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Lexical Strategies The reference to the information source can be expressed by employing lexical items, as mentioned above. They occur autonomously or in combination with grammatical strategies of evidentialty. They can modify the meaning of an utterance or intensify its evidential meaning.

Quotative markers, comparative conjunctions, evidential particles, adverbial expressions as well as semigrammaticalized markers derived from verbs of perception can be considered lexical markers of evidentiality an overview is given in table 2. Among the markers of lexical evidentiality the quotative particles are undoubtedly the most discussed ones, especially in connection to indirect speech Shanidze , Hewitt , Boeder , , Harris and Campbell , Kvachadze , etc.

In the literature there are also some insights on inferential and reportive markers of evidentiality within investigations about conjunctions Dzidziguri and mood Jorbenadze , Sharashenidze , Harris etc. The origin of the particle [—o], which is used mainly for quotations in the third person, is obscure. The quotative markers can generally be cliticized to each constituent of the sentence. Usually they are used as direct speech markers.

The particle [-metki] is used to codify firsthand information. In the first person quotations the speaker uses [-metki] to report a statement made or thought by himself in the past. In this case [- metki] serves as a marker of direct evidentiality i. The particle [-metki] generally takes a final position within a sentence: 11 damagviandeba-metki.

In contrast to [-metki] the quotative markers of the 2nd and 3rd person codify the second hand information. The quotative marker [-o] also reports second hand information. In contrast to [-metki] and [-tko] it does not necessarily specify the information source which can be common knowledge for others. The particle [-o] occurs often in proverbs. For a detailed discussion about quotative markers see Shanidze , Hewitt , Boeder , , Harris and Campbell , Kvachadze , Giacalone and Topadze Boeder , It does not reflect directly the meaning of the contained elements Kavtaradze It may co-occur with the evidential perfect, but not obligatorily.

It indicates that the speaker does not have direct knowledge of what he is retelling, it normally does not contain epistemic assessments and does not cast doubt on the reliability of the utterance. It also appears in less formal registers of the written language. Apparently lit. In many contexts they may be used synonymously. In some context of illusory perception such as dreams, etc… it can have an inferential interpretation. Be hungry:PRS. The derivation of evidential markers from comparative constructions is a typologically widespread phenomenon.

Wiemer a, Wiemer Wiemer observes for Slavic languages that evidential elements developed from comparative constructions are inclined to oscillations between inferential and reportive domains. The clitic [—savit] grammaticalized as evidential suffix which can be cliticized to the finite verbal forms Jorbenadze, Kobaidze, Beridze , Amiridze Conclusions Summarizing results of the present discussion we can conclude that evidentiality in Georgian is a functional, semantic category.

Marking the information source is not obligatory and it depends on the choices of the speaker. Evidentiality can be expressed by various grammatical and lexical means: direct evidentiality is codified by unmarked forms of TAM and by the first person quotative marker [-metki], whereas indirect evidentiality and its sub-domains of inference and hearsay are encoded in the TAM-paradigms, which have developed evidentiality as a secondary meaning, or can be conveyed by lexical means. There are no overt morphological i.

As reflected by the analyzed data, the encoding of evidentiality in Georgian is not restricted to the indirect evidentiality, as sometimes claimed in the literature. The claim according to which Georgian marks only indirect evidentiality second hand information is valid for some grammatical strategies e. In contrast to the grammatical strategies which developed evidentiality as a secondary meaning, like the perfect, some lexical strategies may have evidentiality as unique meaning.

By James Pustejovsky and Olga Batiukova

The evidential value may overlap with the epistemic one within a marker, as demonstrated by a large number of lexical means. However, such overlap is not obligatory, as for instance in the case of the perfect, which is not compatible with the epistemic elements. The Georgian perfect, which has developed an evidential value in addition to other meanings, corroborates the claim made by some authors Aikhenvald , De Haan , Wiemer according to which evidentiality and epistemicity are two different notions, both at the conceptual and functional level.

References Aikhenvald, Alexandra Y. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Amiridze, Nino. Arabuli, Avtandil. Aronson, Howard I. The Interrelationships between Aspect and Mood in Bulgarian. Folia Slavica 1, 1. Georgian: A Reading Grammar. Columbus: Slavica Publishers. Boeder, Winfried. Evidentiality in Georgian. Speech and thought representation in the Kartvelian South Caucasian Languages. In: Reported discourse: a meeting ground for different linguistic domains Typological Studies in Language 52 , ed.

Amsterdam: John Benjamins, Chikobava, Arnold. Kartuli enis zogadi daxasiateba [A general characteristisation of the Georgian Language]. Chikobava, Tbilisi. De Haan, Ferdinand. Semantic Distinctions of Evidentiality. Dryer, David Gil, Bernard. Oxford: Oxford University Press, — Coding of Evidentiality.

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