax: The Kartvelian Case. Syntax and Semantics, vol. Academic Press, Orlando. Aleksandre Gvakharia , Tbilisi, Mecniereba, Harris Alice and Lyle Campbell.
Historical Syntax in Cross-Linguistic Perspective. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Hewitt, George B. Georgica, n. Ioseliani, Platon. Ioseliani, printed for the third time], Tbilisi. Jorbenadze, Besarion. Tbilisi, Mecniereba. Kavtaradze, Ivane. Dendale, Patrick and Liliane Tasmowski Den Hertog, C. Nederlandse Spraakkunst. Eerste stuk. De leer van de enkelvoudige zin Derde editie, ingeleid en bewerkt door H. Amsterdam: Versluys. Deppermann, Arnulf Berlin and New York: Walter de Gruyter, — Derbyshire, Desmond C.
Derbyshire, William W. A Basic Reference Grammar of Slovene. Columbus: Slavica. De Reuse, Willem J. DeRose, Keith De Schutter, Georges and Jan Nuyts Dik ed. Dordrecht: Foris, — Mitchell and K. Riggs eds. Hove, Sussex: Psychology Press, — Gentner and S. Goldin-Meadow eds. Diessel, Holger The Acquisition of Complex Sentences. Diessel, Holger and Michael Tomasello Dietrich, Rainer Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag. Diewald, Gabriele Die Modalverben im Deutschen.
Diewald, Gabriele and Elena Smirnova Diewald, Gabriele and Elena Smirnova eds. Linguistic Realization of Evidentiality in European Languages. Dik, Simon C. Dimmendaal, Gerrit The Turkana Language. Dordrecht: Foris. Beijing: Shangwu yinshuguan. Diogenes Laertius Lives of Eminent Philosophers , with an English translation by R. Hicks 2 vols. London: Heinemann. Cognitive Exploration of Language and Linguistics. Dixon, R. The Dyirbal Language of North Quensland. A Grammar of Boumaa Fijian. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press. The Jarawara Language of Southern Amazonia.
Basic Linguistic Theory, vol. Dixon, Basic Linguistic Theory, vol. Aikhenvald eds. Dobrushina, Nina Brockmeyer, 95— Dodwell, C. Reginald Anglo-Saxon Gestures and the Roman Stage. Donohue, Mark A Grammar of Tukang Besi. Dore, John Freedle ed. Downing, Angela Dowty, David Word Meaning and Montague Grammar. Dordrecht: Reidel. Reprinted with new preface by Kluwer, Drummen, A. Dryer, Matthew S. Dryer, David Gil, and Bernard Comrie eds. London: Routledge.
Most Downloaded Articles
Dummett, Michael a. Oxford: Clarendon Press, — Dummett, Michael b. The Seas of Language. Dum-Tragut, Jasmine Armenian: Modern Eastern Armenian. Kosta and L. Eades, Diana Eckermann, W.
- The Bucko Mate: Twenty Years in the Merchant Marine!
- Search for;
- Linguistic Typology?
- Choral Mediations in Greek Tragedy.
- The Brazilian Consequence.
- “Active and Passive Potency” in Thomistic Angelology.
Edgington, Dorothy Egan, Andy Ehrich, Veronika Eide, Kristin Melum Norwegian Modals. Einarsson, Stefan Icelandic: Grammar, Texts, Glossary. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press. Eisenberg, Peter Grundriss der deutschen Grammatik. Stuttgart: Metzler. Ekberg, Lena and Carita Paradis eds. Evidentiality in Language and Cognition.
Elliott, Dale E. Elliott, Jennifer R. Hansen and F. Embick, David and Rolf Noyer Enfield, Nick J. London and New York: Routledge and Curzon. Englebretson, Robert Englebretson ed. Evans, Nicholas Evans, Vyvyan and Melanie Green Cognitive Linguistics: An Introduction. Exter, Mats Ezard, Bryan Falk, Yehuda N.
Faraclas, Nicolas Nigerian Pidgin. Farkas, Donka Intensional Descriptions and the Romance Subjunctive Mood. Koerner eds. Amsterdam: Benjamins, 69— Farkas, D. Fauconnier, Gilles New York: Cambridge University Press. Fauconnier, Gilles and Eve Sweetser eds. Spaces, Worlds, and Grammar. Fauconnier, Gilles and Mark Turner Goldberg ed.
Feldman, Harry A Grammar of Awtuw. Ferrari, Lilian and Eve Sweetser Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 47— Ferreira Brito, Lucinda Fischer and Patricia Siple eds. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, — Fillmore, Charles J. Harms eds. Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society, — Fischer, Olga a. Morphosyntactic Change: Functional and Formal Perspectives. Smit, S. Dollinger, J. Lutzky eds. Fleischman, Suzanne The Future in Thought and Language. Foley, William A. Van Valin, Jr Functional Syntax and Universal Grammar.
Ford, Cecilia and Sandra Thompson Ochs, E. Schegloff, and S. Thompson eds. Fortescue, Michael D. West Greenlandic. Fortuin, Egbert Fortuin, Egbert and Ronny Boogaart Foster, Michael K. Ottawa: National Museums of Canada. Frajzyngier, Zygmunt a. Frajzyngier, Zygmunt b. Frajzyngier, Zygmunt A Grammar of Mupun. Berlin: Reimer. A Grammar of Lele.
Log in to Wiley Online Library
Stanford: Center for the Study of Language and Information. A Grammar of Wandala. Frajzyngier, Zygmunt and Bill Jirsa Frajzyngier, Zygmunt and Jan Mycielski Vide ed. Frajzyngier, Zygmunt with Erin Shay A Grammar of Hdi. A Grammar of Mina. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 81— Araki: A Disappearing Language of Vanuatu.
- International Cases in Tourism Management.
- Condomínios: A lei e a prática - 5ª Edição (Portuguese Edition);
- Empirical Approaches to Language Typology [EALT].
- The Battle of Fromelles 1916.
- References - Oxford Handbooks!
- Edited by Jan Nuyts and Johan Van Der Auwera;
Frank, Anette Frank, Paul Ika Syntax. Fraser, Bruce Morgan eds. New York: Academic Press, — Frawley, William Linguistic Semantics. Friedman, Victor A. Frishberg, Nancy Fritz, Gerd Fritz und T. Gloning eds. Fritz, Gerd and Thomas Gloning eds. Untersuchungen zur semantischen Entwicklungsgeschichte der Modalverben im Deutschen. Gaby, Alice Cairene Egyptian Colloquial Arabic. Wiemer, B. Hansen eds. Gee, Julie Gee, Julie and Iskendar Savasir Gergel, Remus Modality and Ellipsis: Diachronic and Synchronic Evidence. Gergel, Remus and Jutta Hartmann Alexiadou, J. Hankamer, J. Nugger, T.
McFadden, and F. Gerhardt, Julie Gerhardt, Julie and Iskendar Savasir Geurts, Bart Presuppositions and Pronouns.
Egyptian-Coptic Linguistics in Typological Perspective
Oxford: Elsevier. Giacalone Ramat, Anna and Manana Topadze Giannakidou, Anastasia Ithaca, NY: Cornell University, — Polarity Sensitivity as Non veridical Dependency. Giles, J. Gillies, Anthony S. Ginzburg, Jonathan Ginzburg, Jonathan and Ivan A. Sag Girod, Michel La Langue des Signes , Tome 2 et 3. Paris: Edition Marketing. Mind, Code, and Context: Essays in Pragmatics. Functionalism and Grammar. Syntax: An Introduction. Gloning, Thomas Turkish: A Comprehensive Grammar. Goldberg, Adele Goldberg, Adele and Johan van der Auwera Goodwin, Marjorie H.
Goossens, Louis Ahlqvist ed. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 74— Daems and L. Goossens eds. Jo Steenbergen. Leuven: Acco, — Bolkestein, C. Mackenzie eds. Dordrecht: Foris, 21— Panther and G. Radden eds. Barcelona ed. A Cognitive Perspective. Hannay and G. Steen eds. Gosselin, Laurent Brussels: Duculot. Goudswaard, Nelleke E. Utrecht: LOT. Grice, H. Paul New York: Academic Press, 41— Grice, M. Grimes, Joseph E. Huichol Syntax.
Grimshaw, Jane Groenendijk, Jeroen and Floris Roelofsen Groenendijk, Jeroen and Martin Stokhof Amsterdam: Elsevier, — Grosz, Patrick Lima, K. Mullin, and B. Smith eds. Paris: Larousse, 8— Louvain: Peeters. Guillaume, Antoine Gunlogson, Christine New York: Routledge. Guo, Jiansheng Gusev, Valentin Ju Gwosdek, Hedwig ed.
Hackl, Martin and Jon Nissenbaum Hacquard, Valentine Algemene Nederlandse Spraakkunst. Groningen: Nijhoff. Hagstrom, Paul Haider, Hubert The Syntax of German. Haig, Geoffrey Matras and J. Sakel eds. Haiman, John London: Routledge, — Hale, William Gardner Rogers ed. Boston: Houghton, Mifflin and Co.
Halliday, M. Lyons ed. Harmondsworth: Penguin, — London: Arnold. An Introduction to Functional Grammar. An Introduction to Functional Grammar , 3rd edn, rev. Christian M. Hamblin, Charles Leonard Oxford: Basil Blackwell. Hammerich, L. Han, Chung-Hye Das Modalauxiliar im Slavischen. Munich: Otto Sagner, — Harder, Peter Durieux, and L.
Lejeune eds. Munich: Lincom Europa, — Hardman, Martha J. Hare, R. Harner, Lorraine Friedman ed. Harris, Alice Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 63— Harris, Alice C. Campbell Historical Syntax in Cross-Linguistic Perspective. Harris, James Harrison, Sheldon P. Albert Mokilese Reference Grammar. Hashimoto, Mantaro McCoy and T. Light eds. Leiden: Brill, 76— Haspelmath, Martin a.
Haspelmath, Martin b. Haspelmath, Martin Haspelmath, Martin, Matthew S. The World Atlas of Language Structures. Munich: Max Planck Digital Library. Becker and Eva-Maria Remberger eds. Berlin and New York: de Gruyter, 95— Lexikon sprachtheoretischer Grundbegriffe des Jahrhunderts, Band 2. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter. Hausser, Roland Dordrecht: Reidel, 71— Haviland, John Aske, N. Berry, L. Michaelis, and H. Filip eds. Hawkins, Robert E. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 25— Heim, Irene Heim, Irene and Angelika Kratzer Semantics in Generative Grammar. Heine, Bernd Cognitive Forces and Grammaticalization.
Wischer and G. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 83— Heine, Bernd and Tania Kuteva Language Contact and Grammatical Change. The Changing Languages of Europe. The Genesis of Grammar: A Reconstruction. Heine, Bernd and Hiroyuki Miyashita Hengeveld, Kees Machelt Bolkestein, and Co Vet eds. Hengeveld, Kees and Lachlan Mackenzie On Modality in English. A Study of the Semantics of the Modals. Lund: Gleerup. Hickmann, Maya a. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 92— Hickmann, Maya b. Vandeloise ed. Hickmann, Maya and Henriette Hendriks Oxford: Oxford University Press, 92— Higginbotham, James Oxford: Basil Blackwell, — Higginbotham, James and Robert May Hill, Deborah Longgu Grammar.
Munich: Lincom Europa. Hintikka, Jaakko Knowledge and Belief. Hinton, Maria n. A Collection of Oneida Stories , ed. Clifford Abbott. Oneida, Wisconsin. Hirst, William and Joyce Weil Hockett, Charles F. A Course in Modern Linguistics. New York: Macmillan.
Approaches to the Typology of Word Classes
Hoff, Berend J. Hoffmann, Thomas Hoffmann, Thomas and Graeme Trousdale eds. The Oxford Handbook of Construction Grammar. Hofmann, T. Ronald Oettinger ed. Hofmann, Thomas R. McCawley ed. New York: Academic Press, 85— Holmes, Janet Holvoet, Axel Hopper, Paul J. I: Focus on Theoretical and Methodological Issues. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 17— Traugott Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 2nd edn Horn, Laurence R. Greenberg ed. Stanford: Stanford University Press, — A Natural History of Negation. Chicago: Chicago Linguistic Society, 80— Howard, Alice A.
Naigles Hoye, Leo Adverbs and Modality in English. A Grammar of Basque. Huddleston, Rodney D. An Introduction to English Transformational Syntax. Hudson, Richard Hunston, Susan Corpus Approaches to Evaluation. Hunston, Susan and Geoff Thompson Hunston and G. Huntley, Martin Hyland, Ken and Polly Tse Hyslop, Catriona Iatridou, Sabine Iatridou, Sabine and Hedde Zeijlstra Aloni, H. Bastiaanse, T. Schulz eds. Berlin and Heidelberg: Springer, — Ifantidou, Elly Evidentials and Relevance. Ikoro, Suanu M. The Kana Language. Leiden: University of Leiden. Jackendoff, Ray Semantic Interpretation in Generative Grammar.
X-Bar Syntax. Jakobson, Roman Shifters, Verbal Categories and the Russian Verb. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University. James, Deborah Janssen, Theo A. Geiger and Brygida Rudzka-Ostyn eds. Janzen, Terry Janzen, Terry a. Janzen, Terry b. Janzen, Terry and Barbara Shaffer Jary, Mark Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing, — Jauncey, Dorothy G. Tamambo, the Language of West Malo, Vanuatu. Jellinek, Max Hermann Heidelberg: Winter. Jendraschek, Gerd Jensen, John Thayer Yapese Reference Grammar. Jespersen, Otto — Copenhagen: Ejnar Munksgaard.
Jespersen, Otto The Philosophy of Grammar. Johanson, Lars Berlin and New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 61— Johanson, Lars and Bo Utas eds. Evidentials: Turkic, Iranian and Neighbouring Languages. Johnson, Carl Nils and Michael P. Maratsos Johnson, Carl Nils and Henry M. Johnston, Trevor and Adam Schembri Joseph, Brian D. The Synchrony and Diachrony of the Balkan Infinitive. Julien, Marit Syntactic Heads and Word Formation. Kahn, Christoph Rome: Olschki, — Mihatsch, and S.
- LINGUIST List - Browse Academic Papers.
- I. General studies.
- Log in to Wiley Online Library.
- Angel Inside (Italian Edition);
- Egyptian-Coptic Linguistics in Typological Perspective;
- New from Cambridge University Press!!
Schneider eds. Bingley, UK: Emerald, — Kamp, Hans Groenendijk, T. Janssen, and M. Stokhof eds. Amsterdam: Mathematical Centre, — Kamp, Hans and Uwe Reyle From Discourse to Logic. Dordrecht: Kluwer. Kant, Immanuel Critique of Pure Reason , trans. London: Dent. Kaper, Willem Epistemic Stance in English Conversation. Karttunen, Lauri Katz, Jerrold J. Postal An Integrated Theory of Linguistic Descriptions.
Kaufmann, Magdalena Interpreting Imperatives Studies in Linguistics and Philosophy Berlin: Springer. Kaufmann, Magdalena and Claudia Poschmann Kaufmann, Stefan a. Kaufmann, Stefan b. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 71— Keesing, Roger M. Kwaio Grammar. Kehayov, Petar and Reeli Torn-Leesik Kenesei, Istvan, Robert M. Vago, and Anna Fenyvesi Ketrez, Nihan A Student Grammar of Turkish. Khoo, Justin Kibrik, Aleksandre E. Moscow: Nasledie.
Kiefer, Ferenc Kimball, Geoffrey D. Koasati Grammar. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. Kinkade, Marvin Dale Katalin The Syntax of Hungarian. Kiss, Tibor