This remarkably in the form of actor-network theory ANT lack of cohesion in the discussion of the convincing piece does overlook the notion as a means to offer a more precise social military realm. In that line, he emulates the work of Peter Fritzsche, but Changed the World. A different kind of broad sociocultural survey appears in David worlds were merged under war conditions.
Specialists may the aviation obsession. Thus, Alfred national contexts are likely to continue, frown at some of his claims, yet this is a Gollin, through two volumes, No Longer existing ones have prompted critics to wonder very intriguing summary of the complex an Island: Britain and the Wright Brothers, about comparative, international, and evolution of aviation.
Robert Wohl wrote two such volumes on the subject: A Passion for Architecture conservative outlook of the military toward Wings: Aviation and the Western Imagination, aviation. Together, these wonderful books clearly links the themes of art, literature, , delves far more deeply into weave literature and art as well as the flight and architecture together. Few books, documenting the notion of air-mindedness experience across the skies, though they are for example, have looked at how aviation through popular literature and the way it squarely grounded in France, with occasional influenced specific writers.
Robert Harrison may have influenced early-twentieth-century discussions of Italian culture. Guillaume in Aviation Lore in Faulkner does document military thinkers. Germany and the oeuvre. Pirie clarifies the value the airship in the same way. A similar offers a useful overview of the field in The of airlines as a tool that helped Great Britain volume, though emphasizing politics, is John Flying Machine and Modern Literature, maintain control over its overseas territories.
Jonathan F. Vance does the same, in Technology and the Culture of Modernity though inspiring, also caused deep suspicion only with regard to Canada, in High Flight: in Britain and Germany, Rieger and prompted an emphasis on tragedy Aviation and the Canadian Imagination discusses airplanes alongside ships and similar to the myth of Icarus. Its complexity is Also focused on a defined cultural realm— boundaries, several scholars have sought matched by its elegance, making the book a that of Russia—is Dictatorship of the Air: to paint a wider canvas to help understand great analysis of aviation literature.
Marc Dierikx, Russia by Scott W. The author for example, offers an excellent synthesis Other books in this category are edited shows well the intricacies of the nationalist of the development of commercial flight collections. More the ones imagined at midcentury. All three will The realm of painting is more complex to Development, , offers a nice appeal to a general readership, thanks identify. These volumes join field makes it difficult to unify. The narrative necessarily shrinks British Aviation Posters: Art, Design, and comes close to offering an ideal summary of some of the evolution of such structures, Flight.
A small but notable contribution the richness and complexity of the feelings but this can be recovered in Building for Air is Swissair Posters by photographer Georg the airplane occasioned. The Italian and Travel previously discussed. In Airspaces, Gerster. Swissair departed from the norm Russian futurist movements, which made David Pascoe suggests that airports and of advertising by emphasizing the aerial gaze heavy use of the aviation theme, are covered the airspace in between are destinations in that Gerster had pioneered in his own art: extensively, but the flight dimension is not themselves irrelevant of the cities serviced.
More focused works offer Ever since architect Le Corbusier published longing. Airworld: Design and Architecture for Air to chart, as many works on the subject are Such challenges and the stresses of air travel Travel, edited by Alexander von Vegesack and internal documents that are not widely are far from unique.
Rather, they are one Jochen Eisenbrand. Nonetheless, by breaking accessible. Building for Air Travel: Architecture and All these works share a descriptive quality Design for Commercial Aviation, which offers This issue of imagination has been with beautiful reproductions, and show how an excellent base to further investigate the addressed beyond the realm of artistry airlines sought to make the flying experience richness of airport design. A similar volume to include discussions about design and as attractive as reaching the destination itself.
The field is still dominated by Other authors pick up on these themes amount to architectural description with descriptive accounts emphasizing beautiful and offer new angles. George Banks, a limited social analysis. He adventure books and how these evolved into Gourmet and Glamour in the Sky: A Life in takes a well-known event but casts it into diminishing female role models by taking Airline Catering.
One of the icons reexamining the context and impact of of twentieth-century U. Years ago, Isabel American World Airways. The result may at times to drinking on board a charter flight. The on the other hand, places Lindbergh front overwhelm the reader with details, but it breadth of coverage trades on the depth, but and center. The risk remains, however, that when handling biography, one forgets the wider Award went to the silent movie Wings.
Stephen Pendo, in brothers, publishers went into overdrive and the Wrights and A. Still, volumes emphasizing culture. Two of may be left wanting a greater analysis of the other angles are worth noting. Thomas the most notable titles in the series come genre. The book investigates air Powered Flight, emphasizes regionalism to jolting title, is an outstanding analysis of the travel, tourism, and film fantasy through a fault, and risks falling into determinism sociocultural conditions that accompanied the prism of the movie Flying Down to by claiming North Carolina was key to the the advent of flight.
However, his wonderful job of leaving aside the technical flying boats. Several accounts of the and differences of both realms. As Wrights also sought to address their social A. Differentiating reported in the press, shedding much light with the field. This suggests that there is more to song and popular prose.
The push learn about the issues surrounding women in by implication, people themselves. His for speed became an end in itself, even aviation. Horwitch identified a new patriarchal attitudes associated with aviation. In Cold War at 30, Feet: The project. In Concorde and the Americans: International this regard, Millward takes studies of gender displays the resulting influence of American Politics of the Supersonic Transport, though and aviation to a new level that may call for diplomacy on British aircraft production. He ostensibly about politics alone, hints at further reinterpretation of aviatrix behavior finds that another Cold War existed in the cultural attitudes playing a clear role in the in differing national contexts.
Other authors s, s, and s, opposing the two acceptance of the European-built SST. The Gender Divide More serious studies of flight attendants have cropped up in recent years. Often Related to this matter of ownership, in obscured by illustrated books that continue Who Owns the Sky?
Drew Whitelegg in Working that raises issues not usually considered in norm. Four important works on female the myth of glamour with the challenges points of inquiry. Barry chose a can help situate the field. Robert Women in Aviation ; and Deborah to cover the present day. Both studies, van der Linden posits that the foundations G. All are part of the notable other well. This succession by popular works on women air and Pan American World Airways. In Still that, while indeed discrimination existed, interaction of culture and politics does not Missing, Susan Ware takes on the symbol of the opportunities provided by commercial have an easily identifiable border.
Amelia Earhart to examine the question of flight helped bridge some racial divides.
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Dawson and Mark D. In aspects such as The survey of the literature of aviation and its this category.
As with all collected of aeronautics in the wider realm. Still, the canvas of early air-mindedness, though it quality, but the effort of the editors to bring dynamism of the field is worth noting: what does ignore any element not reflected in about a discussion of aviation and society is matters is how the public has understood the gathered artifacts. The National what must be acknowledged. The challenge is for investigators to in the 20th Century, the proceedings of a conference held at Wright State University, Space Travel: How explain such relevance to their readers also contains valuable summaries of cultural historical research into aviation, some of Widespread or How Far without repeating the common mistake of popular literature, namely, determinism.
Up to Go? Hopefully, this essay provides a broader, clearer picture of key works within the wide In the two-volume series on air range of aviation literature available today. James R. The mattered is the perception of said travel edited collection by Peter Galison and Alex from the ground perspective. Much of 2. Roger Launius does incorporate and the American Imagination. Wright State, Innovation and the Development of Flight.
Literature, edited by Anne Collins Goodyear, how imagination and engineering are not devotes one quarter of all contributions mutually exclusive. Similarly, Andrew Adey, Peter. Aerial Life: Spaces, Mobilities, Af- fects. Blackwell, Michigan, CH, Portrait Gallery, also provides a valuable human in space.
Vitra Design Museum, Astroculture in the Twentieth Century offer a kins Adams et al. Amereon House, Dawson, Virginia P. Franklin, H. Essays in Honor of the Centennial of Flight, Rev. Banks, George. The series' writers frequently addressed moral and social issues such as slavery, warfare, and discrimination. The opening line "to boldly go where no man has gone before " is almost verbatim from a U. White House booklet on space produced after the Sputnik flight in October A major inspiration for Star Trek was the science fiction film Forbidden Planet , whose influence is especially apparent in the pilot episode " The Cage "   Previous sophisticated science fiction TV series included anthology series such as The Twilight Zone and the British Quatermass serials , but Star Trek was the first American science fiction series with a continuing cast that was aimed at adults, telling modern morality tales with complex narratives.
Earlier British science fiction series with marionettes  and soap operas  had interracial casting, but this was the first American live-action series to do this. At a time when there were few non-white or foreign roles in American television dramas, Roddenberry created a multi-ethnic crew for the Enterprise, including an African woman Uhura , a Scotsman Montgomery Scott , an Asian man Hikaru Sulu , and—most notably [ original research?
In the second season, reflecting the contemporaneous Cold War , Roddenberry added a Russian crew member, Pavel Chekov. The original series is also credited with American television's first interracial kiss, between a white man and an African-American woman, although this had happened earlier in a British medical soap opera, Emergency — Ward Star Trek ' s contributions to television history include giving women jobs of respect, most notably through the casting of Nichelle Nichols , a black actress, as Uhura, the ship's communications officer. Black actresses at that time on television were almost always cast as servants.
In fact, Whoopi Goldberg recalled that the first time she saw Uhura, she excitedly told her mother: "Mama, there's a black woman on television and she ain't no maid! Nichols said,. I thought it was a Trekkie, and so I said, 'Sure. Martin Luther King walking towards me with this big grin on his face. He reached out to me and said, 'Yes, Ms.
Nichols, I am your greatest fan. You're part of history. When she told Roddenberry what King had said, he cried.
Wings Over the Rockies Air and Space Museum
The Original Series has later received some criticism for its portrayal of women, particularly its visual aesthetics. Women's crew uniforms, which consisted of miniskirts, high heeled boots, and heavy makeup, have been pointed-to as degrading to women for highlighting their frequent role as sexual objects. Researchers have pointed out that this was not necessarily the way the wardrobe, or the overall femininity of female characters in the series, was viewed by contemporary female viewers.
Cited are the concerns of women of the time period with the perceived upsetting of traditional gender roles for women of the future, with the women of the show's feminine behavior acting to reaffirm that women's sexuality and traditional femininity would not be lost. This fear was manifested by the media's criticisms of Valentina Tereshkova , the first female astronaut to go to space, as masculine and "mannish".
Computer engineer and entrepreneur Steve Wozniak credited watching Star Trek and attending Star Trek conventions while in his youth as a source of inspiration for him co-founding Apple Inc. The series gained multiple Emmy Award nominations during its run, but never won. Despite a restricted budget, the series' special effects were superior to contemporary TV series, its stories were often written by prominent science fiction authors though often re-written by the series' regular writers ,  and many of its production values—such as costuming and set design —were of high caliber for such a low budget.
Some of the production staff of The Outer Limits worked on Star Trek and often made creative re-use of props from the earlier series. During its network run from to , TOS ratings were mediocre. A letter-writing campaign by fans, unprecedented in size, contributed to NBC's decision to renew the series for a third season, but the network put the series in a disadvantageous timeslot , and TOS was finally canceled after its third season. After its cancellation, through reruns Star Trek became more popular and reached a much wider audience than when it had originally aired. In , following another fan-organized letter-writing campaign, NASA named its first space shuttle orbiter , Enterprise OV , after the fictional starship.
In the mids, encouraged by the burgeoning fan base for the series, Roddenberry sought to start a second television series Star Trek: Phase II ; this abortive attempt morphed into Star Trek: The Motion Picture in Unlike TOS —which often reflected a bold, interventionist American philosophy— TNG had a less aggressive and more socially liberal message.
Unlike its progenitor, this series entered syndicated , rather than a nationwide network, from the beginning, and was sold to individual local television stations. It became the number one syndicated television, lasting seven seasons, spawned two sequels , a prequel , four movies, and a vast marketing franchise.
Star Trek and its spin-offs have proved highly popular in television repeats, shown repeatedly on television stations in the United States and throughout the world. The Star Trek franchise is similarly prolific. Only Star Wars has had as significant an influence as a science fiction and popular culture phenomenon.
According to Forbes magazine: . Fans commonly considered the films to follow a "curse" that even-numbered films were better than the odd-numbered installments. The tenth film, Nemesis , was considered the even film that defied the curse. One of the best known examples   occurred in a episode of the Channel 4 sitcom Spaced , where it was referenced by Tim Bisley, played by Simon Pegg ; Pegg, quite conscious of the irony,  played Scotty in the eleventh and subsequent films.
Star Trek conventions have been popular, but are waning [ citation needed ] and are now often meshed with conventions of other genres. Fans coined the terms "Trekkies" and "Trekkers" to describe themselves, and produce an abundance of material like fanzines with fiction, art and songs. The series cultural influence goes far beyond its longevity and profitability. An entire subculture grew up around the series and, anecdotally, there are indications that Star Trek has influenced many people's lives.
Many scientists and engineers claim that their professional and life choices were influenced by Star Trek. Peter Jansen, who invented a functional tricorder ,  and several computer scientists at the University of Illinois , who have created a prototypical version of Star Trek ' s famous Holodeck.
The Harvard Pluralism Project-recognized  philosophical society for "pluralistic rationalism", The Circle of Reason , notes similarities between its practiced social philosophy and the fictional Star Trek backstory's Vulcan philosophy of IDIC and logic.
Well-known phrases like " Beam me up, Scotty ", " Resistance is futile " from the Borg , and Treknobabble have also managed to enter the English vernacular.
Beyond this, "Trekkie" is the only fan label listed in the Oxford English Dictionary , and words from the series including Klingon have also been added to that dictionary. Klingon has actually spawned a life of its own, going on to garner its own grammar and vocabulary  and dedicated speakers from across the globe. A broad consensus amongst fans is that the Star Trek franchise became formulaic and mediocre in the s on account of over-exploitation of the franchise by Paramount and production of multiple spin-offs and movies, though fans do not necessarily agree as to when this began some adult viewers of TOS felt it also could be formulaic and repetitive .
The release in May of Star Trek , a reboot involving characters from the original series and set in an alternate timeline, was developed with the partial hope to resurrect the franchise [ citation needed ]. Jeff Jensen of Entertainment Weekly , in reviewing the new film states that the Star Trek franchise had "devolved into a near-irrelevant cultural joke, likely to inspire giggles and unprintable curses from even its most ardent supporters.
Abrams said, "People [may not] even understand what Star Trek means anymore," and joked that a parody like Galaxy Quest which "mocks the paradigm" made the task of producing a credible Star Trek film that much more challenging. Upon release, the film was a major critical and box office success, sparking comments by fans and critics that the franchise has a bright renewed future. The opening fanfare of Star Trek: The Original Series , written by Alexander Courage , is one of the most culturally-recognized musical memes in existence.
In a departure from the tradition of sweeping classical themes symbolizing the various incarnations of Star Trek , the opening theme to Star Trek: Enterprise is the pre-existing pop song " Faith of the Heart ", by Diane Warren Star Trek: Enterprise episodes close with the more-traditionalized "Archer's Theme" epilogue, as a consolation to disappointed Star Trek music fans. Some of the most prominent composers of 20th- and 21st-century film music have written film scores and television scores for Star Trek.
A subgenre of Star Trek fandom has developed, specifically for the music of Star Trek , which includes music lovers who are not otherwise interested in Star Trek fandom. Dozens of commercially produced musical recordings of performances of Star Trek music exist—unrelated to the performance of screen Star Trek itself—evidencing the intrinsic cultural value and influence of the music of Star Trek.
The first television series with comparable storyline and set-up to Star Trek aside from the genre rival Doctor Who was the s series Babylon 5.