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  1. East Baton Rouge Parish Louisiana Historical Markers - The Historical Marker Database
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He tied an LSU record with three interceptions against Mississippi State in and his six interceptions. A punishing blocker and fine pass catcher, he helped lead a resurgence of LSU football in the s. He was instrumental in LSU's place as top rushing team. Delta Zeta Sorority was founded at Miami University in The second oldest sorority on campus, the Sigma chapter was the first established in the South on November 30, Find within the walls of this home a sisterhood inspired by. Dedicated by the Louisiana Department Reserve Officers Association of the United States to those Cadets who have distinguished themselves by their outstanding attention to duty their scholarly attainments and their preparation of of.

It was constructed of hewn pine logs. Building began in , but was not completed until the late 's. This house consists of two rooms. Note the 'one-by-twelve' inch boards across the front. It has beveled edge siding on the front wall. The framing is. His pass catching ability was heralded, but his place kicking was also vitally important. He played professionally with the Miami Dolphins from He is also well known to.

He continued an LSU defensive line tradition by being named All-American while leading the tigers to an mark in He became the fifth LSU. Where road began. Georg Kleinpeter site, original claimant. Leader in agriculture who grew sugar cane with success, first time on. A converted running back. He was second in the nation in kickoff returns as a freshman, including a yarder for a TD against Kentucky.

He was a. One of the nation's premier safeties, he was a leader on and off the field for the Tigers for three seasons. An All-American and All-SEC player in , he used his size and instincts on the field to put himself in position to make big plays. Originally named the Pennsylvania Agricultural Works, the A. Farquhar Company was established in in York, Pennsylvania. Farquhar manufactured farm equipment including: cotton, corn and grain planters. The wares were sold internationally. The first official air mail flight between cities in the United States landed on the LSU athletic field April 10, Methodist preachers, known as "circuit riders", began ministering in the Baton Rouge area in the 's.

The Methodist Episcopal Church incorporated in , Rev. Charles K. Marshall, Pastor. The congregation built their first church near the. With the creation of the governments of West and East Florida, the former French settlement on the Mississippi became a part. Although Spanish explorers probably saw the Baton Rouge bluffs from the river before Iberville landed here in , Spain did not colonize the area.

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It became a French possession in when LaSalle claimed all the land drained by the Mississippi. Although the historic Red-and-White Banner of Castile and Leon was the first Spanish flag to fly over the fort in , the national flag. Louisiana seceded from the Union January 26, , and a blue pelican flag replaced the U. The National Flag of Louisiana, adopted February 12, , became the second state flag until Louisiana joined the Confederacy March There were. The first usage of the Pelican Flag as emblematic of Louisiana in unknown, but references to flags with a pelican design were made long before the Civil War.

The flag was officially adopted by the State Legislature July 1, On the flag appears. The independent Republic of West Florida was established and it's blue flag with a white. History Claire Lee Chennault U. Chennault won fliers wings in He commanded a fighter.

Completed in , this mansion was first occupied by Governor Huey P. It was the official residence of successive Louisiana governors until Governor Jimmie H. Davis moved into the new mansion near the Capitol in From to. Here on a bluff of the river stood the old star-shaped Spanish fort from which the West Florida parishes were governed in Spanish colonial days Boom, boom, boom!

Cannon fired all day across these grounds on September 21st, , until the British flag finally came down. According to local tradition, Charles Weick named his newly purchased saloon the day after Fort Sumter was fired on, , and put the cannon out front for atmosphere. It was one of the city's most popular saloons until prohibition. In his three seasons at LSU the Tigers won two bowl games. He was drafted by both the. He went on to a successful NFL career where. Philemon Thomas —. To the Memory of Genl. He was a soldier of "76, and of "14, a member of the Convention that framed the Constitution of Kentucky.

Unmatched in desire, competitiveness and commitment, he suffered a debilitating injury his junior year, but by the summer of his senior season he earned a starting role. Among many notable moments, his blocked extra point against Auburn in a. This was in the arpent plantation of George Garig, a German settler from Maryland, "a resident of well nown [sic] honesty and one of the most skillful builders of cotton gins and presses in this territory. A devastating blocker and tackler for the White Team, he played three sports in high school and brought his athletic talents to the Tigers.

He helped lead the Tigers. His college career was abbreviated due to military service in the Korean War. After returning from service he. He anchored an LSU defense that twice ranked No. These four corners were dedicated for public use in by Antonio Gras and Edith and Richard Devall. A market was to be in the center, and the corners were used for hitching horses and wagons.

After tying the NCAA record with a yard return vs. Mississippi State, he later added a yard TD return against Tulane. An All-American and. As well-known for his size as for his talent, he was born at 15 pounds, 14 ounces, making him the largest baby ever born in Louisiana. In he helped anchor. In use since Interred here, among others, are Armand Allard Duplantier, Sr. Oldest surviving cemetery in Baton Rouge. Dedicated by George Garig as a burial ground in and deeded to St.

Joseph Roman Catholic Parish in One of Historic Hotels of America, the Hilton Baton Rouge Capitol Center was first built in as the Hotel Heidelberg, the city's first luxury hotel and site of noteworthy social and political events. Governor Huey P. Long kept an unofficial. Designed by Tom Bendelow of Aberdeen Scotland.

Known as the Johnny Appleseed of American Golf. Oldest municipal golf course in Baton Rouge. Public service commissioner, then governor, finally U. Along the way, he built a political dynasty—as well as roads, bridges, hospitals and schools. The two large earthen mounds, traditionally known as the Indian Mounds, are among the oldest man-made edifices in North America. These mounds were constructed approximately 6, years ago by the Native Peoples and are older.

A star on and off the field, he was a stellar defensive back on LSU's outstanding defensive unit in An injury sidelined him for most of the season, but he came back for a redshirt senior season to earn All-American and All-SEC player in. One of the finest all-around players in Tiger history, he was named All-American and finished second in the Heisman Trophy balloting in He served as LSU's head.

He went on to a legendary pro career with Green Bay and New Orleans. He was LSU's most decorated player in for his efforts on and off the field. He teamed with Eric Andolsek to anchor a fearsome Tiger offensive line that paved the way for a school record 4, offensive yards. Also an excellent student, he was.

Marine Corps — —. During his more than forty years of service with the Marine Corps, John A. Corporal, Capt. Thomas Co. Militia, War of Son of George Kleinpeter who was first to successfully grow sugarcane on these highlands; grandson of Johann George Kleinpeter, the original German settler of , builder of first steam sugar. An incredible athlete whose talents typified his play and teamwork, opponents were timid when it came to attacking his side of the defensive line.

Even with his size, he was a speed merchant. In the Rice game, he picked off an errant pass and. LSU's first consensus All-America placekicker, he led the nation in field goals and set a school record with 28 as a senior.

East Baton Rouge Parish Louisiana Historical Markers - The Historical Marker Database

He finished. A consensus All-American, he led the nation in receiving in and finished his career as the SEC's all-time leader in receiving yards. In all, he set 17 school, SEC. A standout receiver for the Tigers from , he was named All-American by the Associated Press and finished seventh in the Heisman balloting his senior season. A two-time All-SEC selection in and , he scored all four touchdowns in the. He was a consensus three-time All-SEC pick. A finalist for the Butkus Award and All-American in , he led the team in tackles with , including 15 for losses. He was named National Defensive Player of the Week vs.

Earning All-America and All-SEC honors that year, he helped anchor a defense that ranked in the nation's top 10 categories. LSU's starting defensive. One of the earliest remaining architecturally significant buildings in the city. A third. Considered one of the best defensive backs in all of college football in , he was a semifinalist for the prestigious Jim Thorpe Award that season. The Homeland panel represents the state of Louisiana. The state seal features a pelican tearing.

This stone came from the foundation of the first building erected for the university, then called the Louisiana State Seminary of Learning located near Alexandria, LA. This building was constructed in and was occupied by the seminary from. About the Area With its Italian Renaissance-style buildings nestled amongst the stately oaks and broad magnolias made famous in its Alma Mater, LSU is truly a joy to behold. The acre campus, bordered on its western edge by the mighty. William Tecumseh Sherman was.

Its architectural style has been both celebrated and criticized, but there's no disputing Louisiana's Old State Capitol is one of the nation's most distinct public buildings. Renowned architect James Dakin chose the building's Gothic Revival design. The Castellated Gothic statehouse has withstood war, fire, abandonment, and political intrigue. This National Historic Landmark. Hunter-gatherers built these two mounds 5, years ago. Part of the oldest earthen-mound complex in North America,they were placed on the National Register of Historic Places on March 1, They are older than the Egyptian pyramids, and.

In the town of Baton Rouge bought this property for a cemetery. On these grounds, August 5, , the major action of the Battle of Baton Rouge took place. Louisiana novelist Lyle Saxon is among prominent Louisianians buried here. Memorial Hall, the home of the Manship School, is the oldest building on the campus. In , he led a Tiger defense that ranked No. He returned an interception for a touchdown in the Sugar Bowl that.

One of the dominant players in the early years of LSU football, he lettered three years for the Tigers. He helped pace the Tigers to back-to-back.

In memory of the officers and men of the Federal Army and Navy from Massachusetts who lost their lives in the Department of the Gulf during the Civil War Organizations that served in the Department 4th Infantry 26th. A bulwark member of the White Team in LSU's three-platoon system, he was instrumental in the Tigers' national title run.

Named All-American as an outstanding blocker on offense and incomparable down lineman on defense, his defensive work was. Long on February 22, , in appreciation of the generosity of the American. The boxcars could hold 40 men or 8 horses, hence the name. This is designated in French on the cars: 40 hommes, 8. Ivan Mestrovic was the most prominent figure among Yugoslav sculptors of the current century, and he has a special niche in his country's history of art.

The creative activity of this prolific artist won a name for him throughout the world. He stepped in from his very first game and showed dominance as a defender. His impressive play earned him All-American honors as a junior, and a knee injury early his senior year is the only thing that kept him from being a two-time choice. The second of three straight LSU All-American linebackers, he was particularly noted for a legendary play at Auburn in when he stopped a runner on fourth and goal from the one-inch line to secure an LSU victory.

Panel 1 About our Tiger Other mascots were proposed during the first 40 years of LSU's football team, but the tiger mascot stuck. Feisty, aggressive, determined and unyielding: those words best described his play. He was chosen in the first round of the NFL. At certain points on the southernmost section, the river is one mile wide. The Mississippi River is one. The diary depicts the occupation of Baton Rouge by Union forces. He led the nation in interception return yards in as he led the Tigers to their. Pigeonniers were built to house pigeons, a valuable source of food and fertilizer.

French colonists brought the tradition of the Pigeonnier from their native country, where it is considered a status symbol. In Louisiana, plantation owners placed. Federal soldiers killed in the Battle of Baton Rouge, August 5, , were buried on this site which became a National Cemetery in Among soldiers buried here is General Philemon Thomas, remembered for his attack on the Spanish fort at Baton. The parish sheriff used it to lock up any criminals, whether free or slave.

It is of plank construction with no corner posts or framing materials. As a junior in , he shattered the LSU single-season record for all-purpose yards with 2, He was. It was part of an army post that covered these grounds from to The Civil War. From to , the area around the State Capitol was an extensive U. The main passage to the shaft flooded rapidly, and the weight of the water sealed the ventilation doors in the tunnels. Escape became impossible, and rescue attempts were futile. Other mines in the area suspended operations, and their workers helped build a dam on the site.

For thirty-eight days seven steam pumps removed water from the mine. Volunteers descended the shaft on March 25, and the first bodies were recovered on March The recovery effort was hampered by accumulations of debris and gas as well as by falling rock. Several days later the mine was sealed with the remaining forty-six bodies entombed. Numerous men and boys died in the disaster; two were thirteen years of age, and two were fourteen. In the United Mine Workers of America placed a monument at the site. Carthage, Illinois Hancock County, established in , had no permanent county seat for four years.

On February 13, , the General Assembly commissioned William Gilham, Scott Riggs and John Hardin to establish a permanent county seat, which was named Carthage and was incorporated in However, unrest concerning the authority of the Mormon leaders was extensive. When an anti-Mormon newspaper in Nauvoo was destroyed, Joseph and Hyrum were jailed at Carthage to await trial. Governor Thomas Ford assigned the Carthage Grays, a militia unit, to guard them.

A mob overpowered the guards and rushed the captives who with two Mormon friends, Willard Richards and John Taylor, occupied an unlocked, second floor room in the jail. Hyrum was killed and the Prophet was shot several times before he fell from a window to the ground. Taylor, later the leader of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints , recovered from his wounds while Richards was uninjured.

Conflict between Mormons and their neighbors continued until the Mormons completed their exodus from Illinois The Mormons have restored the Old Carthage Jail. During the U. Senatorial campaign Stephen A. Led by Etienne Cabet, a French political theorist, the Icarians believed that all property must be held communally. The community was incorporated by the Illinois General Assembly in early At that time it had members.

They operated their own sawmill and grist mill and a commercial distillery. Disputes later arose over Cabet's leadership, and the Icarians began to resettle in other states. The Nauvoo community survived, however, until about - longer than any other secular communal society in Illinois. After the Indians moved west of the Mississippi, promoters attempted to develop town sites here but the marshy bottom lands attracted few settlers. In , the Mormon Prophet Joseph Smith chose the town, then called Commerce, as the home for his followers, who had been driven from Missouri.

The Mormons named the community Nauvoo, said to mean 'beautiful place,' and obtained a special charter from the Illinois legislature, which gave the city government its own courts, militia, university, and all other governmental powers not prohibited by the federal and state constitutions.

Mormon converts from all parts of America and Europe soon swelled the population to about 15, making Nauvoo one of the largest cities in Illinois by But some of the Mormons as well as their gentile neighbors began to resent the civil and religious authority of the Mormon leaders, and frictions in the area grew severe. When the Nauvoo City Council had an anti-Mormon newspaper destroyed, the Mormon leaders were arrested and jailed at Carthage.

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There, on June 27, , an armed mob shot and killed Joseph Smith and his brother, Hyrum. Conflict between the Mormons and their neighbors continued until when the Mormons completed their exodus from the state. In , Etienne Cabet's followers, the Icarians, came to Nauvoo to practice their form of religious communism but dissensions soon weakened the colony. Their experiment lasted less than ten years. Bertha Van Hoosen, M. Their voyages resulted in French claims on the area until when, by the Treaty of Paris, France ceded the land to Great Britain.

In it became part of the Northwest Territory and on December 3, Illinois entered the Union as the twenty-first state. It proceeds east through Carthage where, in , the jailed Mormon leader Joseph Smith was killed defending himself from an angry mob. The highway crosses the Illinois River at Havana and runs east passing north of Lincoln, Illinois, the site of the reconstructed Postville Court House. While Practicing law on the 8th Judicial Circuit Abraham Lincoln attended trials in the original building.

Route passes south of Funks Grove named for Isaac Funk one of a group of farmers who raised large herds of cattle for shipment to eastern markets. Along its approximate mile length Route passes through eight of Illinois' counties and three of its county seats.

Fluorite was a waste product until the steel industry began using the mineral in their open hearth process in Rosiclare Lead and Fluorspar Mining Co. The largest and deepest fluorite mines in the world are located in Hardin County. For many years these mines have produced about three-fourths of the fluorite mined in the United States. Ford's Ferry Road and Pott's Tavern missing James Ford, a powerful and scheming leader of a gang of outlaws, owned a ferry that crossed the Ohio River near Cave-in-Rock from to Ford's Gang helped him acquire a fortune in land, money, slaves, and livestock by robbing and murdering travelers.

Ford's Ferry Road was a ten-mile wooded trail from the ferry to Pott's Tavern, where weary settlers who had escaped Ford's highwaymen were victims of the same fate at the hands of owner Bill Potts. Benjamin Dann Walsh Benjamin Dann Walsh, Illinois state entomologist from to , was a pioneer in the application of insect study to agriculture.

Though intended for the ministry, he chose the literary field and wrote for newspapers and magazines for several years. A man of varied interests, he published a pamphlet on university reform and a translation of The Comedies of Aristophanes. In he married Rebecca Finn and came to the United States. From Chicago he moved to a farm near Cambridge where he remained for thirteen years. In he moved to Rock Island and engaged in the lumber business until Thereafter, he devoted himself to his long time hobby of entomology and was soon a recognized leader in the field.

His first published entomological work appeared in In his lifetime he published titles plus an additional in collaboration with Charles V. Riley, another well-known entomologist. Walsh contributed regularly to the Prairie Farmer, Valley Farmer, and Illinois Farmer, was an editor of the Practical Entomologist, and was co-founder and editor of the American Entomologist with Riley.

His private collection numbered 30, insects. His insect studies impressed scientists and, perhaps more important, agriculturists. His death on November 18, resulted from a railroad accident near Rock Island. Bishop Hill Two miles north of here, religious dissident immigrants from Sweden founded the communal society of Bishop Hill in The charismatic Erik Jansson lead the society spiritually and temporally until when he was murdered. By , a total of followers of all ages and backgrounds had arrived at Bishop Hill. Overcoming many hardships and trials, 12, acres of virgin land was improved for agricultural purposes.

Various crops, including flax, broom corn and grain were grown. Orchards were also planted and furniture was manufactured. In , dissatisfaction and disillusionment resulted in a breakup of the society and the land was divided among the members. Dixie Highway, The The Dixie Highway was the first national road linking industrial northern states to agricultural so Details. Woodland Palace This was the home of Fred Francis, inventor and innovator, artist and poet.

While there, he was one of the designers and builders of the 'Class of 78' clock, now in the north tower of the Illini Union. In this home, which he built, he incorporated many innovations, including a water purification system and air conditioning. Francis died in and bequeathed this estate to the City of Kewanee, to be maintained as a city park and museum.

Butterfield Trail For many years Butterfield Trail was one of the main routes from east-central Illinois to the Chicago area. In Ben Butterfield marked out the trail from Danville to Lockport, where he had settled the previous year. The trail crossed Spring Creek two miles northwest of Buckley.

Following an old Indian trail, it stayed west of the creek, continuing northward and passing this point. It avoided the Iroquois River and forded the Kankakee west of Bourbonnais. At a point near Joliet it forked, both forks leading to Chicago. John Logan in When her son, John A. Logan, joined the Union army in , Elizabeth refused to speak to him. In this, she reflected the strong southern feelings held across Egypt, as Southern Illinois was called. By , mother and son had reconciled. Elizabeth Logan died in her home, located at this site in Her son, Thomas M.

Logan, was a founder of the First Bank and Trust Company of Murphysboro, which now occupies this location. William Boone and his indentured servant, a man name Peter, loaded a small raft with coal from an outcropping and, after floating down the Big Muddy and the Mississippi, they unloaded the coal in New Orleans on November 10, The coal was used for blacksmithing. In the next two years they repeated the venture six more times and others soon joined in the operation, including Joseph Duncan, a future governor of Illinois.

The mines were drift mines where coal was removed by tunneling into the banks along the river. During the first five years about one hundred tons were being mined annually. The Big Muddy mine was the genesis of the mammoth coal industry in Illinois which brought prosperity and thousands of jobs to the state. Green Plains Here once stood the thriving community of Green Plains. Established in the early s, the settlement straddled four Hancock County Townships and included log homes, a store, a blacksmith shop, a post office, and several cemeteries.

Levi Williams, a prominent settler who moved to Green Plains in the early s, served as a county road commissioner and later as postmaster. In he was commissioned a colonel in the 59th Regiment in the state militia, commanding the Carthage Greys. He played a prominent role in military actions against the Latter-Day Saints and their leader, Joseph Smith. Williams died in and is buried in the Green Plains Cemetery, located one-half mile north. The community was abandoned in the s. Green Plains was also home to Mormon refugees, including the family of William W.

Taylor died 9 September leaving Elizabeth a widow with 14 children. He was buried feet east of this spot with about 40 others in the Old Pioneer Cemetery on land once owned by Levi Williams. Elizabeth immigrated with most of her children to Utah where she died in During their residence its population reached 15, After long friction with non-Mormons the Mormons were expelled in Three years later French Communists called Icarians established a society here which lasted until George Rogers Clark Campsite 3rd Lt. Clark and his troop of Virginians camped near here on July 2, It was their third campsite during a march from Fort Massac to Kaskaskia to capture that post from the British.

Earlier that day, the troop was lost for a time on Phelp's Prairie. The p Details. Court met in lodge halls in Mount Vernon prior to completion of the center section of this building about The Supreme Court shared the building until , after which all of its sessions were held in Springfield. Vernon Car Mfg. Co When railroads were king, The Mt. Vernon Car Manufacturing Company brought prosperity and recognition to this community. With freight car building being the primary business, the Mt. Vernon Car Manufacturing Company's products were sold to institutions which carried its name all across the civilized world.

Established on April 16, , it was in operation for 64 years. In addition to having the largest payroll for its era, its local tax revenue made a large contribution to the economic expansion of this community. Hamilton Primary School In Dr. A stone school was opened in , and the tuition-free education for local students attracted families to this area.

The school was razed in , rebuilt and enlarged, with the original stones at the base. Classes were held here until George Washington, a slave freed by Dr. Hamilton, studied here, became successful, and established a perpetual scholarship fund for Americans of African descent. He also provided for the erection of a monument to his former master. The 10, sq. On June 24, , Black Hawk and warriors attacked while most of the men were out hunting. Elizabeth Armstrong rallied the women and defenders until relief arrived. Only one frontiersman, George W. Herlerode, lost his life during the 45 minute battle.

In honor of Mrs. While a member Details. Settlers from Details. Douglas in Ulysses S. Grant maintained his presidential campaign headquarters here. By Galena's prosperity had faded and the hotel's two upper stories were removed.

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Clark's troop of volunteers. At the time, the site had a nearby spring and was north of a place called Buffalo Gap. The men were marching from Fort Massac to capture the British post at Kaskaskia. This attack and a later one at Vincennes, Indiana, prevented the British and their Indian allies from invading Kentucky. Ma was born on the farm. Billy was born in Ames, Iowa, in From until his death in he conducted religious revivals in cities and towns across the nation. His wife shared his work. Elgin Milk Condensing Company Gail Borden, pioneer in the food preservative industry, established a milk condensing plant on this site in His discovery incorporated a process by which water was evaporated from milk, and sugar added as a preservative.

This process, patented in , increased the availability and variety in dairy products, allowing the populace a sanitary and nourishing alternative to fresh milk. The stringent procedures he employed inspired high standards, revolutionizing the dairy industry by This company was the largest of its kind and a major factor in determining Elgin's reputation as a dairy center. Production ceased in due to the rising cost of milk. Elgin's Gail Borden Library, located nearby, is named in his honor. This was the first watch factory built west of the Alleghenies and grew to become the world's largest.

During its lifetime over 60 million "Elgin" watches were manufactured here. The building was highlighted by a foot tall clock tower containing dials with numerals three feet in length - a foot longer than those of London's "Big Ben. The observatory is now used as a planetarium by School District U Elgin Road Races This marker is along the "south leg" of the Elgin road races. Beginning in , many leading drivers and mechanics competed here in grueling tests of speed and endurance that contributed to the development of the modern automobile.

Manufacturers were attracted to these races because the course had no cross roads, steep hills, railroad tracks, or population centers to reduce the car's speed. The race's success was enhanced by proximity to Chicago and the cooperation of area farmers. The first entries were factory stock models with the fenders and windshields removed.

Beginning in , race cars designed for the Indianapolis were allowed to compete. Thousands of spectators attended each year as racing continued from through After being suspended during World War I, the contests resumed in and - a period when cars took on a more streamlined appearance. The Elgin Races lost favor as motorists and farmers objected to road closures.

For safety reasons, open road courses like these were replaced by closed track racing. After a revival in to coincide with the Chicago World's Fair, the Elgin Road races passed into automotive history. The firm was a leader in the domestic watch industry and by the 's had produced more than 30 million watch cases. A subsidiary produced jewelry goods, lockets, cigarette lighters, and the famed "Elgin American" ladies compacts. Foreign competition and a changing market eventually led to an end of production in the early 's.

Pinkerton's Early Home Allan Pinkerton, famous detective, had his home and cooperage on this lot, Here he sheltered and employed slaves escaping to freedom. After helping to capture some counterfeiters, he became deputy sheriff of Kane County in In he founded his detective agency in Chicago. Early in the Civil War he directed the spy service of the Union Army.

Lawrence Valley in the s and 40s to settle what would become the largest 19th century French Canadian agrarian village in Illinois. Some immigrants moved on to found St. Anne, St. Mary, L'Erable, and Papineau. In Viateurian fathers established St. Viateur College. Known as the Jonveau Reserve, the land lay in an area called Bourbonnais Grove. Durham opened 20 acres for cultivation in January Durham was elected precinct commissioner. Durham became Bourbonnais Grove's postmaster in and remained so until Kankakee County was formed in He died in , was buried on this site, and left the farm to his sons.

He bought the farm from Durham's sons in When he died in , his son Alvah inherited the farm. A tenant farmer maintained the land while Alvah and his family lived in Wilmette. They spent summers and holidays at the farmhouse. Alvah died in She left the farm in trust to the State of Illinois. She hoped some part of it could be made a park. Carl Sandburg Birthplace Carl Sandburg, poet and historian, was born in this modest three-room cottage on January 6, He was the son of a Swedish immigrant railroad worker. Carl attended Lombard college in Galesburg, and his first poetry was published in this town.

He later became a journalist and prolific author. He also wrote a novel, an autobiography, children's stories, and folksongs. After his death in , his ashes were buried beneath Remembrance Rock behind his birthplace. With kindness and understanding he negotiated a peaceful settlement with the Indians and became the first permanent settler in northeastern Knox County.

His grave is about one-half mile south of this point. Known as 'The Farm,' the house, outbuildings, and surrounding meadows and woods comprise seventy acres. Throughout his career of public service, Stevenson often returned to The Farm for rest and inspiration. Andrew C. Cook House In , Andrew C. Richard Murphy, a physician, established a claim to the property on this site and created what was known as the Dwyer settlement. It became known as the center of social activity: nurturing political, intellectual, and religious ties in the newly settled area.

The Dwyer Settlement was the site of St. Ann's Church and Cemetery , the first Catholic Parish in the area. William Dwyer served as the first road supervisor for this portion of Green Bay Road and served as a tax collector. Murphy was appointed first magistrate for the area and, as deputy to the federal marshal, recorded the Lake County Census for Dwyer and Dr. Murphy were instrumental in the formation of Lake County through the division of McHenry County, also in moving the county seat from Libertyville to Waukegan. The Dwyer's Tavern was the first polling place in the area and the site of the first shield township meeting on April 2, The Dwyer Settlement gave a permanent character to this area and from it grew the community now known as Lake Bluff.

Benjamin Lundy, missing Quaker newspaper editor of the abolitionist 'Genius of Universal Emancipation' printed at Hennepin then Lowell, four miles south, November 8, to August 22, Lundy is buried in Friends Cemetery near McNabb. They and their descendants, who still live here have contributed largely to the development of this section of Illinois. Early's Company, his third enlistment of the war. Illinois and Michigan Canal This historic artery of travel was commenced in and finished in By carrying pioneers and their produce between Lake Michigan and the Illinois Valley, it figured largely in the development of Northern Illinois.

Superseded by the Deep Waterway after fifty years of use, it is now devoted to recreational purposes. Indian Creek Massacre Old On May 20, , hostile Indians, mainly Potawatomi, massacred fifteen men, women and children of the Indian Creek settlement two miles to the west. Douglas took place in this park. Approximately 10, people gathered to hear the two candidates discuss the question of slavery in America. Candidate Lincoln rebuffed attempts to portray him as an abolitionist, one advocating the immediate emancipation of all slaves in the US.

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Although Lincoln said he personally believed slavery was morally wrong, he maintained that the institution was protected by the Constitution. Senator Douglas, however, refused to address the morality of slavery. He insisted that the people in the individual states should be allowed to decide the question for themselves. Lincoln lost the election, but two years later he and Douglas were rivals again in the Presidential race. Breckenridge, entered the race and took votes that probably would have gone to Douglas.

His opposition fractured, Lincoln won a majority in the Electoral College with a minority of the popular vote and became our 16th President. Railroads and the Founding of Mendota In two railroads met near this spot and the community of Mendota was born. Mendota is an Indian word said to mean "crossing of the trails. Meanwhile, the IC was building northward up the middle of the state.

From there it was to turn northwest toward the Galena mining district. Thus the curve of the IC toward Galena was moved to a point just north of this marker. That line, through recent mergers, has become the Burlington Northern Santa Fe. The Illinois Central, meanwhile, abandoned its line through Mendota in Vincennes Tract The western boundary of the Vincennes Tract passed through this point. The line extended south-southwest thirty-nine miles from present-day Crawford through Lawrence, Wabash, and Edwards Counties in Illinois. The Vincennes Tract was seventy-two miles wide. About six-sevenths of it lay in Indiana.

The Illinois portion was the first parcel of land in the Illinois country ceded by Indians. The land was ceded in the Treaty of Greenville, August 5, , and confirmed in a treaty at Fort Wayne, June 7, Illinois was then a part of Indiana Territory. Bishop Hill Two miles north of here, religious dissident immigrants from Sweden founded the communal society of Details.

Lincoln re-enlisted in two other companies and was frequently in Dixon. The ceremony was held at Goldman's Hall, which stood on this site at Amboy. A Mormon congregation had been organized here about Smith headed the Reorganized Church until his death in A government mail route was established along this Indian trail in The Potawatomi ceded their territory to the government in This route became the first East-West stagecoach trail across Northern Illinois.

Paw Paw Grove, one of the first settlements along the route, was a midway haven between Chicago and Galena. It was over this trail Poetess Margaret Fuller traveled in , she wrote: "We traveled the blooming plain unmarked by any road, only the friendly track of the wheels which beat, not broke the grass. Our stations were not from town to town, but from grove to grove. Cardiff, Illinois The village of Cardiff was built on this site in , after the discovery of underground coal deposits.

A mine was sunk and a relatively large town developed within months. The town, originally known as North Campus, incorporated as the village of Cardiff in May A series of mine explosions from March 12 - 16, , killed nine mine workers. Three men remain entombed in the mine. A second mine was sunk to the west, and mining operations resumed.

More than 2, people lived in Cardiff at its peak. Cardiff had a church, a school, two banks, two grain elevators, a semi-pro baseball team, a bottling plant, railroad passenger service, a hotel, numerous saloons, and other businesses. Prosperity continued for Cardiff until the high quality coal ran out and the Wabash Railroad, the mine's biggest customer, refused to buy Cardiff coal. The mine closed in A total of 18 men died in mine accidents in Cardiff.

Almost as fast as the town developed, it disappeared. Houses and other buildings were dismantled or moved whole. Today, the town of Cardiff is gone, yet remains a legally incorporated village. Two large hills of waste from the mine are monuments to the people who lived, worked, and died here. Dozens of acres that had been homes, stores, yards, and streets have now gone back to farmland. It was built by James Clark, a resident of Utica, one year after the canal was completed in Before the advent of the railroads the canal was the main commercial artery to Chicago.

It helped establish Chicago as an important grain market and contributed greatly to the growth of that city and the northern part of the Illinois River Valley. Clark had also constructed five sections of the canal. He operated a general store in his warehouse, which shipped an average of , bushels of corn and 22, bushels of oats per year. It is the only surviving warehouse on canal frontage. At the Treaty of Prairie Du Chien , Madeline Ogee, Potawatomi wife of Joseph Ogee, was granted two sections of land in the granted two sections of land in the grove.

Government during the Black Hawk War. At the Treaty of Chicago, , the Potawatomi Confederation ceded approximately 5 million acres of land in northwest Illinois to the government. In the Indians were removed from their homes to northwest Missouri and southwest Iowa. Ronald had one brother, Neil "Moon" Reagan. The small town atmosphere of Tampico played an important role in Reagan's formative years. As a child he played on a cannon in this park. Glassburn, were his friends and introduced him to horseback riding.

In the nearby Hennepin feeder canal, he became an excellent swimmer, a skill he would later use as a lifeguard on the Rock River. Ronald Reagan became a sports announcer, a well-known movie star, served as governor of California from —, and then as president of the United States from — Tampico is also the birthplace of Admiral Joseph M.

An excursion train - two engines and approximately twenty wooden coaches - from Peoria to Niagara Falls, struck a burning culvert. Of the passengers about 85 perished and scores were injured. Abraham Lincoln and Lincoln Illinois Near this site Abraham Lincoln christened the town with the juice of a watermelon when the first lots were sold on August 27, President-elect Lincoln spoke here, November 21, , while traveling to Chicago and Lincoln's funeral train stopped here, May 3, , before completing the trip to Springfield.

Deskins Tavern On this site Dr. John Deskins erected a tavern in The judge, lawyers, litigants, witnesses, jurors and prisoners often shared the same dining table. Elkhart, Illinois Elkhart City in Logan County is typical of the many Illinois villages whose growth was spurred by the arrival of the railroad.

Founded by John Shockey in , two years after the coming of the Alton and Sangamon Railroad, now the Gulf Mobile and Ohio, Elkhart was for many years one of the largest shipping points on this line. Southeast of the site, on Elkhart Hill, is the mansion 'Oglehurst,' home and burial place of Richard J.

Oglesby , three times elected Governor of Illinois , , Ten days following his second inauguration he was elected United States Senator by the Illinois Legislature and served in that capacity until Governor Oglesby moved to Elkhart in , following his retirement from public life. Another prominent Elkhart resident was John Dean Gillett , one of the cattle kings of the prairies. A New Englander by birth, he came to Logan County in Through his skill in the raising and feeding of cattle, his name became a byword for superior quality beef in both this country and in England.

At the time of his death, Gillett's land holdings totaled more than 16, acres. Captain Adam H. Bogardus , wildfowl market hunter, conservationist and champion wingshot, made his home for many years in Elkhart.

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In , he defeated Aubrey Coventry, English champion wingshot, 79 to George Field Army Air Corps Base, America at war in needed new bases to complete the training of its Army Air Corps cadets before they joined combat groups overseas. On April 16, , the War Department announced the selection and began construction in June. On August 10, Colonel George W. Mundy officially took command of the 2, acre complex then named George in honor of the late Brigadier General Harold "Pursuit" George.

The first class of cadets arrived at George Field on October Six days later, Major General Ralph Royce officially dedicated the field before a crowd of 25, residents and Army personnel. Colonel Edwin B. Bobzien took command of the field in November. Cadets assigned to George Field were ready for advanced two-engine school training in Beech ATs, having already completed-flight, primary, and basic training. The school graduated 1, cadets in its first year alone.

The nineteenth and final class graduated on August 4, George Field served as a glider-towing school after August 15, , for Cs towing CG4-A gliders designed to carry up to twenty-four men. The th troop carrier command and Colonel Tracy K. Dorsett assumed control of the field until the Army closed it on January 31, The federal government deeded the land and the facility to the City of Lawrenceville in The town proprietors, Robert B. Latham, John D. Gillett and Virgil Hickox, donated the tract of land for the original campus, and named the school in honor of their friend, Abraham Lincoln.

Leonard Volk met Abraham Lincoln on the sidewalk in front of the hotel on July 16, , and arranged to make Lincoln's life mask later. This W. Otis structure was completed in A stained glass dome and oak woodwork highlight the interior. Major benefactors were Steven Foley who guided its construction, Isabel Nash who willed her home as the site, and the Carnegie Foundation. The Library's history typifies the combination of national wealth, grass roots initiative, and the cultural ideals which generated the free library movement and its goal of a free and educated American society.

Beginning in , many leading drive Details. The first county court was at Postville, now part of Lincoln, Illinois. In , the County Seat was moved by legislation to Lincoln. The State of Illinois acquired the building in In , the Rev. Gustav and Lydia Niebuhr came to Lincoln, where he became pastor of St. From a Detroit pastorate he moved to New York in and taught at Union Theological Seminary, exerting wide influence in religion and politics through his doctrine of Christian realism. His works include The Serenity Prayer , used by the military, AA and other personal recovery programs.

In he appeared on the cover of Time magazine and in he received the Presidential Medal of Freedom. Richard Niebuhr , an authority on theological ethics and church history, was president of Elmhurst College and taught at Eden Seminary in St. Louis and at Yale for 31 years.

His son, Richard R. Niebuhr, taught theology at Harvard from to During the Niebuhr pastorate, St. Richard Niebuhr spoke at its dedicate in The town square is now Postville Park. Here Abraham Lincoln and his friends played townball, a predecessor of baseball, threw the maul, a heavy wooden hammer, and pitched horseshoes. Robert B. Latham Home On this site stood the home of Robert B. Gillett and Virgil Hickox to found the town of Lincoln in Abraham Lincoln, judges and lawyers of the Eighth Judicial Circuit were frequent guests at his home.

Stephen A. Douglas Speech On this site during the senatorial campaign of Stephen A. Douglas spoke to a Democratic political rally in a circus tent on September 4th. Douglas' opponent for the Senate seat, Abraham Lincoln, was on the train from Bloomington to Springfield and stopped to hear the speech. Here in Lawrenceville, on October 28, he had a dispute with a local physician, William G.

Anderson, who the previous August had run as a Democrat and lost the election for State Representative. In writing to Lincoln on October 30, Dr. William Maxwell Boyhood Home William Maxwell , author and editor, lived in this home from He often returned to this home and Lincoln in his novels and short stories. His Midwestern childhood, particularly his mother's death in the Spanish influenza epidemic of , influenced much of his writing. His name is etched on the frieze of the Illinois State Library.

Lincoln National Memorial Highway From the site of the Lincoln cabin on the Sangamon three miles south of here, to the Wabash River opposite Vincennes, the Lincoln National Memorial Highway follows substantially the route taken by the Lincoln family in their migration from Indiana to Illinois in the Spring of To this site came the Lincoln family in March, Here they lived until , when the parents removed to Coles County and Abraham set out on his own career.

Built in Unsanitary conditions aroused persistent criticism from Dorothea Dix, pioneer in prison reform. All inmates were transferred to Joliet prior to During the Civil War many Confederate prisoners were incarcerated here and deaths averaged to ten a day. Fort Russell One quarter-mile to the west stood Fort Russell, a wooden stockade which served as a base of supplies and operations for the Illinois militia during the War of From here, for months at a time, Governor Ninian Edwards administered the affairs of Illinois Territory.

Governor Coles and Slavery Site of the courthouse where in political enemies convicted Governor Edward Coles of illegally freeing his slaves. Haskell, daughter of Dr. William A. It is believed Lucy's grandfather, John E. Hayner, commissioned prominent local architect, Lucas J. Pfeiffenberger, to design the playhouse. In , at age nine, Lucy died of diphtheria. After Florence Haskell's death in , the Haskell family gave the estate to the City of Alton for educational and recreational purposes. The playhouse was to be retained in memory of Lucy J. Designated a National Register Historic Landmark in John Mason Peck On this site in , John Mason Peck , pioneer Baptist preacher, author, and educator, established the school which became Shurtleff College.

In , Peck had left his home in New England with a vision "to bring the lamp of learning and the light of the gospel" into the undeveloped West. He, his wife Sally, and three children endured an arduous four month trip in a small one-horse wagon, setting in Rock Spring, near O'Fallon, Illinois. Benjamin Shurtleff of Boston. John Mason Peck is well described as a missionary and a teacher, an author and an editor, a geographer and a cartographer, and a promoter of churches, schools, and western settlement.

For thirty years, he was undoubtedly one of the strongest advocates of education and righteousness in the entire Mississippi Valley. He traveled hundreds of miles by horseback or wagon, often under most difficult circumstances, while his wife and children bore his long absences with fortitude. Peck was one of the foremost ministerial opponents of slavery in Illinois and provided great support to Governor Edward Coles' successful anti-slavery effort in In , he was honored with a Doctor of Divinity degree from Harvard University.

He died on March 16, , and is buried in Bellefontaine Cemetery in St. Leclaire, Illinois Social visionary N. Nelson founded the village of Leclaire in , naming it after Edme Jean Leclaire, who inaugurated profit sharing in France. In contrast to unsanitary urban tenement districts, Leclaire was a model cooperative village offering affordable homes, a healthful environment, free education, many opportunities for recreation and self-improvement, and pleasant working conditions at the N.

Nelson Manufacturing Company. To support his commitment to the "Golden Rule," Nelson implemented profit-sharing and employee benefits. Leclaire was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in Carlos Dehault Delassus, the Spanish commandant at St.

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Louis, however, had not received formal notification from his government of the Louisiana Purchase and would not permit the expedition to cross the river. Thus in the middle of December, , Clark led about twenty-five men to the winter camp on the American side at the mouth of the Wood River, then 1. Originally there were nine Kentuckians, fourteen soldiers, two French watermen, one hunter- interpreter and Clark's Negro servant at the camp.

They were energetic, healthy individualists who did not accept discipline willingly. During the winter Lewis reprimanded several men for refusing to obey the orders of their officers, failing to perform sentry duty and making "hunting of other business a pretext to cover their design of visiting a neighbouring whiskey shop On May 14, , Clark and about forty-five men "set out at 4 o'clock P.

A crowd estimated at between five and ten thousand people gathered in front of the old City Hall to hear the two candidates. The debates received National Attention, with Lincoln campaigning on an antislavery platform and Douglas on one of States' Rights. Douglas defeated Lincoln for the Senate seat, but, two years later, in , was defeated by Lincoln for the Presidency. Legend of the Piasa, The In , Jacques Marquette reported that he and fellow French explorer Louis Joliet discovered a painting of what was probably two "water monsters" on the bluffs of the Mississippi River near present-day Alton.

By , those pictographic creatures were no longer visible. In , the novelist John Russell described an image cut into the bluff of a legendary dragon-like creature with wings. According to Russell, the creature was called Piasa, "the bird that devours men. Louis, was first settled in the 's by American farm families who migrated from the Upland south. With their crude farm implements, these pioneers broke through the tough prairie sod to grow crops in this rich bottomland, once called the "Garden Spot of the State. In a plank road was constructed of 12 foot oak logs split and laid face up on stringers.

This later became an extension of the National Road. George Rogers Clark Campsite 1st Lt. George Rogers Clark and his troop of volunteers, principally Virginians, camped near this site, called Indian Point, on June 30, They were marching from Fort Massac to attack the British post at Kaskaskia. This was the first of five campsites on that march. Clark's men would take the post at Kaskaskia and, later, the British fort at Vincennes, Indiana. British failure to regarrison the old French Fort here enabled Clark to enter the Illinois country without opposition.

The British at Kaskaskia expected an attack from the Mississippi River.

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By marching overland Clark surprised them. He arrived at Kaskaskia on the night of July , and quickly secured the fort without resistance. It continues north and east through Harrisburg and through the oil fields of Wayne and Clay Counties. Near Mattoon the Wisconsin glacier stopped its southern movement. Route 45 bisects the twin cities of Champaign and Urbana, site of the University of Illinois. Kankakee lies along the route and was the site of early French-Canadian migration.

North of Kankakee US 45 passes east of the Jolliet Arsenal which has supplied munitions to the military since The route skirts Chicago passing through its western suburbs. Route 45 eventually exits Illinois east of Antioch. Along its approximate mile journey through Illinois, Route 45 passes through twenty of the state's counties and eight county seats. Benjaminville Friends Meeting House Benjaminville was founded in the 's by Quaker farmers looking for rich prairie soil on which to grow their wheat. The Friends Meeting House, built in , has changed little since then. The adjacent burial ground is divided into two sections: one for Quakers and a second for non-Quakers.

When the expected Lake Erie Railroad went elsewhere, the town eventually died. The meeting house and burial ground are all that remain of Benjaminville. The site was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in By the time a post office was established in the settlement was known as Blooming Grove. McClean County was organized the following year and Bloomington, which was laid out in just north of Blooming Grove on It was incorporated as a town in and a city in In Illinois Wesleyan University was chartered here and in Normal University, first state-supported school of higher education in Illinois, was established in North Bloomington which soon changed its name to Normal.

The State Republican Party was formally organized in Bloomington in at a convention that Abraham Lincoln delivered his 'Lost Speech,' so called because no record of it was kept. Other distinguished residents include Governors John M. Construction began in and was completed in The house is built of yellow hard-burned face brick with stone quoins in the corners. It is 64 feet wide, extends 88 feet back, and has a tower that rises 50 feet above the ground. The lavish interior includes eight marble fireplaces. He returned to Illinois in and lived here again until his death in France claimed this region until when he surrendered it to Great Britain by the Treaty of Paris.

This area was ceded to the United States in , and became in turn a part of the Northwest Territory and the Indiana and Illinois Territories. On December 3, , Illinois entered the Union as the 21st state. A short distance above Hamilton the lower rapids of the Mississippi River obstructed steamboat navigation. In the steamboat Western Engineer ascended to the foot of the rapids and three years later, the Virginia churned through the swift, shallow water.

In the late 's, Lieutenant Robert E. When this project proved too costly and ineffective, an independent canal around the western side of the rapids was started in Franklin Park, the centerpiece of the district, was the starting point for partisan torchlight parades in the late nineteenth century. The park and bordering houses were listed on the National Register in and designated a local Historic District in Home of Adlai E. Stevenson I This was the home of Adlai E. Stevenson was born in Kentucky in and came to Bloomington in He began to practice law in Metamora, Illinois in and returned to Bloomington in A lifelong Democrat, Stevenson was elected to Congress in and Stevenson bought this house in Home of Joseph W.

Fifer This was the home of Joseph W. Fifer, Republican Governor of Illinois, Fifer was born in Virginia in and came to Illinois in He graduated from Illinois Wesleyan in Bloomington in and began to practice law the next year. After being corporation counsel of Bloomington for one year and State's Attorney of McLean County for eight years, he served two terms as State Senator. He moved to these premises in , at the end of his term as Governor, and lived in this red brick house from its completion in to his death in Dedicated in , it provided a home for children of the Civil War veterans who had been killed or wounded.

In , the state allowed the school to admit indigent children of any veterans. Between and , indigent children of non-veterans were admitted. The facility closed in In these grounds for years, scores of caregivers and educators provided thousands of children with a homelike environment. Illinois U. Route 66 site 1 In , construction began on a 2,mile highway from Chicago to Santa Monica, California.

Route 66 reflected the increased use of motorized vehicles. The road, which cut diagonally across Illinois, passed through Lexington. Sleek restaurants, service stations and motels were built specifically to accommodate travelers. The original two-lane, concrete highway - a section of which is located here - was replaced over a span of thirty years by the more modern interstate highway system.

In Illinois, Interstate closely parallels old Route Matthew T. Scott Matthew T Scott made his fortune on the grand prairie in the 19th century by developing thousands of acres of farmland. He founded the town of Chenoa in as a center for his business activities. Although Scott bought and sold over 45, acres of Illinois farmland, the development of his personal holdings of 5, acres in Livingston and McLean counties was his main interest. To produce maximum yields, Scott had his land drained with pipe tile and miles of ditching.