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- Confederate Vixen
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There are no ends for what I have begun— There are no resting places where I run, Until I am surrendered to the sea. Now we are old, we are worn, we are weary of sleeping; There's an end to all sorrow, there must be an end to our weeping: Come with me, run with me, find with me, laughing and leaping—.
Up that thin river, going over sand— Down that deep river, purple to the sun; My fingers fire; cool your quiet hand, And your voice sad, and mine the ardent one So, silver-thin, the flute-like running river Threaded the sea-set purple stream; and we Sat mingling voices solemn and a-quiver Until we struck the storm—and heard the sea. Over you, over you, over, I hang like a wave, like a lover, Like a scimitar edged with hate; Too heavy with grief to be straight And far, Too frail to ever discover How to fall like a wave or a lover— Or a blue-thin scimitar.
Forever lost—like birds forever flying, Searching bleak space, Circling, and with the south wind crying Across earth's face:. Arrowed I fly, and like them lost forever, Having once seen Scarlet in a jungle, by a deep river— Scarlet and green. I understand what you were running for, Slim naked boy, and why from far inland You came between dark hills. I know the roar The sea makes in some ears. I understand. I understand why you were running now And how you heard the sea resound, and how You leaped and left your valley for the long Brown road.
I understand the song. You chanted with your running, with your feet Marking the measure of your high heart's beat. Now you are broken. Seeing your wide brow I see your dreams. I understand you now. Since I have run like you, I understand The throat's long wish, the breath that comes so quick, The heart's light leap, the heels that drag so sick, And warped heat wrinkles, lengthening the sand Seeing your wide brow I see your dreams, understanding now The cry, the certainty, wide arms,—and then The way rude ocean rises and descends Other hearts have broken gracefully, for your sake, And now your eyes reproach me that my ache Is awkward, and my arms Are angular across my breast Where emptiness is pressed.
Only to tell your loveliness—this love: Only to tell Pain's odor, beauty-burning miracle Of my surrender! Late I flew But ever arrow-straight I fly now from the shade that falls—that fell Lightly on you, On me with a wave's weight. Oh, I must go: this city has a spell I never gave it leave to have. Still, still to tell The weaving of your footsteps on the stairs With my slow-dropping love for you that wears Cold stone I want my heart for—still I stay. Put out the stars. Give me another day Only to tell.
You are no more, but sunken in a sea Sheer into dream, ten thousand leagues, you fell; And now you lie green-golden, while a bell Swings with the tide, my heart: and all is well Till I look down, and wavering, the spell— Your loveliness—returns. There in the sea, Where you lie amber-pale and coral-cool, You are most loved, most lost, most beautiful.
Put her away some place between two hills, Away from the sea and the sun. She has so much to think of—must she run On your bright bosom always, Mother Earth? Put her away, and let some other birth Bring her back to the sound of the sea, and the sun. After she ponders under silent hills, Beneath your swarming bosom, Mother Earth, She will have words for her beloved one.
These were his songs. Now he has broken them. All he has made, that has he also slain: Seeing my beauty budding, broke the stem; Finding his likeness here, where he has lain, Finding the flame of his hurt spirit here In this small pool that motioned with his shade, Seeing himself, he smote me with his fear— He only lives to break what he has made. All, all he fathered, all that lived by him, Shut from his face with banging of loud doors.
The sun, losing his spirit, now is gone dim; Only the sea that roared before, still roars. Now it is time to go, softly away; We will grow fragile, songs, soon we will fade.
He has no place for us, we cannot stay— He cannot bear the beauty he has made. Where will we go, my songs, under the sun? There is no place to go, no, there is none. The sea is scornful of our sufferings. The sea is like him, careless of all things, Beating her own, and mourning that they die. All things are like him—beautiful they lie Pressing their image wildly on our grief, Prone in their beauty, terrible and brief, And when they face us, bitterly afraid, They cannot bear the beauty they have made.
Where will we go, my songs? He does not know Your faces any more, or love your lips. We are too frail to last. There will be snow, The noise of rivers, and the winter's whips. To wind and water we will give our woe That once made music. Let them follow him. When all the sky is darkened at the rim And he and we have stumbled in its shade, No one will know the beauty he has made.
In that day Everyone will sing, Everyone will play in that day; There will be carolling. In that day Men will not pray, Men's hearts will never know Struggle and woe. Lovers will be Simple and free; On warm fall nights, men's sweethearts will conceive. No one will grieve, No one grow gray; Feet will not go Wandering, in that day, Save on one quest Older than they: Across one threshold—an unbidden guest. If you will poise your forefoot in my pool, I will not loose a ripple, Beautiful.
Crackle the fern-stems, arch aloft and stare, See! A leaf shall not lift, nor a shade shake You and your shy love away from my lake. I know the noon is ablaze for you, This gaunt forest, a maze for you: Kneel near this drop of water on stone, No one comes plunging. You are alone. To-day I am opal, tinged with blue, My color deepens with the glassy heat, And I listen for hoofs. Am I timid, too? Noon is my enemy!
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Thrust in your feet! Trample this silver, trample this sand, I will not startle you, Little One; stand Slim as the larch, there, I'll not take Even your shade to the naked ache Of my lessening waters. If you lean, Another faun, like you, but green Will flick his ears and curve his throat, His shadow hoof will lift between These pebble-splotches.
Will you float, Mingle and drowse and touch me, Beautiful? If you come down some blown noon to my pool, I will be quiet, I will be cool. Boys and girls, come out to play: The sun is up, the wind's astray, Early morning's gold is gone— They slumber on, they slumber on.
I have never done with you Half the things I want to do. I will put kisses on your knees, And we will squander as we please This lovely, little lazy day! Ninety million miles away The sun halloos: "Come out to play; The winds are prancing on tip-toe, Impatient with long waiting so; The hills look up. Come out and oh, Let your bodies dart and run While I make shadows," says the sun. Boys and girls, come out to play Before the river runs away, I have never done with you Half the things I want to do Boys and girls, come out to play Before the river runs away, While you are fluid, unafraid, Beneath my light and shadow skim, Before this folded gloom is dim And limb no longer follows limb Dancing under spotted shade.
For dancing were your bodies made: Before the roses of you fade, Find your meaning for the mouth While I lean south; while I go west, Find your meaning for the rest. Throw back your head and fly with me— Love me, chase me, lie with me; Follow, sweetheart of the sun, Turn and follow where I run Between blue vineyards and fruit-trees— Fall down and kiss me on the knees! Pant beside me while I pull Berries for you from the full Blue-jeweled branches. Crush them red, Not on your mouth—on mine instead! Nimble you move—you are my own, My pliant essence. All alone, On fire in the passive sky I burn—a stone, a golden stone; Together, you in double shade Discover why your limbs were made.
The item may have some signs of cosmetic wear, but is fully operational and functions as intended. This item may be a floor model or store return that has been used. See details for description of any imperfections. Skip to main content. The listing you're looking for has ended. Like New. View original item. Sell one like this. We found something similar. About this product. Pre-owned: lowest price The lowest-priced item that has been used or worn previously. Velvet Thunder Heartfire Romance. Howard, Teresa. Actions: Astringes the large intestine, stops diarrhea; kills parasites; stabilizes the kidneys, controls Jing.
JC : various parts, especially the root bark Anthelmintic taeniafuge, vermifuge , astringent, refrigerant, antibilious, anticancerous. The sweet variety may increase Ama. Hsu : Antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal. Actions: Astringes Lung Qi; stops coughing; astringes the large intestine, stops diarrhea; controls leakage of fluids; absorbs moisture; reduces swelling; relives fire toxicity.
Hsu : Hemostatic, antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, stimulates the CNS, regulates the cardiovascular system — improves blood circulation, hypotensive. JTCM : It was recorded in Ben Cao Gan Mu that Wu bei zi can astringe the Lungs, drain fire, transform phlegm, dissipate red swellings, eliminate toxicity, astringe non-healing ulcers, and lift prolapse of the anus, uterus and intestines. Modern scientific research shows that Wu bei zi contains tannic acid which has can coagulate proteins and blood locally, promoting the healing of ulcers.
Dry Wu bei zi powder often produces results within a week. Apply the powder 5 to 6 times a day. Usually the pain will be reduced and ulcers will heal in 7 days. The kidney opens to the external genital area. So, Wu bei zi can be used for kidney deficiency causing prolapse in the genital area. For hemorrhoids, after the patient moves their bowels, clean the anus with warm water.
Put 5g Wu bei zi powder on gauze and gently apply to the anus. Usually hemorrhoids will heal within a week. For uterine prolapse mix Wu bei zi powder with sesame oil to make a paste. Apply the paste to gauze, insert into the vagina at night before bed, and remove it in the morning. Recovery will usually occur within 2 weeks. For anal prolapse, break 60g Wu bei zi into small pieces. Cover with water, bring to a boil, and cook for 30 minutes. While the decoction is still steaming, let the steam bathe the anus. Then wash the anus with the decoction, or sit in a basin of the fluid for 30 minutes.
The prolapse will usually be reduced after three washes, with total recovery in a week. With its cool nature it can clear heat, transform phlegm and stop coughing, and it can also stop bleeding and sweating. Sweating is related to the Lungs. The umbilicus is the key point on the Ren Mai , and the Ren Mai can adjust all the Yin meridians in the body. When Wu bei zi enters this point, it can help the Ren Mai adjust all the Yin meridians in order to astringe sweating.
Traditional Chinese medical theory states that spontaneous sweats are a symptom of Yang deficiency and that night sweats indicate Yin deficiency, but in the clinic this is not always true — we still need to differentiate. However, either type can be treated with topical herbs. The combination known as Long Bei San is comprised of equal parts Wu bei zi powder and calcined Long gu.
Mix Long Bei San with a small amount of water, apply to the umbilicus, and cover with an adhesive bandage. Change the application every other day. Usually it takes 2 to 6 applications to arrest the sweating. Accordingly, it is a good herb for the treatment of enuresis and seminal emission caused by kidney deficiency. For patients with seminal emission, combining Long Bei San on the umbilicus while simultaneously administering an internal formula yields better results. Modern research shows that Wu bei zi contains tannic acid which can coagulate protein and form a thin membrane to strengthen the filtration capacity of the nephron tubule and increase resorption from the nephron.
As a result, it can prevent proteinuria. A hot water bottle can be used to warm the abdomen simultaneously. The powder should be changed every other day. Dosage ranged from 10 to 30g. He said Wu bei zi was the best herb for the treatment of toothache, especially when caused by tooth decay. Wu bei zi powder can be applied to the painful spot or it can be decocted and gargled with.
Sometimes the toothache stops immediately. Afterwards, the decayed area can be filled with Ru xiang to prevent inflammation. Prepare a formula of g each of Wu bei zi , Hu tao rou , Mai men dong , and Wu wei zi , grind to a powder, and give 6g twice a day, morning and night. Two to eight weeks of treatment with the above combination produces good results in every case. Actions: Astringes Lung Qi; astringes the large intestine; stops coughing and diarrhea; generates body fluids, eases thirst; calms roundworms; stops bleeding.
Wei Li gives in large dose for recalcitrant skin disease, such as eczema g. Hsu : Pronounced antibacterial effect, antifungal, anti-allergic effect. BF : Mume is a plum picked green in the fifth month. It is then preserved by drying over a slow-baking fire for several days. In Japan, umeboshi is made from this same plum which is pickled with salt and Perilla leaves called chiso in Japanese. Stomach aches, stomach cramps, migraines, certain types of headaches, and acidity are some of the minor pains these plums can relieve.
They also counteract fatigue and act as a preventive against dysentery. In modern Chinese medicine, Mume has three main uses. First, it astringes the intestines and stops diarrhea. Secondly, it expels worms or parasites. And third, it engenders fluids. Vexatious fullness suggests liver depression qi stagnation, the necessity of precipitating the qi suggests upward counterflow, eliminating heat suggests depressive heat, and quieting the heart, when read together with the other symptoms, suggests yin fire disturbing the heart spirit.
Li Dong-yuan did sometimes use Mume in his yin fire formulas. Green-blue and black moles suggest blood stasis, while malign diseases means both injurious diseases and also suggests blood stasis, since static blood is also called malign blood. Heiner Fruehauf says that a number of medicinals are specifically quieting to the spirit in gu zheng cases. Fructus Pruni Mume likewise engenders fluids. It is also the best known of the commonly used Chinese medicinals for treating worms or parasites. Although Fruehauf does not mention Mume being described in the Chinese gu zheng literature as a typical anti-gu medicinal.
I believe it should be. In addition, I think the combination of Mume and Perilla is a very effective one in clinical practice. Perilla, by the way, can also be grown as a self-reseeding garden herb and eaten as a salad green. Actions: Strongly astringes Lung Qi, stops coughing; mildly nourishes kidney Yin; generates body fluids; stops sweating; controls Jing; stops diarrhea; quiets the Shen and calms the heart.
MLT : Inhibits loss of physical and mental energy. Its spirit calming effects lie in its ability to heal and prevent loss of psycho-physiological energy. Hsu : Excites the CNS, increases brain efficiency, regulates the cardiovascular system to improve circulation, antitussive, expectorant, stimulates uterine smooth muscle, strongly antibacterial, cardiotonic, analgesic, cholagogue.
It is very effective at treating stubborn insomnia. Modern pharmacological research shows that Wu wei zi can improve human intelligence and efficiency. At concentrations of 5 to 10 mg in the bloodstream, Wu wei zi can improve the attention and balance movement by affecting muscle chemistry. It also works through enhancement of the cortex. Wu wei zi can stimulate the smooth muscle of the uterus, so it is not recommended for pregnant women. When the night sweats were gone he found that the asthmatic bronchitis was cured as well.
Mix to form a paste and save in a bottle. Take an egg-sized amount of paste, put on the umbilicus, cover with plastic wrap and use tape to fix it in place. It is usually applied before bed and removed the following morning. Re-evaluate the patient after 3 day courses. Shen Que [CV-8] has a biao-ne relationship with the Du Mai , connects with the twelve meridians, five zang and six fu organs, and joins the upper and lower body. Medical research shows the umbilicus is the last place to close during the development of the embryo.
Beneath it, there is no adipose tissue, but a number of large blood and lymph vessels and nerves. From an anatomical perspective, the umbilicus is thus an excellent passage for absorption of topical herbs. The properties of Wu wei zi penetrate this passage to act on the human body. The key components in Wu wei zi that can decrease glutamine-alanine transaminase are in the seed of the Wu wei zi fruit. So the correct way to prepare Wu wei zi is to bake it and then grind it into a powder.
Take the powder, 3g at a time, three times a day. It also can be made into pills with honey. If cooked in a decoction, it must be ground first. When using Wu wei zi to lower glutamine-alanine transaminase, we need to be cautious. After glutamine-alanine transaminase is back to normal, we should decrease the dosage of the Wu wei zi. If we use only Wu wei zi to lower the glutamine-alanine transaminase level, it is easy for the patient to relapse. When jaundice appears we should move the blood and dispel blood stasis.
It is better to disperse the pathogen than to astringe it. Sometimes only using Wu wei zi can trap the pathogen inside and the disease will progress to severe jaundice or cirrhosis of the liver. Therefore, the best way to treat hepatitis is to combine Wu wei zi with some herbs to move Qi and blood and dispel blood stasis. The source of the disease is related to deficiency of the prenatal yuan Qi and postnatal imbalance, causing kidney deficiency and leakage of the Jing, blood, and body fluids. In this case, astringing means storage. The kidney is in charge of the storage of Jing, so Wu wei zi is a key herb to tonify the kidney and treat diabetes.
Use a large dosage of Wu wei zi and make it into pills. If the patient has hypertension, add Yi mu cao , and Huai niu xi. If the patient has high cholesterol and atherosclerosis, add Jue ming zi , He shou wu , Dan shen, and Shan zha. If the patient has coronary artery disease, add San qi , Jiang xiang , and Tian hua fen.
The Lung is the upper water passage and the kidney is the lower water passage. Insufficiency of the upper water passage and leakage from the lower water passage are the key causes of polydipsia and glucosuria in diabetes. Wu wei zi enters the Lung and kidney, and it can astringe the Lung and tonify the kidney — this is how it can ease thirst and prevent the leakage of Jing.
Wu wei zi nourishes body fluids, eases dryness, and also works for itchiness caused by allergies. This method is widely used in chronic pharyngitis caused by Lung and kidney Yin xu or dryness and itchiness of the throat after chemotherapy. It follows the idea that sour and sweet can produce Yin, as recorded in the Nei Jing.
In this way, we can disperse pathogenic factors and at the same time astringe the Qi and body fluids to stop the itchiness of the throat. Clinically we use these combinations to treat cough with itchiness and dryness of the throat due to allergic pharyngitis. Because tears are the fluid of the liver, and Wu wei zi enters the liver, it can astringe tears also. However, it cannot treat all forms of pupil dilation and tearing.
Due to its warm nature and sour taste, it can treat symptoms caused by liver and kidney deficiency or liver Qi consumption. Three additional guidelines to consider when using: 1. Large doses, from 10 to 20g, can be used with no side effects from long-term use. It can be combined with a small dose of Gan cao , so as to blend sweet and sour and produce Yin. When cooking Wu wei zi in a decoction we must grind it into a powder first, just as Zhang Xi Chun said.
So as a whole when ground to release the contents of the entire fruit and seed its astringing and dispersing functions are balanced. Change the gauze every other day. When applied in the clinic, we need to wait until all the toxins and unhealthy tissue on the surface are gone. Be cautious not to apply too much powder, because too much will form a scab and cover the surface, which prolongs healing time.
Apply a thin enough layer of Wu wei zi powder so that the tissue beneath is still visible. DY : With Gan jiang to effectively warm the Lungs, transform phlegm, stop cough, and calm asthma. For more details on the mechanisms of the combination of Wu wei zi and Gan jiang , see Gan jiang. The ethanolic extract per se is sometimes dubbed Wurenchun in traditional chinese medicine. Increase Nitric Oxide circulating after ingestion of about mg Schisandra Chinensis extract has been noted in human athletes of both novice and elite caliber.
Currently, the only human study on cognition related to Schisandra has been conducted under conditions of stress. Another possible mechanisms of improved cognition is pertaining to acetylcholine, whereas consumption of Schisandra Chinensis fruits is associated with inhibiting Acetylcholinesterase thereby increasing levels of acetylcholine and simultaneously possessing the capacity to enhance Cholinergic signalling in the presence of a ligand.
Actions: Moistens the Lungs, generates body fluids, stops coughing; clears heat from the Lungs and heart; calms the Shen. DY : Nourishes heart Yin. For such indications as: — 1. Vexation and agitation, insomnia, vertigo, thirst related to a warm disease which has damaged Yin or due to Yin deficiency with deficiency heat.
Dry cough, vexation and agitation after a warm disease. Lily disease. It follows either a warm disease, in which case it is of sudden and recent onset, or emotional problems which have damaged heart Yin, in which case it is enduring and progressive in nature. Thus the syndrome mainly relates to the Lung; ii. The main zang involved are the Lung and Heart and sometimes also the Spleen. It is generally caused by injury due to excess of the seven emotions, and often begins with depression which damages the Heart and Lung Yin.
Sometimes Bai He syndrome develops after a febrile disease that damages the Yin of the Heart and Lung leading to emotional problems. The Heart stores the Shen; when the Heart is injured, the Shen is disturbed. When the Po is disturbed, the patient is usually absent-minded and, because the Po belongs to the Lungs, easily suffers from sadness and grief; when the Po is uneasy the patient suffers from hallucinations. The general treatment principle for Bai He syndrome is to treat the Heart and Lung, concentrating on whichever of these two zang most predominates.
The main patterns of Bai He syndrome are: 1. Disharmony between Heart and Kidney [no formula given] The value of understanding the syndrome of Bai He lies in its practical relevance in the analysis and treatment of patients suffering from depression, uneasiness, absentmindedness, lack of concentration, sadness, grief etc.
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Since the clinical manifestations of patients with emotional disorders do not avail themselves of clear-cut categorisation whether in Western medicine or TCM , the broader the understanding of the possibilities the better the weaving of a treatment prescription. Li: Useful for chronic hepatitis with Yin deficiency; boosts the immune system.
Actions: Subdues liver Yang; nourishes liver Yin; softens and resolves masses; promotes blood circulation; promotes menstruation.
However, Bie jia is more effective at treating palpable abdominal masses, and is less apt than Gui ban is to cause stagnation. With Gui ban to make Yin and Yang interact, to enrich Yin, clear deficiency heat, subdue Yang, extinguish wind, and stop tremors. Tidal fever, steaming bones, and night sweats due to Yin deficiency heat. Use vinegar dip-calcined Gui ban. Weakness of the limbs, involuntary trembling of the hands and feet, and a red tongue with little or no fur due to a warm disease which has damaged the fluids and which causes internal wind of the deficiency type.
Headaches, vertigo, head distention and tinnitus due to ascendant hyperactivity of liver Yang. Hypertension due to Yin deficiency which causes Yang to rise. Abdominal conglomeration, such as hepatomegaly and splenomegaly. Use vinegar dip-calcined Bie jia. Actions: Nourishes kidney and liver Yin; brightens the eyes; mildly moistens the Lungs, nourishes Lung Yin; mildly supports Jing; mildly tonifies Yang. Li : Important herb for sedating liver Yang. Hsu : May help promote regeneration of liver cells and inhibit precipitation of fat in liver cells. DY : With Ju hua to effectively nourish and supplement the liver and kidneys, clear heat, calm the liver, and brighten the eyes.
Bai ju hua should be used. Ju hua carries the action of Gou qi zi toward the eyes. However, when prepared this way, the herb tends to be weaker at nourishing the liver and kidneys, blood and Jing. SD : Lycium fruit is the red berry obtained from two closely related plants, Lycium chinense and Lycium barbarum, naturally occurring in Asia, primarily in northwest China mainly in Qinghai, Gansu, Ningxia, and Inner Mongolia, but east as far as Hebei and west to Tibet and Xinjiang.
The fruits from these species are considered interchangeable, though larger fruits are preferred and are more often found on plants of L. Lycium is in the Solanaceae family that yields numerous foods, including some that are yellow to red fruits, such as peppers, tomatoes, and the cape gooseberry a Peruvian species of Physalis.
The spiny shrub has also been called matrimony vine, for reasons long lost. Carl Linnaeus provided the genus name Lycium in He is responsible for the species name barbarum, while botanist Philip Miller described Lycium chinense just 15 years later. Lycium is extensively cultivated, especially in Ningxia Province, a small autonomous region formerly part of Gansu, with several production projects initiated since China now produces over 5 million kilograms of dried lycium fruit each year, most of it for domestic use.
The fruits are dried with or without sulfur to yield the market herb, or the fresh fruits may be squeezed for their juice that is then concentrated to preserve it for future use in making various beverages. Lycium fruit is depicted by Chinese doctors as having the properties of nourishing the blood, enriching the yin, tonifying the kidney and liver, and moistening the lungs, but its action of nourishing the yin of the kidney, and thereby enriching the yin of the liver, is the dominant presentation.
It is applied in the treatment of such conditions as consumptive disease accompanied by thirst includes early-onset diabetes and tuberculosis , dizziness, diminished visual acuity, and chronic cough. As a folk remedy, lycium fruit is best known as an aid to vision, a longevity aid, and a remedy for diabetes. With the intensive research work done in recent years, reliance on descriptions of centuries-old use of the herb is less important than for many other Chinese herbs, since much is now known about the chemical constituents and their potential health benefits.
Constituents and Actions The color components of lycium fruit are a group of carotenoids, which make up only 0. The predominant carotenoid is zeaxanthin see structure below , which is present mainly as zeaxanthin dipalmitate also called physalien or physalin , comprising about one-third to one-half of the total carotenoids. Lycium fruit is considered one of the best food sources of zeaxanthin. Zeaxanthin is a yellow pigment an isomer of lutein and a derivative of?
It contributes to the color of corn, oranges, mangoes, and egg yolks from dietary carotenoids , and it is also the main pigment of another medicinal fruit recently popularized in China: sea buckthorn hippophae. When ingested, zeaxanthin accumulates in fatty tissues, but especially in the macula, a region of the retina. Lutein, another yellow carotenoid that accumulates in the macula and provides similar protection, is an ingredient of yellow chrysanthemum flowers juhua that are often combined with lycium fruits in traditional Chinese herb formulas to benefit the eyes, including deteriorating vision that occurs with aging and may, in some cases, correspond to macular degeneration.
The effective daily dose of these two carotenoids, from food and supplements, has been estimated to be about 10 mg. Another plant in the Solanaceae family used in Chinese medicine though rarely , is Physalis alkekengi, the Chinese lantern plant, which contains zeaxanthin dipalmitate as a major active component. In addition, the plant contains some steroidal compounds that have been named physalins, producing some confusion about the use of this term because of its former application to the carotenoid.
Physalis is used as a treatment for viral hepatitis, and this effect may be attributed in part to zeaxanthin and also to the steroidal compounds. Physalis is used for treating a variety of inflammatory disorders, perhaps aiding treatment of infections; extracts of physalis have been shown to increase natural killer cell activity when administered to mice. The red carotenoids of lycium have not been fully analyzed. It is believed that part is due to lycopene, the major red pigment in tomatoes and capsicum fruits.
The red portion of lycium has been designated as renieratene; the red color overwhelms the yellow of zeaxanthin and the small amount of? Benefits of carotenoid intake are thought to mainly arise from prolonged use. Therefore, lycium fruit, as a source of zeaxanthin and other carotenoids, would be consumed regularly to complement dietary sources, boosting the amount of these components available from fruits and vegetables and egg yolks.
Another component of lycium is polysaccharides, chains of sugar molecules with high molecular weight several hundred sugar molecules per chain. Studies of the polysaccharides have indicated that there are four groups of them, each group having slightly different structures and molecular weights 6. Although referred to as polysaccharides, the functional immune-regulating substance is actually a polysaccharide-peptide mixture; the amino acid chains maintain a critical structure for the polysaccharide. So, most studies of these polysaccharides are done with isolated cells or with injections of the purified component to laboratory animals, yielding results that may or may not occur when these substances are consumed orally.
This dose of polysaccharides is quite low compared to usual clinical practice, and further evaluation is needed.
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These lycium fruit polysaccharides, like those obtained from medicinal mushrooms and from several herbs the best known as a source is astragalus , have several possible benefits, including promoting immune system functions, reducing gastric irritation, and protecting against neurological damage. The immunological impacts of polysaccharides have been the primary focus of study One of the primary mechanisms of action for these large molecules may be that they appear to the immune system as though they were cell surface components of microorganisms, promoting activation of a response cascade involving interleukins such as IL-2 that impact immune cells such as T-cells.
Since the plant polysaccharides are not the same as the structures on particular pathogens, but have a more poorly defined quality, the response is non-specific. It is possible that repeated exposure to large amounts of polysaccharides might result in a lessened response, so that this method of therapy is probably best suited to relatively short duration e. Low dosage exposure may result in no immunological responses, since these polysaccharides are present in several foods in small amounts, and the immune system would be protected from reacting to ordinary exposure levels.
A review of research on lycium fruit appearing in Recent Advances in Chinese Herbal Drugs 11 , indicates that polysaccharides from lycium fruit enhance both cell-mediated and humoral immune responses. The end response to polysaccharide administration did not appear to be solely a stimulation of immune activity, however. In a laboratory study of lycium on IgE responses, it was noted that lycium fruit reduced antibodies associated with allergy-type reactions, which was presumed to be accomplished through the mechanisms of promoting CD8 T-cells and regulating cytokines; licorice root had a similar effect Extraction and isolation of polysaccharides in low concentration is simple, as they are soluble in hot water that is used as an extracting agent.
Getting a high concentration of polysaccharides is a more significant task. The easiest method is to first produce a hot water extract of the herb using more than one extraction to get most of the polysaccharides into solution , and then force the polysaccharides out of solution by adding alcohol, in which they are not soluble; then, the liquid is separated off and the residue is dried to produce the finished polysaccharide product. This method will also condense other large molecules.
A third constituent of interest is the amino-acid like substance betaine, which is related to the nutrient choline betaine is an oxidized form of choline and is converted back to choline by the liver when it is ingested. When added to chicken feed, betaine enhances growth of the animals and increases egg production; it is currently used in poultry farming because of these effects.
In recent years, betaine has been included in some Western nutritional supplement products, especially those used for improving muscle mass, using several hundred milligrams for a daily dose. Betaine was shown to protect the livers of laboratory animals from the impact of toxic chemicals; other pharmacologic studies have shown that it is an anticonvulsant, sedative, and vasodilator. It has been suggested that betaine could aid the treatment of various chronic liver diseases, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Betaine is found also in capsicum, silybum the source of the liver-protective flavonoid silymarin , and beets Beta vulgaris, from which betaine gets its name.
The mild fragrance of the fruits is attributed to a small amount of volatile oils, mainly two sesquiterpenes: cyperone and solavetivone The amount present does not have significant pharmacological functions when lycium is consumed in ordinary amounts. The fruit also contains about 0. Typical Dosing of Lycium Fruit Lycium fruit is most often incorporated into complex herb formulas, in which its dose is in the range of 6—18 grams. Since other herbs in the formula could contribute significant amounts of compounds such as carotenoids and polysaccharides, this dose may be insufficient if lycium is used as a single herb remedy instead.
There have been a few reports of using lycium fruit as a single herb or as a major component in a small recipe. For example, in the treatment of atrophic gastritis, one of the recommended therapies is to consume lycium fruits, 10 grams each time, twice daily In folk medicine, for diabetes it is recommended to consume 10 grams each time, two or three times daily As a food therapy for strengthening the elderly or debilitated, it is cooked with lean pork, bamboo shoots, and typical Chinese flavorings, and the daily dose would be 15—30 grams A simple tea for decreased visual perception is made from 20 grams lycium fruit as a daily dose Thus, the dose in complex formulas of 6—18 grams shifts to a dose of 15—30 grams when it is the main herb, or about a 2.
A tableted formula for benefiting vision, made from extracts of lycium fruit, cuscuta seed tusizi , bilberry fruit a type of blueberry , and marigold flowers source of lutein , is produced by ITM and called Lycuvin Two tablets of the formula a typical daily dose provides lycium extractives from 10 grams of the fruit with about 3 mg of zeaxanthin ; cuscuta extractives from 6 grams of the seeds a good source of the flavonoid quercetin, and with a polysaccharide content similar to that of lycium fruit ; 75 mg of anthocyanins another visual pigment from bilberry, and 8 mg of lutein.
These quantities are all consistent with high supplementation levels suggested in the literature for eye health, particularly of benefit to the macula. Like other commonly eaten fruits, lycium is non-toxic. Toxicity studies showed that injection of 2. There was one recent report of possible hepatic reaction to consumption of a lycium fruit beverage product A possible case of interaction of lycium fruit with Warfarin coumadin was reported 21 ; however, given the high frequency of use of lycium fruit and of Warfarin, the lack of more reports of interaction suggests that the incidence may be very low.
Himalayan Goji Juice In the U.
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He learned of lycium fruit from a Chinese herbal specialist in , and introduced a juice product in , which is made from the reconstituted extracts of four fruits: lycium, grape, apple, and pear with pear puree added. It is provided in bottles of 33 fluid ounces 1 liter , with recommended use of 2—4 ounces per day, so one bottle is about an 8—16 day supply. Very quickly, a number of other companies have imitated this popular product, and some have gone on to make other formulations featuring lycium fruit as a primary or secondary ingredient.
Comparing this juice to the lycium fruit described in traditional Chinese medicine is somewhat difficult. Dried lycium fruit can be eaten whole sold most in one pound bags, about 23—46 doses of 10—20 grams , and can be obtained at a lower cost because it is in crude form. The makers of this juice, and other similar products, proclaim unique benefits to the juice, mainly because of specific selection of berries, compared to the dried lycium fruits readily available from Chinese herb and grocery stores.
The juice is a convenient form of administration and also provides other juices that yield a more acceptable flavor , so the extra expense may be considered worthwhile, while there is little evidence that would support a contention of differing therapeutic effect if similar amounts of the lycium fruit are obtained from drinking the juice or from eating the dried fruits or taking supplements made from lycium extracts. An ITM Health Protocol with Lycium Fruit While ITM has advocated consuming dried lycium fruits, in much the way one would eat raisins or other small dried fruits, as a means of getting an adequate quantity of the fruit, it is recognized that many people prefer other methods of consuming herbs, such as tablets.
The following protocol, relying on tableted herbs, provides a good dose of lycium fruit along with other herbs that also have the reputation of nourishing the yin, supplementing the kidney and liver as described in Chinese medicine terms , benefiting the eyes, enhancing immune functions, and protecting against adverse impact of oxidation: Tremella 14 Seven Forests : 5 tablets each time, twice daily Lycuvin White Tiger : 1 tablet each time, twice daily China Rare Fruits Blend Jintu : 2 tablets each time, twice daily Tremella 14 is a yin-nourishing combination of crude herbs; about one third of the formula is made of equal parts lycium fruit, tremella a tree mushroom, yiner , and astragalus huangqi ; these three herbs are excellent sources of active polysaccharides.
Lycuvin was described above, and is a source of visual pigments, especially zeaxanthin and lutein, as well as polysaccharides from lycium and cuscuta. China Rare Fruits Blend is a combination of medicinal fruits including lycium and hippophae shaji as sources of zeaxanthin; the formula is considered especially useful for nourishing skin, hair, and nails. This protocol of three products provides extract and powder from 15 grams of lycium fruit in a daily suggested dose.
The cost of such a protocol is similar to that for consuming the juice products. Although many potential benefits are described for lycium fruit, the goji juice, and these tablets, only the claim of providing useful amounts of carotenoids and other pigments for nourishing the retina especially the macula can be adequately verified at this time.
Actions: Nourishes liver and kidney Yin; subdues liver Yang rising; tonifies the kidneys to strengthen the bones; mildly nourishes heart blood; cools the blood, stops uterine bleeding; softens hardness; expels stasis; aids in difficult births. Hsu : Antipyretic, analgesic. Each of these creatures is associated with a direction and element, the tortoise, usually depicted in conjunction with a snake, represents the north, and is thereby associated with the water, darkness the color black , and the earth 28 , the element which was later put into the five element system in the center.
The prognostications and insights learned from the cracks were often written right onto the shells, and it is from buried fragments of tortoise shells along with some mammal bones that were used similarly that we know the most ancient forms of Chinese writing.
The Chinese character bu, which means to divine by looking at the cracks in the tortoise shell as the heat develops them, is represented by two lines depicting cracks. This character became incorporated into numerous others as a radical. Thus, the tortoise and its shell have been an important part of Chinese culture.
Further, the tortoise has been used as both food and medicine since ancient times, and is recorded as being used for these purposes since the Han Dynasty, years ago. Regarding their inclusion in the Chinese diet, E. Notable supplementing foods are pangolins, raccoon dogs, soft-shelled turtles, tortoises, snakehead fish, birds of prey…. Many things were purely medicines, but medicines often became foods if people learned to like them; many foods became merely medicines when people stopped relishing them….
They have become one of the standard items of the Materia Medica, with consistent use since the earliest recorded medical books. In fact, shells, along with similar animal materials, such as scales, antlers, and skins, are the most commonly used animal substances in the Chinese Materia Medica. Among these, oyster shell is probably the most widely used, followed by deer antler, tortoise shell, and pangolin scale, with lesser amounts of donkey skin gelatin and turtle shell being utilized, though still important to Chinese practice.
These materials are rich in collagen and calcium compounds; collagens are the proteins that help determine the overall physical structure and the calcium compounds contribute to rigidity. Pangolin scale, as well as other animal materials such as cicada slough, snake slough, and horns rhino, antelope, buffalo , are comprised mainly of another protein, keratin, which is similar to collagen; turtle and tortoise shells, as well as deer antlers contain some keratin the hairs of antler velvet are mainly keratin. Oyster shell, which is extremely hard, is mainly comprised of calcium carbonates and calcium phosphates with relatively little protein, while donkey hide is mainly comprised of collagen with a little calcium; the other materials mentioned above have intermediate content.
Tortoise shell and deer antler also contain chondroitin sulfate, a protein-polysaccharide complex that has recently been utilized to treat joint degeneration it is a building block of the cartilage, comprised mainly of glucosamine. Small amounts of cholesterol and other animal substances are also present in the shells, scales, and skins. Presumably, tortoise shell also contains some substances that contribute similar kinds of activity.
Traditionally, antler is said to tonify and open the governing vessel dumai while tortoise shell tonifies and opens the conception vessel renmai , the two vessels that run along the midline of the body, back yang and front yin , respectively. Perhaps there are slightly differing constituents that can be found to explain the differing attributes. Tortoise shell, as a medicinal agent, is most often utilized in rehmannia-based formulas that nourish the yin and blood and settle the yang 5.
Relatively little is known of the pharmacology of the individual herbs of these formulas, though the overall effects include changes in hormones and hormone receptors. It is possible that tortoise shell provides a nutritional component to some formulas, with calcium and protein, though the flesh of the tortoise would be a better source of protein.