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  1. La herencia de Wilt (Contraseñas nº 198) por Tom Sharpe
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High-sensitivity C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, lipid profile, white blood cell profile and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were assessed.

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Full Text Available Flavonoids in cocoa and yerba mate have a beneficial role on inflammation and oxidative disorders. DPPH is one of the most used assays to measure the antioxidant capacity of pure compounds and plant extracts. It is difficult to compare the results between studies because this assay is applied in too many different conditions by the different research groups. The AOC of the ethanolic extracts ranged between Operators of nuclear power plants may not be equipped with sufficient information during a loss-of-coolant accident LOCA , which can be fatal, or they may not have sufficient time to analyze the information they do have, even if this information is adequate.

It is not easy to predict the progression of LOCAs in nuclear power plants. Therefore, accurate information on the LOCA break position and size should be provided to efficiently manage the accident. The input data of the CFNN model are the time-integrated values of each measurement signal for an initial short-time interval after a reactor scram. The training of the CFNN model is accomplished by a hybrid method combined with a genetic algorithm and a least squares method. Flow and pressure through the fuel coolant channel reduce rapidly following a loss of coolant accident.

Due to stored energy and decay heat, fuel and cladding temperatures rise rapidly. Increase in clad temperature causes deterioration of mechanical properties of clad material. This coupled with increase of pressure inside the cladding due to accumulation of fission gases and de-pressurization of coolant causes the cladding to balloon.

This phenomenon is important as it can reduce or completely block the flow passages in a fuel assembly causing reduction of emergency coolant flow. Fuel and clad temperatures following a LOCA are calculated. Fission gas release and pressure is estimated using well established models. An elasto-plastic analysis of clad tube is carried out to determine plastic strains and corresponding deformations using finite-element technique. Analysis of neighbouring pins gives an estimate of flow areas available for emergency coolant flow. Synthesis of the works of geophysical electrical soundings carried out in the region of the anomalies of Yerba Sola Cerro Largo Uruguay.

In this report has been studied geographical localization, geology, geophysics prospection, equipment and methods used and their results in Yerba Sola anomalies Province Cerro Largo and Fraile Muerto formation. This study evaluated whether long-term supplementation with dietary yerba mate has beneficial effects on adiposity and its related metabolic dysfunctions in diet-induced obese mice.

Yerba mate also decreased levels of plasma lipids free fatty acids, triglycerides, and total cholesterol and liver aminotransferase enzymes, as well as the accumulation of hepatic lipid droplets and lipid content by inhibiting the activities of hepatic lipogenic enzymes, such as FAS and phosphatidate phosphohydrolase, and increasing fecal lipid excretion.

Moreover, yerba mate decreased the levels of plasma insulin as well as the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, and improved glucose tolerance. Circulating levels of gastric inhibitory polypeptide and resistin were also decreased in the mate group. These findings suggest that long-term supplementation of dietary yerba mate may be beneficial for improving diet-induced adiposity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hepatic steatosis. Intensity of bitterness of processed yerba mate leaves originated in two contrasted light environments.

Full Text Available The bitterness intensity of beverage prepared from the leaves produced on the males and females of yerba mate Ilex paraguariensis, grown in the forest understory and monoculture, was evaluated. The leaves were grouped by their position in the crown and on the branch tips and by the leaf age. The leaf gas exchange, leaf temperature and photosynthetic photon flux density were observed.

Inter and intra-specific competition for light and self-shading showed the same effect on yerba mate beverage taste. All the shading types resulted in bitterer taste of the processed yerba mate leaves compared to the leaves originated under the direct sun exposure. The leaves from the plants grown in the monoculture showed less bitterness than those grown in the forest understory.

This conclusion was completely opposite to the conventionally accepted paradigm of the yerba mate industries. The leaves from the tips younger leaves of the plants grown in the monoculture resulted a beverage of softer taste; the males produced less bitter leaves in any light environment forest understory or in the crown in monoculture. The taste was related to the photosynthetic and transpiration rate, and leaf temperature. Stronger bitterness of the leaves provided from the shade conditions was related to the decreased leaf temperature and transpiration in the diurnal scale.

Naturaleza y libertad en el pensamiento de Simone de Beauvoir. Genetic diversity of wild germplasm of " yerba mate" Ilex paraguariensis St. The " yerba mate" tree, Ilex paraguariensis St. The Uruguayan germplasm occupies the southernmost area of the species distribution range and carries adaptations to environments that considerably differ from the current production area. We characterized the genetic variability of the germplasm from this unexplored area by jointly analyzing individuals from the diversification center ABP, Argentina, Brazil and Paraguay with 19 nuclear and 11 plastidic microsatellite markers.

Only two plastidic haplotypes were detected.

La herencia de Wilt (Contraseñas nº 198) por Tom Sharpe

Distance-based and multilocus genotype analyses showed that individuals from ABP intermingle and that the Uruguayan germplasm is differentiated in three gene-pools. Significant positive correlations between genetic and geographic distances were detected. Our results concur in that ABP individuals harbor greater genetic variation than those from the tail of the distribution, as to the number of alleles 1. Also the shape of the genetic landscape interpolation analysis suggests that the genetic variation decays southward towards the Uruguayan territory. We showed that Uruguayan germplasm hosts a combination of nuclear alleles not present in the central region, constituting a valuable breeding resource.

Future conservation efforts should concentrate in collecting numerous individuals of " yerba mate" per site to gather the existent variation. We report on the hydroxylation of the hydroxycinnamates cinnamoyl substituent by conjugate addition of water to form 3-hydroxy-dihydrocinnamic acid derivatives using a series of model compounds, including caffeoylglucoses, dicaffeoylquinic acids, methyl caffeoylquinate and mono caffeoylquinic acids. The regiochemistry of conjugate addition was determined by targeted tandem MS experiments performed on authentic standards.

It was interesting to note that hydroxylation of hydroxycinnamates produced cis and acyl-migration isomers, which is in line with previously reported data. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Arsenic, cadmium and lead concentrations in Yerba mate commercialized in Southern Brazil by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Recent research has detected the presence of many vitamins and metals in this plant.

Regardless of their origin, some inorganic elements, such as arsenic, cadmium and lead, are considered toxic, since they accumulate in all plant tissues and are, thus, introduced into the food chain.

As, Cd and Pb concentrations in yerba mate leaves ranged from 0. This post hoc analysis of the case-control study nested in the Obesity and Bone Fracture Cohort evaluated the consumpt Anticonvulsant, neuroprotective and behavioral effects of organic and conventional yerba mate Ilex paraguariensis St. Epilepsy, which is one of the most common neurological disorders, involves the occurrence of spontaneous and recurrent seizures that alter the performance of the brain and affect several sensory and behavioral functions. Oxidative damage has been associated with post-seizure neuronal injury, thereby increasing an individual's susceptibility to the occurrence of neurodegenerative disorders.

The present study investigated the possible anticonvulsive and neuroprotective effects of organic and conventional yerba mate Ilex paraguariensis , a plant rich in polyphenols, on pentylenetetrazol PTZ -induced seizures in Wistar rats. The behavioral and polyphenolic profiles of the yerba mate samples were also evaluated. On the 15th day the animals were subjected to open field test, and exploratory behavior was assessed. Latency for the first seizure, tonic-clonic and generalized seizures time, frequency of seizures and mortality induced by PTZ were recorded.

The animals were then sacrificed, and the cerebellum, cerebral cortex and hippocampus were quickly removed and frozen to study the neuroprotective effects of yerba mate. The oxidative damage in lipids and proteins, nitric oxide levels, the activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase Sod and catalase Cat and non-enzymatic cellular defense sulfhydryl protein were quantified in all the tissues.

The results showed that organic and conventional yerba mate infusions were able to reduce the frequency of seizures when compared to the PTZ group. Besides, organic yerba mate infusion decreases the tonic-clonic seizures time in relation to the PTZ group. It was also shown that organic and conventional yerba mate infusions reduced the oxidative damage in lipids and proteins and nitric oxide. Hydrogen production during design basis accident is a rather slow mechanism, allowing in the worst case, 15 days to connect a hydrogen recombining unit to the containment atmosphere monitoring system.

Hydrogen generated by steam oxidation during more severe hypothetical accidents was found limited by steam availability and fuel melting phenomena. Uncertainty is, however, still remaining on corium-zirconium-steam interaction. This concentration is within flammability limits but not within detonation limits. However, hydrogen detonation due to local hydrogen accumulation cannot be discarded. A major uncertainty subsisting on hydrogen hazard is hydrogen distribution during the first hours of the accident.

This point determines the effects and consequences of local detonation or deflagration which could possibly be harmful to safeguard systems, or induce missile generation in the reactor building. As electrical supply failures are identified as an important contributor to severe accident risk, corrective actions have been taken in France to improve their reliability, including the installation of a gas turbine on each site to supplement the existing sources. These actions are thus contributing to hydrogen hazard reduction.

Cuerpo y naturaleza humana en la obra de Hannah Arendt. Arendt desmiente la existencia de una naturaleza humana innata, prescrita e incuestionable.

English-Spanish, Spanish-English dictionary - Brooklyn College

Memoria de los Andes, memoria de la naturaleza. A number of safety studies are under way concerning the reactor plant of N. The stainless steel cladding tests were conducted to test swelling, rupture, oxidation and compression characteristics. Few reports are known to have been published in this domain, so that the present results should prove useful for future studies related to ECCS evaluation analyses on stainless steel fuel cladding. The containment integrity analysis covered variations of containment pressure and temperature following a LOCA , performed separately for short- and long-term periods.

Estimates were also made on the changes in the hydrogen concentration present inside the containment after a LOCA. The results obtained should serve in determining the characteristic response to LOCA of marine reactor plants. Las elecciones ambientales no dejan de construirnos… o destruirnos, tanto personal como colectivamente, en dimensiones corporales o culturales, en el individuo humano y en su paisaje.

Mead en , traducido e introducido por Estaban Laso y Anna Vitores. Analysis of factors affecting the LOCA test quality. Localization of nuclear safety-related equipment has become an important way of nuclear power development in China. To meet this demand, the competence should be promoted in the following two areas, one is to develop the capability of R and D and manufacturing of nuclear safety-related equipment, the other is to implement equipment qualification according to relevant codes and standards.

As LOCA test is one of the most important parts in the qualification test of nuclear safety-related equipment, the main factors related with the quality of the LOCA test are analyzed in this paper, and this may be a reference to improve the skills in designing, constructing and operating LOCA test devices. The results from cold leg break LOCA with broken area of 0. Studies performed in IPSN and elsewhere pointed out that high burnup may induce specific effects under LOCA conditions, especially those related with fuel relocation.

Uncertainties exist regarding how much these effects might affect the late evolution of the accident transient and the associated safety issues. IPSN estimates that a better knowledge of specific phenomena is required in order to resolve the pending uncertainties related to LOCA criteria. A feasibility study for such an experimental programme is underway and should provide soon, a finalized project including cost and schedule aspects. These variables had to be estimated modeling the heat and mass transfer due to the difficulty of experimental measurement in the dryer.

For modeling, the equipment was divided into two zones: the flame or heat treatment zone and the drying zone.


The model developed fit well with the experimental data when water loss took place only in leaves. CANDU reactors have been analyzed and evaluated for the postulated in-core LOCA while the reactor is operating normally with low moderator poison concentration. The methodology of in-core LOCA analysis with poisoned moderator is developed to determine the effective trip parameters, evaluate the fuel integrity, and establish the standard reactor start-up model for CANDU reactor recently.

The developed methodology and results are presented. The main goals of this work were to estimate the ultimate pressurization of the heat transport system HTS vault in order to gauge the potential for stack releases and to estimate the total amount of hydrogen generated during a design basis ex-vessel LOCA. Simulation results indicated that the amount of hydrogen produced in each transient was below the flammability limit for the plasma chamber. In addition, only moderate pressurization of the HTS vault indicated a very small potential for releases through the stack.

Parte de la Naturaleza : sobre el cuerpo como potencia compositiva. This paper presents: a short description of Phebus reactor; the current program adjusting the thermohydraulic conditions in order to get cladding failure ; the program developments consequences involved by cladding failure ; the fuel test conditions determination [fr. This paper narrates the description of AHWR and associated ECCS, postulated scenario with which the analyses is carried out, results, discussion and conclusion. Practical illustration of the traditional vers. An approach to assess these correlations from the viewpoint of violation of the observed criterion is presented.

This approach is based on determination of the temperature vers. Reasons leading to necessity of alternative criterion proposal are summarised. This criterion for LOCA events evaluation, including corresponding correlation, is proposed on the basis of the long-term experimental research of cladding materials at UJP Praha.

The computational results, obtained according to this alternative criterion, are illustrated for the same courses of LOCA events as for traditional criteria and traditional correlations. Proposed criterion is also confronted with the other discussed criteria in accordance with mentioned approach presented in this paper. The characteristic experimental results and key findings are summarised. They substantiate and support the proposed alternative criterion. An advantage of the criterion is its independence on ECR, on hydrogen and oxygen content and on oxidation history, and its applicability to current Zr-based alloy cladding materials as well.

This applicability is kept while preserving the simplicity of the criterion using. A spectrum of small break LOCA ranging from 0. Through the code calculations, the thermal-hydraulic behavior and the boron behavior are evaluated and the effect of the important manual action including the safety injection tank isolation in LTC procedure is investigated. The seal had been significantly and irreparably deteriorated by the LOCA exposure. By means of a bioinformatic approach involving extensive NGS data analyses, we provide a resource encompassing the full transcriptome assembly of yerba mate, the first available reference for the Ilex L.

This dataset Supplementary files 1 and 2 consolidates the transcriptome-wide assembled sequences of I. The generated data is pivotal for the characterization of agronomical relevant genes in the tree crop yerba mate -a non-model species- and related taxa in Ilex. Naturaleza y alcance del capital social en las comunidades rurales.

Ethnographic method was also used. As result of this test, it was found that low pressure effect in aging was not significant compared with that of temperature. For environmental qualification of electric equipment in containment building of nuclear power plant, LOCA test should be applied. If the test temperature is lower than required profile in some time zone while it is higher in other time zone, calculation of total cumulated test temperature is required to compare with that of plant profile.

Arrhenius equation can be applied for calculation of total temperature accumulation. If there is a deviation of pressure between test profile and plant specific profile, can we still use the same rule of temperature? Since the Arrhenius equation can't be applied to pressure, analysis of pressure effect to aging degradation is not easy.

Study for relation of pressure and aging degradation during LOCA condition is described herein. We expected low IR in high pressure because it contained a high concentration of oxygen which induces high aging degradation. Contrary to our expectation, IR of low pressure was lower than that of high pressure.

It is assumed that high vibration of temperature profile to maintain the low pressure at high temperature induced supply of high enthalpy steam into LOCA chamber. Full Text Available We need new narratives to understand our chaotic and highly complex world a little better. In this case it is useful to remember some historical models of the general relations between nature and life, that underlie biopolitics: a the traditional one, based on the natural law and life values; b the technical one, based on the will of power and the values of liberty; c the alternative one, based on the ecological cooperation between all living beings and both kinds of values.

To survive in this crisis of civilisation, a lot of courage and solidarity is needed to confront the indifference that kills. Los p As a reactor containment vessel is the final barrier to the release of radioactive material during design basis accidents DBAs , its structural integrity must be maintained by withstanding the high pressure conditions resulting from DBAs.

To verify the structural integrity of the containment, response analyses are performed to get the pressure transient inside the containment after DBAs, including loss of coolant accidents LOCAs. To check the validity of the newly developed methodology, the single CEA withdrawal and the locked rotor accidents are analyzed by using a new methodology and are compared with current design results. Comparison results show a good agreement and it is concluded that the new design methodology can be applied to the licensing calculations for OPR Non- LOCA. A synopsis of experimental activities on small-break LOCA.

Through reactor safety studies like WASH or the ''Deutsche Risiko-Studie'' the attention has turned from large break loss of coolant accidents to small breaks because of the high contribution of this type of accidents to core meltdown. But only after the TMI-2 accident were also the main activities in the experimental fields shifted world-wide to the small break LOCAs. Since TMI numerous research programs have either been finished or are underway. This review paper presents: a classification of the various types of transients according to break size; a discussion of major physical phenomena associated with a small break LOCA , and a description of a few selected research programs and the most important results achieved.

The Fukushima accident shows US the possibility of accidents that are beyond a designed imagination. Lots of lessons can be shortly summarized into three issues. Even if engineers considered the possibility of a loss of offsite power enough to be managed, the failure of EDGs seemed to be unnoticed.

The second is poor operation and accident management. They could not understand the overall system and did not check the availability of alternating systems. The third is the large release of radioactive materials outside the containment. Even if SBO occurred and the accident was not managed well, all the means must have prevented the large release out of containment. After that, lots of problems were pointed and numerous actions were carried out in each country. The representative proposals are AAC, additional physical barrier, bunker concept and large big tank.

Integrated passive safety system IPSS was proposed as one of the solutions for enhancing the safety. IPSS has five functions which are passive decay heat removal, passive safety injection, passive containment cooling, passive in-vessel retention and filtered venting system. The results showed a high performance of removing decay heat through steam generator cooling by forming natural circulation in the primary circuit.

The conditions of the LOCAs were varied only for the size of break.

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It shall show the capability of PSIS. A simple prediction model is proposed for prediction of times of major events. Test data and calculations show that intentional primary system depressurization with use of the pressurizer power-operated relief valves PORVs is effective for break areas of approximately 0.

The chlorophyll content was evaluated using a liquid chromatography HPLC technique. Experimental values varied between 2. For each sample, 5 determination were made during 58 days. Experimental values were fitted to an equation describing a first order reaction. Os valores experimentais variaram entre 2. Although the pressure tubes are heated mainly by convection and thermal radiation during the LOCA transient, additional heat flow occurs through the bearing pads that are in contact with the pressure tribe.

This contact can lead to local hot spots and associated thermal stresses in the pressure tube wall. The two factors that affects the behavior of the pressure tubes during LOCA conditions are the internal pressure and the local heating. Although the effect of internal pressure and of axially uniform temperature has been studied elsewhere, the effect of the local heating on the pressure tube behavior has not been modelled before.

This paper shows that the bulging of a pressure tube at a hot spot is the result of the thermal stresses that are developed in a pressure tube during a LOCA transient. To isolate the local heating effect from the internal pressure, a series of single-effect experiments was performed. The thermal profile and the local deformation were measured function of time.

To quantify the effect of the thermal stresses on the bulging of pressure tubes at hot spots and to develop numerical tools that can predict such bulging, finite element analyses were performed rising the ABAQUS finite element computer code. Use of the measured thermal profiles in the ABAQUS finite element analysis, resulted in very good agreement between the predicted and measured displacements. Effect of oxygen in the simulated LOCA environments of the degradation of cable insulating materials. Kusuma, Y. Experimental conditions of the simultaneous LOCA tests were done at different radiation dose rate, steam temperature and amount of air added to the LOCA environments.

Tensile properties, insulating resistance and water sorption of the insulating materials exposed to various LOCA environments are measured and discussed. A realistic analysis requires the execution of various realistic LOCA transient simulations where the effect of both model and input uncertainties are ranged and propagated throughout the transients. The outcome is typically a range of results with associated probabilities. In addition, inputs to the simulation are also affected by uncertainty and these uncertainties are incorporated into the process.

Several approaches have been proposed and applied in the industry in the framework of best-estimate methods. The paper starts with an overview of the regulations and its interpretation in the context of realistic analysis. The CSAU roadmap is reviewed in the context of its implementation in the Westinghouse evaluation model. Finally, the recent evolution to nonparametric statistics in the current edition of the W methodology is discussed. Steam generator tube rupture effects on a LOCA.

A problem currently experienced in commercial operating pressurized water reactors PWR in the United States is the degradation of steam generator tubes. Safety questions have arisen concerning the effect of these degraded tubes rupturing during a postulated loss-of-coolant accident LOCA. To determine the effect of a small number of tube ruptures on the behavior of a large PWR during a postulated LOCA , a series of computer simulations was performed. The primary concern of the study was to determine whether a small number 10 or less of steam generator tubes rupturing at the beginning surface temperatures.

Additional reflood analyses were performed to determine the system behavior when from 10 to 60 tubes rupture at the beginning of core reflood. The FLOOD4 code was selected as being the most applicable code for use in this study after an extensive analysis of the capabilities of existing codes to perform simulations of a LOCA with concurrent steam generator tube ruptures.

However, because of the vaporization of the steam generator secondary water in the primary side of the steam generator, a significant increase in the core pressure occurs which retards the reflooding process. Analysed experiments include separate effects tests of cladding ballooning and burst, as well as the Halden IFA Two-dimensional modelling of the experiments is performed, and calculations are compared to available experimental data. Comparisons include cladding burst pressure and temperature in separate effects tests, as well as the evolution of fuel rod inner pressure during ballooning and time to cladding burst.

Furthermore, BISON three-dimensional simulations of separate effects tests are performed, which demonstrate the capability to reproduce the effect of azimuthal temperature variations in the cladding. Hay que preparar a Colombia para el turismo de naturaleza. Sin embargo, el turismo ha sido una actividad que ha generado graves impactos ambientales y sociales a nivel mundial.

Naturaleza fractal en redes de cristales de grasas. This review begins with information on fractality and statistical self-similar structure. Estimations for fractal dimension by means of equations relating the volume fraction of solid fat to shear elastic modulus G' in linear region are described. The influence of interesterification on fractal dimension decrease from 2, 46 to 2 ,15 for butterfat-canola oil blends is notable. This influence is not significant for fat blends without butterfat. The need for an increase in research concerning the relationship between fractality and rheology in plastic fats is emphasized.

The assessment of the consequences of a loss-of-coolant accident LOCA is to a large extent based on calculations carried out with codes especially developed for addressing the phenomena occurring during the transient. Since the time of the first LOCA experiments, which were largely conducted with fresh fuel, changes in fuel design, the introduction of new cladding materials and in particular the move to high burnup have not only generated a need to re-examine the LOCA safety criteria and to verify their continued validity, but also to confirm that codes show an appropriate performance especially with respect to high burnup phenomena influencing LOCA fuel behaviour.

Measure the extent of fuel fragment relocation into the ballooned region and evaluate its possible effect on cladding temperature and oxidation. Investigate the extent if any of 'secondary transient hydriding' on the inner side of the cladding above and below the burst region. The Halden LOCA series, using high burnup fuel segments, contains test cases well suited for checking the ability of LOCA analysis codes to predict or reproduce the measurements and to provide clues as to where the codes need to be improved. Emphasis was on the codes' ability to predict or reproduce the thermal and mechanical response of fuel and cladding.

Before starting the benchmark, participants were given the opportunity to tune their codes to the experimental system applied in the Halden LOCA tests. To this end, the data from the two commissioning runs were made available. The first of these runs went. The RIA and LOCA fuel safety criteria are under revision in the international community of fuel suppliers, authorities and research organizations.

The main criteria will be reviewed in the paper for WWER fuel. Experimental data on the fuel failure behaviour under reactivity-initiated accident RIA conditions produced in the last decade in French and Japanese test reactors indicated low failure enthalpy for high burnup fuel compared to fresh fuel. However the high burnup was not the only phenomenon influencing the fuel failure. The oxide scale on the external surface of the fuel rod, hydrogen content of the Zr cladding and the local hydriding seemed also be responsible for the failure at low enthalpy.

The burnup dependence of fuel failure for WWER fuel was found much less, probably due to the low oxidation during normal operational conditions compared to other PWRs. The calculations have shown that both burnup and cladding oxidation effects must be considered, however the pulse width dependence of failure enthalpy has not been confirmed. During loss of coolant accidents LOCA the peak cladding temperature and local oxidation criteria have to be met. The oxidation criterion is under discussion today in many laboratories.

The paper will describe the main results of the tests and present the limit for ductile-brittle transition derived from ring compression test. Liu, X. The influence of the break location and break size on the safety performance of SCWR-M is also concluded. Several measures to induce the core coolant flow and to mitigate core heating up are also discussed.

The results achieved so far demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed passive safety system to keep the SCWR-M core at safety condition during loss of coolant accident. Indonesia is the country rich in marine resource, one of which is lobster. East java, one of Indonesian province, especially in Region of Gresik and Lamogan, has very huge potential of lobster. By using this mechanism, the number of lobster catch cannot be optimum. Although produce more lobster catch, second version of i- LOCA still needs to be scrutinized, one of that is bio-mechanical assessment.

The second version of i- LOCA still has no tool to ease throwing and lifting it into the sea. This research perform bio-mechanical assessment toward throwing and lifting process in order to suggest improvement for i- LOCA as the third version. Based on body moment calculation, we found that throwing and lifting process of third version of i- LOCA , each was 3 times and 2 times better than second version of i- LOCA. Comparison of models discribing cladding deformations during LOCA. This report compares the important models for the determination of cladding deformations during LOCA. In addition to the comparisons of underlying assumptions of different models the same is done for the coefficients applied for the models.

In order to assess the predictive capability of the models the calculated results are compared with the experimental results of the individual claddings. It was found out that the results of temperature ramp tests could be calculated better than that of the pressure ramp tests. The calculations revealed that even with the simplified assumption of the model used in TESPA the agreement of the calculated results with those of model NORA was relatively good.

LOCA scenario tests of irradiated fuel rod specimens. The data are provided to NRC and the nuclear industry for their independent assessment of the adequacy of licensing criteria for LOCA events. The tests are being conducted with high-burnup 30 cm segments from Limerick 9x9 Zry-2 and H. Robinson 15x15 Zry-4 reactors. Prior to testing, sibling samples are characterized with respect to fuel morphology, fuel-cladding bond, cladding oxide layer thickness, hydrogen content and high-temperature steam oxidation kinetics. Specimens that survive quench are subjected to four-point bend tests, followed by local diametral compression tests.

The retention of post-quench ductility is a more limiting requirement than surviving thermal stresses during quench. Companion tests are conducted with unirradiated cladding to generate baseline data for comparison with the high-burnup fuel results. Two high-burnup tests were completed in with Limerick BWR rod segments: ramp to burst in argon followed by slow cooling; and the LOCA test with 5-minute hold time at C, followed by slow cooling.

With the exception of burst-opening shape, results for burst temperature, burst pressure, burst length, and ballooning strain profile are more similar to, than different from, results for unirradiated Zry-2 cladding exposed to the same time-temperature history. The 3rd Limerick test with quench was performed in December , and a 4th Limerick test was performed in March The presentation points. Full Text Available In this paper, I defend the thesis that the aesthetics of nature can offer to the ethics of nature one of the best ecological arguments. I believe that! Reliability of piping system components.

Nyman, R. The Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate has undertaken a project to establish a comprehensive passive components database, validate failure rate parameter estimates and model framework for enhancement of integrating passive components failures in existing PSAs. Phase 1 of the project produced a relational database on worldwide piping system failure. In addition, a comprehensive review of the current consideration of LOCA in PSA and of all available literature in this area was undertaken. The report contains a detailed review of many programs and dozens of specific PSA studies for different reactor types.

This collection and analysis of information together with information for the relational database was used to develop a matrix approach on contribution to LOCA events from different components which are part of the reactor coolant system pressure boundary. The overall conclusion of the work is that although there are some further developments in this area, there is still no significant enhancement of ways how LOCA are considered in PSAs as compared to the mid 70s, only selected studies attempted to address LOCAs in a more comprehensive way.

Brachet, J. Concerning the first solution, the optimization of chromium coatings on Zircaloy-4 substrate has been performed. Thus, it has been demonstrated that, due in particular to their slower oxidation rate, a significant additional 'grace period can be obtained on high temperature oxidized coated claddings in comparison to the conventional uncoated ones, regarding their residual PQ Post-Quench ductility and their ability to survive to the final water quenching in LOCA and, to some extent, beyond LOCA conditions.

Initially designed for the next generation of nuclear reactors, it can be adapted to obtain high safety performance for LWRs in LOCA conditions. Despite these very positive preliminary results, significant studies and developments are still necessary to close the technology gap. Qualification for nuclear application requires substantial irradiation testing, additional characterization and the definition of design rules applicable to such a structure.

The use of a SiC-based fuel cladding shows promise for the highest temperature accident conditions but remains a long term perspective. Full Text Available Integral test facilities ITFs are one of the main tools for the validation of best estimate thermalhydraulic system codes. The experimental data are also of great value when compared to the experiment-scaled conditions in a full NPP. The scaling factor was for the core power, volume, and mass flow. Primary and secondary sides contained all main active elements.

Tests were performed for the characterization of phenomenologies relevant to large and small break LOCAs and special transients in PWRs. The paper presents the results of three posttest calculations of LOBI experiments. They are LOCA scenarios of different break sizes and with different availability of safety injection components.

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The goal of the analysis is to improve the knowledge of the phenomena occurred in the facility in order to use it in further studies related to qualifying nodalizations of actual plants or to establish accuracy data bases for uncertainty methodologies. An example of procedure of implementing changes in a common nodalization valid for simulating tests occurred in a specific ITF is presented along with its confirmation based on posttests results. Sensitivity assessment of fuel performance codes for LOCA accident scenario. The codes are well known and applied for different purposes and one of the use is to address sensitivity analysis considering fuel design parameters associated to fabrication, moreover can address the effect of physical models bias.

The preliminary analysis considered direct approach taken into account most relevant manufacturing tolerances lower and upper bounds related to design parameters and physical models bias without considering their statistical distribution.

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The simulations were carried out using the data available in the open literature related to the series of LOCA experiment performed at the Halden reactor specifically IFA The manufacturing tolerances associated to design parameters considered in this paper were: enrichment, cladding thickness, pellet diameter, pellet density, and filling gas pressure. The physical models considered were: fuel thermal expansion, fission gas release, fuel swelling, irradiation creep, cladding thermal expansion, cladding corrosion, and cladding hydrogen pickup.

The results obtained from sensitivity analysis addressed the impact of manufacturing tolerances and physical models in the fuel cladding burst time observed for the IFA Nuclear power plant simulators are intended to be used for training and maintaining competence to ensure safe, reliable operation of nuclear power plants throughout the world.

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The simulator shall be specified to a reference unit and its performance validation testing shall be provided. The investigation included five cases with varying the break size in the cold leg of reactor coolant system. The results showed that the plant system response to breaks with small break area was slower compared to breaks with larger break area.

The core heatup occurred in most of the cases analyzed. The acceptance criteria for emergency core cooling system were also met. Available world-wide published data on the deformation of PWR fuel in a loss-of-coolant accident are reviewed. Adequate data exist for the oxidation of Zircaloy up to about 0 C; data are increasingly sparse above this temperature and lacking above the melting point.

The US NRC criteria for embrittlement are discussed and considered adequate for undeformed cladding, though they may be less so for deformed thinned material. Cladding deformation and the factors controlling it are considered in the light of data from the US, Germany, Japan and the UK. The behaviour of cladding is strongly influenced by the spatial distribution of temperature, which is in turn dependent on heat transfer mechanisms at the surfaces of the cladding.

No realistic experiment, i. Such experiments have not, however, as yet covered the entire range of conditions which might obtain following a LOCA. The analytical results of blowdown characteristics and thrust forces were compared with the experiments, which were performed as pipe whip and jet discharge tests under the PWR LOCA conditions. The blowdown thrust forces obtained by Navier-Stokes momentum equation about a single-phase, homogeneous and separated two-phase flow, assuming critical pressure at the exit if a critical flow condition was satisfied.

The following results are obtained. The jet thrust parameter of the analysis and experiment is equal to 1. Calculation of fuel pin failure timing under LOCA conditions. The objective of this research was to develop and demonstrate a methodology for calculation of the time interval between receipt of the containment isolation signals and the first fuel pin failure for loss-of-coolant accidents LOCAs. Sensitivity studies were performed to assess the impacts of fuel pin burnup, axial peaking factor, break size, emergency core cooling system ECCS availability, and main coolant pump trip on these items.

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This paper discusses the methodology employed and the code development efforts required to implement the methodology. The shortest time intervals calculated between initiation of containment isolation and fuel pin failure were Ahora bien: eso que el hombre cree que son las cosas que le rodean, formulado con un sentido de unidad, significa su concepto de naturaleza. La calidad y salud del suelo influyen sobre la naturaleza y la sociedad.

Yerba mate, coffee and tobacco: their possible neuroprotecting role in Uruguayan patients suffering from Parkinson Disease, Montevideo, Se analizaron los resultados de casos y controles. Concluimos que este trabajo, confirma en general buena parte de los datos ya reportados regional y mundialmente en cuanto a factores neuroprotectores ambientales de la EP. Full Text Available Background. Obesity and its comorbidities continue to challenge the world at an alarming rate.

Although the long term solution lies on lifestyle changes in the form of dieting and exercising, drug, medical food, or dietary supplement interventions are required for those who are already obese. Here we describe a standardized blend composed of extracts from three medicinal plants: Morus alba, Yerba mate, and Magnolia officinalis for appetite suppression and metabolic disorders management. Extracts were standardized to yield a composition designated as UP Appetite suppression activity was tested in acute feed intake rat model.

ELISA was done for insulin, leptin, and ghrelin level quantitation. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis NASH scoring was conducted. Marked acute hypophagia with Decreases in body weight gain A percentage body fat of UP, a standardized botanical composition from Morus alba, Yerba mate, and Magnolia officinalis could be used as a natural alternative for appetite suppression, maintaining healthy body weight and metabolism management.

Here we describe a standardized blend composed of extracts from three medicinal plants: Morus alba , Yerba mate , and Magnolia officinalis for appetite suppression and metabolic disorders management. UP, a standardized botanical composition from Morus alba , Yerba mate , and Magnolia officinalis could be used as a natural alternative for appetite suppression, maintaining healthy body weight and metabolism management.

UP, a standardized botanical composition composed of Morus alba, Yerba mate and Magnolia officinalis for weight loss. The prevalence of obesity is surging in an alarming rate all over the world. Pharmaceutical drugs are considered potential adjunctive therapy to lifestyle modification. However, for most, besides being too expensive, their long term usages are hindered by their severe adverse effects. Adipogenesis activity of the composition was assessed in 3T3-L1 cells in vitro. Effects of UP on body weight and metabolic markers were evaluated. Serum biomarkers were measured for liver function and lipid profiling.

Relative organ weights were determined. Histopathological analysis was performed for non-alcoholic steatohepatitis NASH scoring. Statistically significant changes in body weight decreased by 9. Reductions of 9. Body fat distribution was found reduced by Up to an Statistically significant improvements in NASH scores were observed for mice treated. The risk-informed reevaluation of 10 CFR A longer-term effort is considering redefining the maximum design basis pipe break size for sizing the ECCS system.

In the past few years, the U. Additionally, LOCAs can occur from failure of active components e. The LOCA contributions from these additional sources must also be considered in deciding the design basis break size. The LOCA estimates must also attempt to capture expected future changes in the LOCA frequencies so that the estimates are pertinent up through the end of the license renewal period.

Through the code calculations, the thermal-hydraulic behavior and the boron behavior are evaluated and the effect of the important action including the safety injection tank SIT isolation and the simultaneous injection in LTC procedure is investigated. As a result, it is found that the sufficient margin is available in avoiding the boron precipitation in the core.

It is also found that a further specific condition for the SIT isolation action need to be setup and it is recommended that the early initiation of the simultaneous injection be taken for larger break LTC sequences. The primary system is divided into a number of special elements called 'control-volumes'.

The system of partial differential equations describing fluid conservations for a stream-tube are integrated over a number of control volumes. The resulting set of simultaneous differential equations that is based on the assumptions of one-dimensional, homogeneous and thermal- equilibrium flow is linearized and solved for a small time increment by a simple explicit numerical technique.

The one-dimensional heat conduction equations describing temperature profiles within solid material are written in finite difference forms which are linearized and solved by the Crank-Nicholson implicit method. In order to simulate the blowdown heat transfer phenomena, the code has correlation packages for heat transfer coefficient and critical heat flux. The heat generation in the core is given by a point reactor kinetics model with six groups of delayed neutrons and decay of eleven groups of fission products and actinides. The solution technique of the reactor kinetics is based on the Runge-Kutta method.

ALARM-B2 has the models to simulate various components incorporated in BWRs such as jet pumps, recirculation pumps, steam separators, valves, and so on. The discharge and injection systems are modeled by leak and fill systems, respectively. Dampak yang ingin dilihat adalah kondisi teras selama terjadinya small break LOCA yang terdiri dari pembentukan mixture level dan transien temperatur kelongsong bahan bakar. Hasil simulasi menunjukkan bahwa mixture level untuk semua kejadian small break LOCA berada di atas tinggi teras aktif yang menunjukkan tidak terjadinya core uncovery. Adanya mixture level berpengaruh pada transien temperatur kelongsong yang menurun dan menunjukkan pendinginan bahan bakar yang efektif.

Keefektifan pendinginan teras juga disebabkan oleh berfungsinya injeksi pendingin melalui fitur keselamatan pasif yang menjadi ciri reaktor daya AP Secara keseluruhan, hasil analisis menunjukkan model AP yang telah dikembangkan dengan RELAP5 dapat digunakan untuk keperluan analisis kecelakaan dasar desain pada reaktor daya maju AP Kata kunci: analisis.

Twelve healthy active females were randomized to ingest either 2 g of YM or placebo PLC in a repeated-measures design. Participants rested for min before performing a min cycling exercise corresponding to individuals' crossover point intensity COP. FAO, determined using indirect calorimetry, was significantly higher during the min exercise in YM vs. PLC 0. Such positive combined metabolic, satiety, and psychomotor effects may provide an important role for designing future fat and weight-loss lifestyle interventions.

Two kinds of break locations are considered: cold leg and DVI line breaks. After decay heat, the two parameters which affected the PCT the most were steam generator heat transfer and heat transfer lockout. The comparison shows that the two codes produce similar bulk power and reactivity transients. The prediction of temperature distribution and heat transfer within rod bundles during the refill and reflood phase of a LOCA loss of coolant accident is of critical importance for determining the location and size of blockages due to clad deformation in a pressurized water reactor PWR.