The psychological intimidation Streckmann employs here finds its culmination in his actual rape of Rose, which occurs off- stage. Their conversation in act III reveals that Streckmann violated her when she visited him to persuade him to keep quiet about her relationship with Flamm so that she can marry Keil. Du hust micht verwerrt! Hust mich niedergebrocha! Ich wullde zum Tierla rauskumma!
Du hust mir Jacke und Rock zersaust! Ich hoa geblutt! Ich wullde no rauskumma! Das iis a Verbrecha! Yet her boldness accomplishes nothing except to provoke him to accuse her publicly of promiscuity, thus — according to the classic logic of the double standard — projecting his guilt onto her. But Rose is of course not the only victim of her rape and her treatment by men in general.
As a feminized character, Keil can be viewed as a symbolic manifestation of female victimization. Yet Keil has more understanding of her situation than her father does, urging Bernd to remember that she is only human and pledging to stand by her despite the testimony of Flamm and Streckmann that they have had sexual relations with her. The fact that this kind of altruism is associated with a weak, ineffectual character is unmistakably ironic. Most strikingly, Frau Flamm offers to take care of Rose and her child even though she knows its father is her husband, suggesting that Frau Flamm represents the ethical core of the play.
Following our exploration of the abandonment of Magda in Die versunkene Glocke and the sexual exploitation of Rautendelein and of Rose Bernd, Hanneles Himmelfahrt presents another type of female victimization, the battering and molestation of an adolescent child. In terms of its plot, Hanneles Himmelfahrt originally published as Hannele: Traumdichtung in zwei Teilen appears to be a naturalistic addition to the literature of adolescence so prominent around the two-act play focusses on Hannele Mattern, the fourteen-year-old title character, between the time she is carried into a poorhouse, having been rescued from an attempt to drown herself, and her death a short time later.
Her economically, physically, and psychologically desperate circumstances — she is starving, freezing, ill, and at the mercy of her drunken and abusive stepfather he is referred to variously in the text as her father and as her stepfather , having recently lost her mother — render her an extreme example of the wretched figures that populate the naturalist stage.
Aesthetically and psychologically, however, Hanneles Himmelfahrt is much richer and more ambiguous than this spare but poignant plot outline suggests. By contrast, toward the end of the nineteenth century many writers and artists turn their attention to the period between puberty and young adulthood, a phase of life typically accompanied by tumult and change. The literature of adolescence in the German and Austrian traditions, which explores in particular the dynamics of pubescent and adolescent sexuality, the often detrimental effects of the school system, and the gestation of an artistic sensibility, includes dramatic and nar- rative works by Frank Wedekind, Thomas and Heinrich Mann, Robert Musil, and Hermann Hesse.
Given the desperate circumstances depicted in Hanneles Himmelfahrt, such existential questions of heritage and identity would obviously be a luxury. On the one hand: as indicated above, the setting of the play, a room in a poorhouse with bare walls, makeshift beds made of rags and straw, dilapidated furniture, and a generally impoverished appearance, manifests the indigence typical of naturalism.
Similarly, this space is populated by beggars who are dressed in rags, freezing in the winter weather, sickly, and crude, individuals whose only comforts are cheap liquor and hurdy- gurdy music. As in Rose Bernd and other naturalist plays by Hauptmann, all these characters speak in dialect. They talk of the crimes they have committed and even steal from each other. One of them, a feeble old man called Pleschke with white hair, goiter, and watery eyes, who constantly babbles, repeats himself, and laughs insanely, seems to epitomize the helplessness and marginality of these figures.
The suffering of Hannele takes the misery of the other inhabitants of the poorhouse to another level. This segment of the play contains overtly marvellous elements reminiscent of a fairy tale: for example, Hannele acquires silken gar- ments and glass shoes, is placed in a glass coffin, is repeatedly called a saint, and is surrounded by a pale light. Most striking is the figure of der Fremde, who combines features of Gottwald and Jesus Christ and speaks in a decidedly biblical fashion.
Yet because Hannele is silent and inactive during this part of the play, the fact that these visions are the product of her unconscious mind is downplayed. One wonders how this girl from desperately impoverished circumstances could have been familiar with many of the things mentioned in this art nouveau-like evocation of the heavenly paradise, such as swans, marble, gold, wine, alabaster, jasmine, lilac, malachite, and tropical fruits. But the erotic feelings Hannele displays toward der Fremde who, we recall, bears the features of both Gottwald and Christ in her hallucinations possess a mystical intensity absent from the portrayal of sexuality in Rose Bernd.
Wie unter einer un- geheueren Wonnelast vermag sie es nicht. But Hanneles Himmelfahrt invites comparison with other aspects of Freudian thought as well, which can shed light on a significant dimension of the play not yet examined here, her victimization as an adolescent female. Such comparison reveals differences between Hauptmann and Freud that are at least as telling as their affinities. In this essay Freud argues that the childhood fantasy of a child being beaten, which some of his adult patients have recounted to him in analysis, is a perversion that produces autoerotic gratification.
The fantasy results, he postulates, from a childhood fixation that can hinder normal sexual development, and it undergoes transformations in a series of phases. Having encountered such beating- fantasies twice as often in females as in males, he interprets the fantasy in oedipal terms, and determines that in girls, the person performing the beating is recognizable as the father. In Hanneles Himmelfahrt, child-beating is not psychoanalyzed as a pleasur- able fantasy but portrayed as a harsh reality, and conventional oedipal attractions are absent.
We soon learn why, when the woodcutter who pulled her from the water reveals that Mattern had the habit of sending her out into the snow at night to beg for his drinking money and the doctor discovers that her entire body appears to be covered with bruises. The viewer can infer that the death of her mother was the event that finally drove Hannele to attempt suicide.
But there is an additional, less apparent dimension of Hanneles Himmelfahrt that bears comparison with Freudian thought: the intimation of sexual molestation. Significantly, after Hannele is brought into the poorhouse, she is afraid to talk about what has happened to her.
Furthermore, although her visions near the end of the play, in which a chorus of voices condemn Mattern as a murderer, ex- pressionistically reveal her awareness of his guilt, at other points she takes guilt onto herself. In a subtle, indirect fashion, Hauptmann acknowledges the reality of sexual molestation and the degree to which it crosses class lines.
His portrayal suggests that this offense is to be taken seriously, even when the victim is an indigent adolescent. Although the cast of characters was quite different — for the most part, young women from affluent Viennese families, who consulted Freud because of mysterious physical ailments that appeared to have no organic cause — they told strikingly similar tales of fathers or male family friends who had coerced them into covert sexual activity. Where Freud theorizes about child-beating as a pleasurable fantasy, Hauptmann recog- nizes physical violence against children as a real phenomenon, gives it dramatic form, and explores its psychological consequences in Hanneles Himmelfahrt.
Where Freud retreats from the evidence of sexual molestation in the families of his Viennese contemporaries and assigns guilt to the victims rather than the offenders, Hauptmann gives credence to sexual molestation in an emotionally compelling, stylistically hybrid play. Furthermore, these dramas demonstrate palpable sympathy with victimized females — with the betrayed wives, sexually exploited and abandoned women, unwed mothers, and battered and molested girls who are microcosmically represented by his female characters.
Her idea meets with such disapproval that the community has her committed to a mental institution, but following her release a few years later, she again publicly defends the cause of single mothers, disclosing that she is in the meantime the sole parent of a hand- some young son. In stark contrast to his own male-dominated society, Hauptmann depicts here a world where men are unnecessary, even for re- production: the women begin giving birth spontaneously, although the only male on the island is a young boy.
Jane Roberts Chapman and Margaret Gates. Beverly Hills: Sage, Brownmiller, Susan. New York: Simon and Schuster, Dworkin, Andrea. New York: The Free Press, Finney, Gail. Ithaca: Cornell UP, Freud, Sigmund. Philip Rieff. New York: Collier Macmillan, Guthke, Karl S. Stuttgart: Metzler, Bern: Francke, Hart, Gail K. Columbia: Camden House, Hauptmann, Gerhart. Das dramatische Werk. Hanneles Himmelfahrt: Traumdichtung. Das dramatische Werk I, — Nachgelassene Werke: Fragmente.
Rose Bernd: Schauspiel. Das dramatische Werk II, — Centenar Ausgabe. Hans Egon Hass et al. Hildebrandt, Klaus. Thematik — Entstehung — Gestaltungsprinzipien — Struktur. Munich: Oldenbourg, Mayer, Hans. Gerhart Hauptmann. Velber: Friedrich, Minden, Pamela Brede. Ann Wolbert Burgess. New York: Garland, Neubauer, John. New Haven: Yale UP, Pilz, Georg. Sprengel, Peter. Gerhart Hauptmann: Epoche — Werk — Wirkung. Munich: Beck, Staudte, Wilhelm, dir. The Sins of Rose Bernd. Written by Walter Ulbrich and Gerhart Hauptmann.
Schorcht Filmverleih, Weber, Beat. Bonn: Bouvier, Die unter den Pseudonymen El Hor und El Ha schreibende Autorin schildert darin ein grotesk-surreal anmutendes Aufeinandertreffen eines Mannes und einer Frau in einem Theater und bietet dadurch fesselnde Einblicke in die expressionistische Dichtung aus weiblicher Perspektive.
Statt dessen werden Schriftstellerinnen des Expressionismus vor allem auf ihren biographischen Hintergrund untersucht. Literaturhistorisch ist das Interesse an diesen Themen durch den Kolonialismus und den durch Reiselust entstandenen Exotismus Ende des Jahrhunderts bestimmt Reif Jahrhunderts verwiesen. Addiert die Dichterin durch die Wahl der Namen nicht auch noch eine geschlechtneutrale wenn nicht gar hermaphroditische Dimension zu ihren sprachlichen Kunstwerken?
McCormick; Nipperdey; Petro; Ward. Seine Begierden steigerten sich. Mai in der Wiener Wochenzeitschrift Der Friede erschienen ist: Als der Mann tot war, spielte die Frau den ganzen Tag mit seiner Taschenuhr, sprach mit ihr und horchte auf ihren metallenen Pulsschlag. Und des Nachts legte sie die Uhr in sein Bett. Der mit grandioser Vermessenheit Menschen- schicksale formte wie bunte Geschichten! Nach seiner Dichterlaune! The second network, that of the signified, is the diachronic set of concretely pronounced discourses, which react historically on the first, just as the structure of the first governs the pathways of the second.
The dominant fact here is the unity of signification, which proves never to be resolved into a pure indication of the real, but always refers back to another signification. Auf den zweiten Blick jedoch fallen Besonderheiten auf.
Es bleibt zudem offen, welches Theater an welchem Ort gemeint ist. Seine Schultern waren etwas verwachsen, und er hatte gar keinen Hals. Gezerrte Augen deuten eine Mimik an, die sich einer Kontrolle entzieht. Dadurch wirkt die hundeartige Gestalt wie von den eigenen Instinkten getrieben, so dass die animalische Charakterisierung des Mannes weiter vertieft wird.
Nicht nur die abgesonderte Stellung im Raum, auch die geistige Haltung des Mannes deutet damit eine tiefe Kluft zu der Gesellschaft an. Mann , vom Handlungsantrieb spontan vs. Zudem setzen sich beide durch diese detaillierte Beschreibung von der sie um- gebenden Menschenmenge ab. Ihre Reaktion auf diese erschreckende Vorstellung ist ein Lachen. Ist es das Begehren des Mannes, das sie ersehnt hat, und nun, da es ihrer Meinung nach offensichtlich geworden ist, erfreut?
Noch befindet sie sich trotz dieser Vorstellung in sicherer Distanz zum Mann. Ultimately what she values is his desire for her. It enables her to maintain her apparent independence. She can feel confident in so far as she is wanted. Zugleich scheint sich die Frau ohne Begleitung im Theater zu befinden. Ihre Bitte? Anders als im Theater, wo sich die Frau eine abrupte Durchbrechung in ihrer passiven Rolle inmitten eines Publikums vorstellt, erfolgt die Tat erst, nachdem ein gut gelegener Ort gefunden worden ist.
Ebenso weckt das direkte Ansprechen des Mannes durch die Frau, der schweigende gemeinsame Weg und die Suche nach einem geeigneten Platz Assoziationen an eine Prostituierte, die einen Freier angesprochen hat, was in einer Vielzahl von Texten und Filmen des Expressionismus eine bedeutende Rolle einnimmt vgl. Den Mann verbindet nichts mit der Frau, mit der er doch einen Weg zusammen gegangen ist und die er kurzfristig leidenschaftlich begehrte. Dies und die Tatsache, dass er nicht den Versuch macht, die Leiche zu verbergen, impliziert zudem, dass er will, dass sie entdeckt wird.
Auch Barbara D. Suhrbier — Ein ganz kurzes Erkennen zuckte zwischen ihnen auf, und dann wurde es wieder dunkel. Literaturverzeichnis Ankum, Katharina von. Women in the Metropolis: Gender and Modernity. Berkeley: U of California P, Anz, Thomas. Literatur des Expressionismus. Bergstrom, Randolph E. John C. London: Holmes und Meier, Best, Otto. Theorie des Expressionismus. Stuttgart: Reclam, Mainz: Ventil, Die Schaukel. Hartwig Suhrbier. Eykman, Christoph.
Denk- und Stilformen des Expressionismus. Foucault, Michel. Richard Howard. New York: Random House, Frevert, Ute. Gleber, Anke. Princeton: Princeton UP, Grosz, Elizabeth. Jacques Lacan: A Feminist Introduction.
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London: Routledge Hoffmann-Curtius, Kathrin. Ilsebill Barta et al. Berlin: Reimer, Huber, Ottmar. Meisenheim: Anton Hain, Grambin: AvivA, Bielefeld: Aisthesis, Cambridge: Cambridge UP, London: Tavistock, Lewis, Beth Irwin. Lloyd, Jill. German Expressionism: Primitivism and Modernity. Stuttgart: Francke UTB, Martens, Gunther. Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, Martini, Fritz, Hrsg.
Prosa des Expressionismus. McCormick, Richard. Nipperdey, Thomas. Macht- staat vor der Demokratie. Petro, Patrice. Raabe, Paul, und Ingrid Hannich-Bode. Reif, Wolfgang. Peter Brenner. Rothe, Wolfgang. Der Expressionismus: Theologische, soziologische und anthropologische Aspekte einer Literatur.
Rochester: Camden House, Suhrbier, Hartwig. Tatar, Maria. Sexual Murder in Weimar Germany. Theweleit, Klaus. Male Fantasies. Minneapolis: U of Minnesota P, Vollmer, Hartmut, Hrsg.
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Pader- born: Igel, Ward, Janet. Wright, Barbara D. Neil H. The existence of the intangible realm, as well as its accessibility, occupied his thoughts, his writings, and his own esoteric pursuits throughout his adult life. A prominent trope in this project is the somnambulist: a wanderer in the region between waking and deep sleep who can unite disparate parts of the self and thus secure salvation by overcoming the fears and limitations of the material world.
His are views shared by a great many writers during the latter half of the nineteenth through the first third of the twentieth centuries. During this period much of Europe experienced a profound series of crises: The debates and disagreements surrounding epistemo- logical issues in particular offers intriguing insight into this time of crisis. These discussions were a response to questions as to how to deal with the duality of mind and body, of material and spirit.
For Benjamin, each aesthetic product bears a spiritual component that becomes detached when that product is mass-produced in the modern age. Others felt that the answers to their questions were to be found by melding the material and the spiritual. This approach was crystallized in occultist and esoteric movements, most prominently in theosophy, whose practitioners included Helena Petrovna Blavatsky, Henry Steel Olcott, Annie Besant, and Rudolph Steiner.
Founded in New York City in , theosophy was open to all people irrespective of race, colour, or creed, and it fostered the study of comparative religions and philosophy to unearth common ground among spiritual and intellectual traditions across the world in order to unite the material and the mystical Cranston — Throughout his adult life, Meyrink believed that fundamental truths of existence are found in the shadows of the spiritual realm, and his pursuit of these truths resulted in decades of occultist practices.
He not only corresponded and met with Besant and Steiner respectively, but also founded a theosophical lodge in Prague in Eventually, he moved beyond the empty promises of the Theo- sophical Society and developed his own epistemology. Through his attempts to acquire esoteric knowledge, he believed he had discovered the underlying structure of the human psyche — that there is a schism between the daily or waking consciousness and the realms of spiritual experience, but that this bifurcation can be healed through esoteric training, which aids in achieving spiritual salvation.
This theme dominated his fiction and as a result expresses seminal characteristics of modernism — a movement from around to the s that constitutes the aesthetic articulation of modernity. Modernity resists an all-encompassing definition and continues to generate attempts to circumscribe its complex structure. Broadly viewed as a series of social and intellectual upheavals beginning in the Renaissance, several critics and cultural theorists argue that modernity describes experiences and relationships permeated by ambivalence: the clash of concomitant yet mutually exclusive paradigms Bauman 5; Berman 16; Habermas 3; Kniesche and Brockmann 7—12; Treitel 17— As such, his sleepwalkers are caught in the massive flux of historical and epistemological shifts as they manifested themselves at the turn of the twentieth century.
This incarnation of the somnambulist inhabits a dark corner of modernity — the danger that lurks among the intangible and hidden powers of the mind. Meyrink, as another voice in this choir, recognizes neither uneasiness nor perniciousness in somnambulism. Instead, he views the somnambulistic condition as integral to mending the inherent rift within each human being.
A colourful and controversial figure, Meyrink was often in the centre of conflict because of his brazen and iconoclastic character Frank; Karle; Lube; Marzin; Mitchell; Smit. One of the reasons why he was so controversial was his caustic derision of those who favoured empirical science at the expense of the occult. In addition to his satires, he also chronicled his own attempts to harness occultist forces, and his novels arguably could be read as fictionalized accounts of individuals on journeys of salvation, journeys that overcome dualism and lead to freedom and felicity.
Salvation is realized only at the end of a process of awakening to higher knowledge, and this awakening is contingent upon escaping daily consciousness and entering a state of awareness akin to a somnambulistic state. Meyrink often writes about varying degrees of awareness that hinge on the underlying dualistic structure of human experience.
In Der Golem , somnambulism is the trope most closely associated with the condition in which the unnamed narrator, Pernath, crosses the planes of consciousness. Der Golem is a framed narrative and begins with an unnamed protagonist drifting off to sleep after having read a biography of the Buddha. He begins to dream, and this dream is the bridge between the framed and embedded nar- ratives. The reader then follows Pernath as he encounters the tempestuous personalities and negotiates the perilous day-to-day workings of the Prague ghetto. Pernath stands entangled in both threads, as an unscrupulous member of the ghetto has him falsely charged with the murder of a local watchmaker.
As a result, he is arrested and subsequently, after months of incarceration, released. This kind of interaction is not unique. During this process of self-discovery, Pernath comes into contact with gurus, ghoulish apparitions, and mystical texts. All of this culminates in his release from prison and return to the ghetto only to find it abandoned. On Christmas Eve, fire breaks out in his building, and he escapes by climbing out of his window and falls to the pavement below, but not before witnessing visions on the way down that bear great import to his destiny.
This signals the end of the embedded narrative and brings the reader back to the slumbering unnamed protagonist of the frame. Upon waking, the protagonist realizes that he had taken the wrong hat at High Mass earlier in the day — the hat belonging to Athanasius Pernath. Wishing to return the hat to its owner, he seeks out and eventually finds Pernath in the Alchimistengasse on the Hradschin, a place of great spiritual energy that the narrator encountered in his dream. Two further aspects of the ending of the novel are worth noting.
Although he lived decades prior to this discovery, he has not aged a day, he exists in a place beyond time. Also, he and the unnamed narrator are physically identical. This interpretation, which combines fiction and autobiography, comes into focus through the lens of allegory. Allegory is an exegetical matrix, a text that creates a space in which different interpretations can arise.
The key to multiple interpretations resides in the narrative structure. A coupling of the primary and proof texts extrapolates a reading distinct from — yet coeval to — the original narrative. She identifies two species of allegory that have developed over time: allegory as metaphor fabulistic and allegory as metonymy figurative. This species of allegory links signs in a text — for example a fox and a crow — to a general moral code, for example, that flattery from certain quarters should be accepted with a grain of salt.
Madsen quotes A. An example of this kind of allegory is the Christian exegesis of the Bible. When reading the Bible, one identifies an interpretive relation between the Old Testament figure and its spiritual, New Testament referent Essential to this latter species of allegory, as Madsen frames it, are shared figures or themes that link both texts. In this text, Meyrink interweaves personal experiences, philosophical reflections, and polemical exclamations to illustrate the schism of the psyche as well as to help the reader to overcome this intrinsic ailment.
At the nexus of this textual confluence stands, or wanders, the sleepwalker. The sleepwalker is the lynchpin for an allegorical reading. The contiguity between the two texts resides not in a precise mirroring of biography and fiction, but in shared signposts along paths to salvation. First, one must become receptive to the turbulence of the supernatural realm. This is achieved by entering a trance represented by somnambulism.
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Contact with the apparitions of the spiritual realm is the next phase. Finally, one deciphers the language of the intuition with the help of guides and gurus. For example, his novels explore a variety of esoteric traditions, and therefore one cannot ascribe a one-to-one connection between his own views and the views and deeds portrayed in his novels.
Instead, the current study argues that throughout his fiction and nonfiction there are common processes that allow for the identification of patterns in his texts that invite comparisons. The first common trait of these processes that heal the duality in each human being is entering the realm of the supernatural through a somnambulistic trance. Andrew J. The method for healing the spiritual divide is the practice of proper yoga.
Yoga, which Meyrink notes is largely absent in modern society, is an instrument for mediating between the spiritual and material realities because it marries spiritual energy to worldly activity. This is the crux of his text and indeed much of his ourevre. He outlines how this unification is conducted, and uses a seminal metaphor in illustrating this process: the somnambulist. He explains: Ich beobachtete mich selbst dabei so scharf ich nur konnte. Dabei wurde mir bald klar: all das geschieht nur zu dem Zweck, damit du die Augachsen parallel stellst.
Sleepwalkers exist in a state of intermediate consciousness — or as a character in Der Golem describes it: the sleepwalker wanders in a region between waking and deep sleep. Meyrink tells of meditating outside and wondering to himself how late it had become. The ability of inner sight becomes possible after entering a heightened state of spiritual awareness The protagonist in Der Golem, Athanasius Pernath, finds himself in similar situations. At one point in the embedded narrative, Pernath falls into a deep trance and is unresponsive to any external stimulus.
This stupor embodies the first phase in the process of spiritual awakening. During this episode Pernath witnesses a series of opaque and eerie visions. Significant among these is the book Ibbur, which, according to Hillel, makes the soul fertile with the spirit of life The apparitions encountered here and elsewhere remain with Pernath as he attempts to decode their meaning. Eventually, Meyrink did begin to listen and to follow the leadership of this figure and came to recognize it as central to his well-being. Er ist das, was wir im Leben Vorsehung nennen. Pernath also encounters a mysterious character that leads him down the path of happiness and to salvation.
The role of the disguised one in the novel is taken on by the golem and further illustrates metonymic allegory. After the unnamed narrator drifts off to sleep and launches the embedded narrative, Athanasius Pernath enters the story finding himself in curious circum- stances. He is suddenly overcome with tremendous feelings of anxiety. He falls into a curious stupor and is confronted with the visage of a strange figure.
The golem, as Hillel makes clear, represents the awakening of the dead. It transmits cryptic images and symbols that Pernath must learn to decipher, just as the disguised one did for Meyrink. Instead, one must act on knowledge procured in that realm. As Meyrink details the events surrounding this progression, life allowed him to overcome setbacks caused by charlatans posing as sages and to glean true wisdom from his encounters, albeit not without struggle and hardship.
Upon meeting O. These exercises did not, however, produce the desired result, instead Meyrink learned from people he trusted that O. This is not the only experience Meyrink had with so-called gurus. Through his contact with O. He needed to identify the needle of truth in the haystack of falsehoods in his journey, but Pernath has better luck with his spiritual mentors. Several figures assist Pernath in his journey. Search this site. A Gaelic Dictionary.
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