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Valignano also instructed the missionaries to change their daily lifestyle to one more in keeping with Japanese ways, and he himself produced in a manual that covered such diverse topics as the manner of associating with Japanese, polite manners, the proper way to eat, the proper way to dress, the architecture of church buildings, and so on Schtte In all these materials the policy of accommodation to Japanese culture can be discerned quite clearly.

In Valignano called the first Jesuit conference to be held in Japan; its objectives were the establishment of a missionary structure in Japan with a sound financial base, and the setting up of institutions to foster talented personnel. From this conference there followed the opening of institutions for primary education, seminario, in Azuchi and Arima, an institution for higher learning, collegio, in Funai present-day ita of Bungo, and a novitiate novisiado for religious candidates in Usuki, also in Bungo. In this way Valignano hoped to take in as students the sons of samurai families, nurture them into outstanding Japanese Christians, accept from among their numbers those who would become Jesuits, and train them to become native priests.

In the Jesuits had held discussions with the Kirishitan daimy of Hizen Nagasaki , and these talks had led to the surveying of the port of Nagasaki and the opening of the port for use as a new base for trade with the Portuguese. The following year the first Portuguese trading ship entered the port, and from then on, until the Portuguese were expelled from the country in , Portuguese trading vessels entered Nagasaki every year.

Thus the town of Nagasaki became the base for the Japan-Portugal trade, and it developed rapidly into a Kirishitan town. In mura Sumitada consulted with Valignano and decided to turn over Nagasaki to the Jesuits as their fief. To ensure a steady financial base, the Jesuits invested in raw silk trade between Nagasaki and Macao, and this produced a large amount of profit for them, but also led later to the criticism that they were too deeply involved in economic activities.

At the time when Valignano was to return to Europe in , he planned to show the Pope the fruits of thirty years of Jesuit missionary work in Japan by sending a delegation of four young boys from the seminario in Arima to Europe, on a tour aimed at collecting donations for the missions from the rulers in Europe. Valignano also had in mind that these young boys would see for themselves the Christian religion, learning, culture, and state institutions of Europe, and that when they returned to Japan they would pass on what they had learned to their own peers, thus paving the way for the future acculturation of the Christian religion to Japan.

Toyotomi Hideyoshis Order to Ban the Missionaries The four boys of about thirteen years sailed out of Nagasaki in and reached Portugal two years later. Everywhere they were enthusiastically welcomed. In the following year they were received in audience by the Pope, thus the purpose of their mission was sufficiently achieved. By the time they.

Because Hideyoshi formerly had shown a favorable attitude towards the Kirishitan, this turn in policy after he had brought the country under a unified regime came like a bolt out of the blue. The town of Nagasaki was confiscated and put under the governments direct control. The expulsion order was not strictly followed, however, it forced the missionaries to avoid activities that might catch the public eye. Valignano and the young ambassadors returned to Nagasaki in , eight years after they had set out.

Valignano did not return to Japan as a missionary but as the ambassador of the viceroy of India to Hideyoshi; in this function he was warmly received, together with the boys, by Hideyoshi in the following year. This aroused the displeasure of the Spanish missionaries from the Orders of Saint Francis, Saint Dominic and Saint Augustin, who repeatedly had tried to launch missionary work in Japan using Manila in the Philippines as their base.

When Harada Kiemon, a Nagasaki merchant engaged in foreign trade, counseled to conquer the Philippines, Hideyoshi dispatched an embassy in requesting the Governor of the Philippines to submit. The Governor sent the Dominican friar Juan Cobo? The friar received a letter in response, but he perished in Taiwan on his return.

In the Governor of the Philippines sent a group with the Franciscan friar Pedro Baptista as ambassadors to Japan. They met with Hideyoshi and received permission to build a monastery in Kyoto, while they were in Japan. While he was negotiating, Baptista was busy doing missionary work claiming that the expulsion order was issued against the Society of Jesus and, therefore, did not concern the Franciscan Order.

At this time the Pope in Rome acknowledged the exclusive right of the Society of Jesus to do mission work in Japan. As a consequence, a confrontation began between the Society of Jesus that was under the patronage of the Portuguese monarch and the Franciscans and other mendicant orders who were under the patronage of the Spanish monarch. Just at that time, in , the Spanish ship San Felipe on a voyage from Manila to Mexico encountered a typhoon and became stranded at Tosa, the island of Shikoku.

Hideyoshi, in need of resources for his Korean adventure, seized the rich cargo of the San Felipe. However, seizure of the ships cargo was unlawful in terms of the Japan-Spain friendship treaty concluded between Hideyoshi and Baptista. In order to turn it into a lawful action Hideyoshi. As a consequence of this, six priests and brothers, including Baptista, together with fourteen of their helpers, were arrested in Kyoto. In Osaka three members of the Society of Jesus were arrested, and this brought the total number of those arrested to twenty-four.

They had their ears cut off and were sent off to Nagasaki after they had been paraded through the streets of Kyoto, Osaka, and Sakai as a warning. On their way there they were joined by two more. They were all crucified at Nishizaka in Nagasaki, on 5 February This is known as the martyrdom of the twenty-six Japanese Saints. Oppression of Kirishitan by the Tokugawa Government After Hideyoshis demise the following year a struggle broke out among his successors. Tokugawa Ieyasu emerged as the victor and, in , established the Edo bakufu government. In the first ten years the bakufu government was still insecure, and Ieyasu did not yet take a definite stance concerning the Kirishitan.

For that reason they experienced their last period of growth. However, in , the Roman Curia scrapped the exclusive right to missionary work of the Society of Jesus, and since Ieyasu became actively involved in trade with the Philippines, the Orders of the Dominicans and the Augustinians joined the Franciscans in missionary work in This resulted in no small confusion in the mission work in Japan. The development of world history had come to a turning point. In Philip II of Spain had dispatched a supposedly invincible armada against England but had to accept tragic defeat off the coast of Calais.

This sealed the ruin of Spain; in her place the Protestant countries England and Holland became the rulers of the globes oceans. In , the De Liefde, one of five vessels of a fleet Holland had despatched to explore the sea route to East India, drifted into the port of Usuki in Bungo. The ships chief navigator was the Englishman William Adams who was favorably received and became Tokugawa Ieyasus adviser in foreign matters.

When Holland established a trading post in Hirado in , Adams requested that his home country England establish trade with Japan. This became reality in , when the commander of a vessel of the East India Company, John Saris ca. The Catholic countries Portugal and Spain had promoted both trade as well as the propagation of religion as a unit,.

When instead of the trade with Portugal and Spain trade with England and Holland increasingly gained importance, there was no further diplomatic necessity for the bakufu government to protect the Kirishitan who were a hindrance for the governments stability. It embarked, therefore, in an all out oppression of the Kirishitan. In the bakufu government issued a nation-wide order that prohibited the Kirishitan religion and expelled the missionaries and influential leaders of the faithful.

With this order began the radical suppression of the Kirishitan by the Edo government that lasted for years. All churches and monasteries in the country were distroyed. The missionaries and the influencial Kirishitan daimy Takayama Ukon and Nait Tokuan, together with their families, Nait Julia and fifteen nuns, altogether more than persons, were expelled to Macao or Manila respectively. At this point 89 of the members of the Society of Jesus residing in Japan, four of ten Franciscans, two of nine Dominicans, two of three Augustinians, and two of seven dioceasan priests were exiled.

The others went underground in different areas. The exiled missionaries, however, made every effort to clandestinely return to Japan despite the prohibition and took care of the faithful. In the years between and , missionaries clandestinely returned, but they were apprehended and met with martyrdom, except for those who renounced their religion. The thirty years after were the period of the most severe persecution.

Fortyfour were martyred in the area of Arima in ; fifty-two were put on the stake in Kyoto in ; in it was again Nishizaka in Nagasaki where fifty-five died as martyrs twenty-five of them died on the stake, thirty were beheaded ; sixteen died at Unzen in the boiling hot water of the hot spring in Diverse methods of torture were invented and applied to the Kirishitan. In the beginning the rather simple methods of beheading, crucifixion, and burning at the stake were used, but they moved the hearts of the onlookers, and far from instilling fear these methods produced the counter effect of stirring peoples faith.

For that reason methods of torture were more and more designed to prolong the suffering, and to have the victims renounce their faith rather than to kill them. The most severe form of torture was suspension in a pit. To prevent early death a small hole was made at the temple which allowed the blood to drip out when the victim was hung head down from a scaffold, and the body was tightly bound with a rope to prevent the intestines from turning over. The head was lowered into a pit dug in the ground, and care was taken to have no light enter it in order to frighten the victim also psychologically.

When Father Cristovo Ferreira, S. This caused a shock in the whole country, since Ferreira was the highest ranking member of the Society of Jesus in Japan. After he had renounced the faith he was made to marry a Japanese and to cooperate with the interrogation of Kirishitan under the Japanese name of Sawano Chan. Until the ban of the Christian religion was removed in the Meiji period the number of martyrs for whom the circumstances and place of their martyrdom and their names are known reached individuals.

It is said, however, that the number of those about whom nothing is known may be as high as forty thousand. At Nishizaka in Nagasaki alone were martyred. Under his reign the institutions of the bakufu government were completed, and the oppression of the Kirishitan thoroughly organized. Until his time oppression of the Kirishitan meant first of all the apprehension of missionaries in western Kyushu, although interrogations of ordinary citizens also increased in the whole country. Important changes took place also in the field of diplomacy. England lost to Holland in the competition for Southeast Asia and focused, therefore, on the administration of India.

In England closed its trading post in Hirado and retreated from Japan. In the following year an embassy from Manila arrived in Japan to reestablish diplomatic and trade relations, but the bakufu government refused, in effect cutting its diplomatic relations with Spain. In order to unilateraly dominate foreign trade and to drive out the Kirishitan Iemitsu consolidated step by step institutions of national isolation.

In an uprising in Amakusa and Shimabara erupted against the cruel land taxes imposed on the farmers by Matsukura Shigemasa, the feudal lord of Shimabara. The bakufu government, insisting on its view that it was a Kirishitan uprising, strove to promote a thorough ban of the Kirishitan religion and a policy of isolation, and in doing so to strengthen the clan regime. In it proscribed. The Dutch trading station of Hirado was forced to move to Dejima in , a newly built artificial island in the harbor of Nagasaki, and with this Japans foreign trade was only allowed in the port of Nagasaki and from there on was largely restricted to trade with the two countries of Holland and China.

The ban on the Kirishitan religion imposed by the third shogun Iemitsu was thorough. The various measures of oppression aimed at eradicating the Christian religion, such as the system to remunerate denouncers, the fivefamily groups, fumie, the written declarations of renouncing the faith, the system of guarantee by a temple terauke , and the control of family groups ruizoku aratame had a great effect.

All of these institutions remained in force until the end of the bakufu government and functioned as a check on the Kirishitan and a means for the government to control the common population. The system of remunerating denouncers: this was a system of giving financial remunerations to those who denounced Kirishitan that was introduced in Nagasaki. The five-family groups gonin gumi : this was a system of local neighborhood associations based on units of five households, and established for the purpose of group responsibility and mutual assistance within the kumi group.

The systems of remunerating denouncers and of five-family groups were combined in making the apprehension of Kirishitan an obligation of group responsibility. If a member of ones five-family group accused someone to be a Kirishitan the remaining four households were not censured, but if a member was accused by someone of another group all members of a five-family group were executed. Fumie: In order to test whether somebody was a believer or not the person was made to trod on an image of Christ or Mary, the objects of belief, as a means of psychological torture.

The procedure served to discover believers, but also to prevent a relapse because it had to be repeated every year even after one had renounced the faith. Written declaration of renunciation korobi kakimono : This was a written document in which the person who had thrown away the Kirishitan belief swore before the deities of Japan and before the Christian God not to convert again. It was believed that divine punishment would strike those who broke the oath.

From the oath was imposed nation wide. Certification by a Buddhist temple terauke seido : all Japanese were forced to become danka parishioners of a temple, a Buddhist priest had to. Introduced nationwide in , the system remained in force until the end of the bakufu government. Lists for the control of family groups ruizoku aratamech : In the bakufu government established a special system of surveillance over the family groups ruizoku of Kirishitan martyrs. If any change occurred in a family group such as death, birth, marriage, change of residence, adoption, entering religion, change of name, divorce or separation, disowning, and a change of ones religious affiliation, it was declared obligatory to file a written notice.

The Period of Underground Existence The bakufu government of Edo perfected institutions to oppress the Kirishitan and imposed a radical control. To counter this the Kirishitan side organized confuraria Confraria, confraternities or groups of believers and applied its imagination to think of various ways of how to avoid the watchful eye of the authorities. And yet, from time to time what was called kuzure crumblings , i.

In , for example, the Kri kuzure erupted and persons were arrested in Kri village in the domain of the mura clan. Forty-one were beheaded, seventy-eight died in custody, twenty were sentenced to life in prison, and ninety were acquitted. In the years between and the Bungo kuzure occurred in the districts ita and Kusu of Bungo, where persons were arrested.

Fifty-seven of them were executed, fifty-nine died in prison, and sixty-five were released. In the Bin kuzure, which erupted in in the Kani district of Mino, twenty-four persons were arrested, however, in were beheaded, in , and another thirty-three in Towards the end of the bakufu government, in , the Amakusa kuzure broke out in Amakusa of Higo, and underground Kirishitan were arrested, but partly due to their great number they could not be punished as Kirishitan should have been, instead they were treated as believers deceived by a dubious religion and followers of a mistaken alien religion, and thus they were spared severe punishment.

Documents that would allow us to inquire about Kirishitan belief during the time of underground existence are extremely rare. Since not a single missionary remained, there were no reports addressed to the outside world, and since the believers were forced to convert to Buddhism such documents.

Texts of prayers and teachings were not transmitted in writing but orally by word of mouth. Without the benefit of even a single leader, the faith of the Kirishitan changed little by little during the long time of years of underground existence and merged with indigenous Japanese beliefs. The Resurrection of the Kirishitan the Edo government concluded trade agreements with the five countries England, America, Russia, France and Holland, abandoned the policy of national isolation, and opened the ports of Hakodate, Yokohama and Nagasaki the following year.

When Father Girard of the Paris Society of Foreign Missions, who had been in Okinawa praying that Japan would again be opened to mission work, heard of the reopening of the country, he immediately went to Yokohama, and once there he built the Yokohama tenshud church. Father Furet came to Nagasaki in and began the construction of the ura tenshud, which was completed the following year by Father Petitjean. Nagasaki is the central location where Japans Kirishitan lived.

In Urakami, where a great number of Nagasakis Kirishitan was living underground, the first Urakami kuzure broke out in , the second in , and a third one in In , underground Kirishitan of Urakami who had longed that the missionaries would return met, after years, in the newly completed church of Urakami with Father Petitjean who on his side had been praying to meet Japanese Kirishitan, whom he had been hoping had survived. This dramatic event is called the resurrection of the Kirishitan.

The underground Kirishitan who met with the priest whose coming they had been awaiting could not tread on the sacred image or deny their Kirishitan faith any longer. They appeared before the officials to request the nullification of their conversion kaishin modoshi , i. The next year of Urakamis most outstanding faithful were exiled to the three domains of Tsuwano, Hagi, and Fukuyama. And again a year later, a further persons were exiled and divided up among twenty-one clan fiefs of western Japan. They returned to their homeland in after the notice boards proscribing the Kirishitan had been removed, but in the meantime persons had died for their faith.

In persecution of Kirishitan raged not only in the city of Nagasaki, but also in the whole region of the Got Archipelago in Nagasaki prefecture. Many of them became martyrs, especially on Hisaka Island where altogether about men and women were locked up in a single prison. This is the socalled Got kuzure. In the same year, the first of the Meiji period, underground Kirishitan were also apprehended at Imamura in the Ohara district of Chikugo.

It is a truly astonishing fact that in spite of the bakufu governments radical oppression that lasted for over two hundred years underground Kirishitan had survived until the early years of the Meiji period. When the prohibition order was revoked in , and the Catholic Church returned, many Kirishitan turned to it, but in some areas of Nagasaki prefecture, such as Shimogoto, Sotome on the Nishisonogi peninsula, Hirado and Ikitsuki, so-called Kakure Kirishitan Hidden Kirishitan have survived to the present, keeping the faith in the form it has been transmitted to them since the time of their underground existence.

However, it must be said that due to significant changes during this underground period the nature of their faith today has become something rather distant from Christianity. Other scholars suggest that at its peak there were roughly half that number or approximately , Kirishitan; see Whelan , 11; 77 for a brief discussion of scholarly estimates.

Alejandro Valignano S. Monumenta Nipponica Monographs, No. Tokyo: Sophia University, Boxer, Charles Ralph. The Christian Century in Japan, Berkeley: University of California Press, Ebisawa Arimichi, ed. Part I Tokyo: ICU and Tuttle, Fujita, Neil S. New York: Paulist Press, Gonoi Takashi. Nihon Kirisutoky shi [A history of Christianity in Japan]. Tokyo: Yoshikawa Kybunkan, Higashibaba Ikuo. Leiden: Brill, Kaiser, Stefan. In John Breen and Mark Williams, eds. Japan and Christianity: Impacts and Responses. New York: St. Martins Press, Laures, Johannes, S. Moran, J. New York: Routledge, Pags, Lon.

Histoire de la Religion Chrtienne au Japon depuis jusqua Two volumes. Paris: Charles Douniol, , Ross, Andrew C. Maryknoll, New York: Orbis Books, Schtte, Josef Franz, S.

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Valignanos Missionsgrundstze fur Japan, Roma, Luis Frois, Kulturgegenstze Europa-Japan Schtte, Josef Franz, trad. Il ceremoniale per I missionari del Giappone Advertimentos e avisos acerca dos costumes e catangues de Jappo di Alejandro Valignano. Roma: Edizioni di Storia e Letteratura, Takase Kichir. Kirishitan no seiki [The Christian century]. Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten, Whelan, Christal. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, Wicki, Jos, ed. Luis Frois, Historia de Japam. Lisboa, Underground and Hidden Christians Towards the end of the Edo period, in , underground Kirishitan of Urakami met at the ura church of Nagasaki with missionaries of the Socit des Missions Etrangres de Paris.

The government of the Meiji Restoration continued to consider the religion of the Kirishitan to be an evil religion and upheld its prohibition. However, in order to win a revision of the unequal treaties the Tokugawa shogunate had concluded with foreign countries, the government, in , could not do otherwise but remove the notice boards announcing the prohibition of that religion.

Under these circumstances, many underground Christians returned to the Catholic Church under the guidance of the priests of the Socit des Missions Etrangres. Although there was no need to hide anymore, there were also numerous faithful who continued to uphold the faith in the form they had adhered to during the time when they were underground. Contrary to the underground Kirishitan of the Edo period for whom it was necessary to fulfill their religious duties in the same manner as the Buddhist and Shinto believers in order to survive, there was no longer any need to hide the Kirishitan belief after Meiji 6.

Nevertheless, there were those who did not return to the Catholic Church. They continued to keep their faith in the form they had kept it during the time of hiding without rejoining the Church.

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They were distinguished from the others and called by the name Kakure Kirishitan, Hidden Christians. Iemitsu strengthened the bakufu regime by thoroughly prohibiting the Christian religion and promoting a policy of national isolation. Iemitsus crackdown on the Kirishitan was. The various institutions he had created in order to eradicate the Christian religion, such as the system to remunerate those who accused others of being Christians , the five-family neighborhood groups, the fumie, the written declaration that one has renounced the faith, and the system of certification by a temple, all these intruments of oppression had an eminent effect.

The institutions did continue to be in force until the end of the bakufu government; they functioned not only as a check on the Kirishitan but also as a means to control the common people. The roughly hundred years from the time Francis Xavier landed in Japan until when the last missionary was martyred are called the Kirishitan century.

During this time organizations of fellow believers, called confraria, were instituted under the guidance of the priests. A group called misericordia that was founded in Yamaguchi in as a charitable organization marked the beginning of this trend and was then followed by many confraternities like the Santa Maria group, the sacramento group, the rosario group, the marchirio group and others.

They all had a clear system of offices and regulations where such group elders as chkata the keeper of the books and jiiyaku elder held the highest offices. At this stage of development the confraria served the function of strengthening the organization of believers in order to support their reciprocal assistance and foster their faith, but during the time of underground existence, when there were no longer any missionaries, it became an indispensible means for the transmission of doctrine and rituals.

With the group elders at its center the confraria transmitted the belief until the end of the bakufu. During the time of their underground existence the faithful invented numerous means to avoid the attentive eye of the officials, and yet several times incidents of large wholesale roundups and punishment, called kuzure crumblings occured.

When the so-called Kri kuzure broke out in , underground Kirishitan were rounded up in the village of Kri in the fief of the mura clan. Four hundred and eleven of them were beheaded, 78 died in prison, 20 were sentenced to life in prison, and 90 were pardoned. In the Bungo kuzure that lasted from to , persons were apprehended, and in the Bin kuzure of a total of persons were beheaded.

The people of the mura fief, the domain of Japans first Kirishitan daimy, mura Sumitada, had practically all converted to Christianity. The storm of persecution raged over the whole country, but it was particularly severe in the mura domain after the son of Sumitada, Yoshiaki, had renounced the faith. In the aftermath of the. Kri kuzure all of the Kirishitan graves were dug up and the bones thrown into the sea.

During this time, it was also forbidden to conduct a Christian funeral when someone died. A Buddhist priest had to be called to perform a Buddhist funeral, earth burial was prohibited, and Kirishitan were forced to use cremation, which they disliked. As proof that they had given up their Kirishitan faith they had to adhere to both Buddhist and Shinto beliefs.

They were forbidden to engage in any kind of trade or agricultural task on festival days but had instead to participate in the festival. In , towards the end of the bakufu regime, the Amakusa kuzure broke out in the Amakusa area of Higo. Five thousand two hundred underground Kirishitan were apprehended, but they were treated as the misled followers of an alien religion and so were spared the worst punishment.

The underground Kirishitan of Urakami in Nagasaki, too, repeatedly suffered raids by the authorities. After the First Urakami kuzure , the Second Urakami kuzure , and the Third Urakami kuzure , there followed a Fourth Urakami kuzure in in whose aftermath about faithful were deported to twenty-one domains of western Japan.

They returned to their homeland in after the boards announcing the prohibition of their religion had been removed, but in the years before of them had died. It is an astonishing fact that inspite of the thorough persecution of the Kirishitan by the Edo shogunate that had lasted for more than two hundred years the underground Kirishitan had survived up to the end of the bakufu government and into early Meiji. Once every year they had to trod on a copper plate with the images of Christ or Mary, the so-called fumie, in demonstration of their abnegating God, otherwise they could not survive.

When they returned after having trodden on the image it is said that they repeatedly recited the conchirisan contrio, a prayer expressing contrition and orashio oratio, prayers expressing repentance for their sinful deed. Gradually the faith of the underground Kirishitan tended to move away from a God who was a strict father and judge and focus on a forgiving motherly God of infinite tenderness, Mary. Since they could not openly worship objects of their faith that would have given them away as Kirishitan during the time of their underground existence, they chose in the overwhelming majority of cases to adopt for their worship truly Buddhist images like that of a Kannon holding a child in her arms Koyasu Kannon or of a Kannon the Merciful Mother Jibo Kannon instead of an image of Mary.

They also often used a figure of a Bosatsu in place of one of Jesus. According to interrrogations of Urakami faithful. Historical documents about the time of the underground existence are very rare, so many points concerning this time remain obscure. The only document surviving from that time that had been compiled by the faithful themselves as a doctrinal text is the Tenchi Hajimari no Koto, a text whose topics are the creation of heaven and earth, the angels and the fall of the ancestors of humankind, Mary, the life of Christ, and the end of the world.

Compared with orthodox Catholic doctrine the text shows considerable alterations, but it vividly reflects the view of the world and of redemption as adhered to by the faithful. Further material that allows us to know more about the faith of the time of the underground existence are documents related to the kuzure of Amakusa and Urakami. Distribution and Organization of the Kakure Kirishitan At the end of the Tokugawa bakufu and the beginning of the Meiji period underground Kirishitan had survived only in some areas.

But the majority were concentrated in Nagasaki. By the end of the Meiji period the faithful of Amakusa and Imamura had either returned to the Catholic Church or become Buddhists, so the Kakure Kirishitan had disappeared there naturally. On Hirado Island and in Nagasaki some organizations had existed, but they were disbanded around Depopulation in the Got Archipelago and the onslaught of urbanization in the Sotome area respectively caused many Kirishitan organizations there to disappear. Even those organizations that still remain are on the brink of disappearing.

Only on Ikitsuki Island are many ceremonies still continued, but even there the future is uncertain as the Kirishitan continue to face many problems. Today, it's right next to the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion. Revitalized residential and commercial area of downtown Los Angeles. Bunker Hill was first founded and developed as a prosperous middle class community. By the s and s it became a blighted area of old, run down homes and buildings. The City of Los Angeles revitalized it in the s. The Dorothy Chandler Pavilion is a 3,seat auditorium that first opened in It is part of three theaters that make up the Los Angeles Music Center complex.

I'm curious as to the role the WRA played in the resettlement period, in particular with your family or yourself. Did you have any help from the WRA? So, could you describe a little bit more about—you said that the weather was one reasons why you didn't return to Chicago. I think anybody who was born and raised in Southern California will always make comparisons about how good the weather was when they were growing up compared to living in the Midwest.

I think if a person has a good job in the Midwest, they won't mind the weather. It's part of life that way. But in my case, I didn't have a job. At least in L. But instead of that, I decided to make use of my GI bill. It promised millions of veterans government aid for higher education and home-buying.

Loyola University was established in In , Loyola University relocated to Westchester, and later merged with Marymount College in The reason why I went there was that it was a small school. I had some friends there already. It didn't take me very long to find other friends who lived out my way.

So we were able to jump into one car. Four or five of us would commute to school that way. I was a poli. At that time, Loyola was all-men, and it is still where it is today, in Westchester. I graduated in No problem at all. I would say, there was no more than—maybe the student body was about 2,—between 1, and 2, I would say about —especially those in our liberal arts college class from '46 were basically veterans. The veterans were at least four or five years older than the rest of the student body. So we were looked up [to] like we were seniors by age.

I think there were no more than half a dozen Asians on campus. Three of them happened to be Chinese Americans. The chairman of our political science department happened to be Chinese. So we got along real well. And then, during this period were you active in the Japanese American community? Well, at that time, I was writing a column for the Rafu Shimpo. Well, it was more or less on the light side. Nothing serious. Maybe you might find a point or two some place along the line. Here, I was trying to—not so much amuse—but at least entertain. Write an entertaining type of column.

I still use the same name, "Very Truly Yours. At that time I was working for the Sangyo Nippo, which is no longer around. But it was a morning newspaper, as opposed to the Rafu Shimpo being an afternoon newspaper. So Henry's column was called, "Making the Deadline. Togo Tanaka, Togo Tanaka b.

Tanaka was an associate editor of the Kashu Mainichi, and later translated editorials from Japanese to English for the Rafu Shimpo. After the war, he worked as a journalist in Chicago, and later settled in Los Angeles as a businessman. So you had associations with the Rafu Shimpo before the war, and then when you returned to Los Angeles, you sort of resumed your relationship? I could have, but I opted to go to college and make use of my GI bill. I'm sure Mr. Akira Komai Akira Komai, son of H. Komai, was president of the Rafu Shimpo from to Can you tell me a little bit about Little Tokyo during this postwar period, and maybe a little bit of contrasting [it] to the prewar period?

One of the first impression that I had of Little Tokyo after the war was that most of the Issei who had started businesses were basically Issei from outside of Little Tokyo. They were either Issei fishermen in San Pedro, who couldn't go back to fishing, so they started stores or restaurants in Little Tokyo. Then, we had of course, the S. Uyeda Ten Cents store. Known as Uyeda's Five and Ten Cents store. The Issei leaders who had stores in Little Tokyo before the war were all picked up and put into enemy alien internment camps.

Maybe that experience was too much for them to revive Little Tokyo in the same manner. Maybe if they were younger, they might have resumed their prewar occupations or stores. Can you tell me a little bit about the relationships between African Americans and Japanese Americans during this time in Little Tokyo? I missed all that. At that time, [the] East First Street area was called Bronzeville, Little Tokyo, emptied by the forcible evacuation of its Japanese American community, served as temporary housing for blacks migrating to the general area.

But that's all from what I've read. I have no personal experiences of what it was like in ' That time can be related to you by those who were here. They can best fill in this part of Little Tokyo history. What drew the Japanese Americans back to Little Tokyo during this postwar period? What attracted them? Perhaps weather. The other factor would be family.

The parents were probably here on the West Coast trying to settle, and perhaps they were asked to come and help. Perhaps being with other Issei friends. I'm sure the Issei still preferred to get along in their own language. Not many were able to speak English, especially in the Midwest where you had to.

And perhaps they felt much more comfortable living on the West Coast, especially in the cities. Perhaps that explains why Little Tokyo was able to get back on its feet. Saburo Kido Saburo Kido was a founding member of the Japanese American Citizens League JACL and served as the organization's executive secretary in the s and president in He was a strong advocate for immigration and naturalization rights for Issei. In , when the JACL Larry Tajiri was an influential Nisei journalist who held many newspaper posts throughout is life, including the Nichibei Shimbun , the Asahi , and the Pacific Citizen From San Francisco.

When evacuation was taking place, the national JACL headquarters and the PC, which was being edited at the same place, had to relocate. They wound up in Salt Lake City because it was a very friendly area as far as Japanese Americans were concerned. San Francisco was booming [at that time], and so was Los Angeles. But it just so happened that Los Angeles had more possibilities for supporting the newspaper advertising-wise, because there was a greater business community in L. The JACL regional office was also in the same building. We were more or less together—the regional office and the Pacific Citizen —wherever it moved.

Today, the building houses the Japanese American National Museum. Created to enhance relationships between the United States and Japan, the center also encourages preservation and appreciation of the Japanese cultural heritage. Since the s, Monterey Park has become a major Chinese enclave.

It has one of the highest concentrations of Asians of any city in the country. How long have you been associated with the JACL? Was that previous to your job at Pacific Citizen? Then in , I was asked to be chapter president for the downtown Los Angeles chapter and went to Chicago as a delegate. And then in , I was asked to be the editor.

JACL in the mid-'40s was basically busy resettling families. The JACL officials at that time in the mid-'40s were all bilingual. They had to be, because they were dealing with Issei. They were busy resettling, finding jobs, finding houses for some of these families.

Issei who were previously ineligible for citizenship could finally become naturalized. This well-intentioned act attempted to compensate Japanese Americans for material losses incurred as a result of their mass removal and detention during World War II. And of course when evacuation came along, nobody bothered to keep receipts or papers to show ownership, so consequently many claims of losses were not recognized. Those who lost substantially more were able to sue the government in the Court of Claims, which is a very long process. And still, they were not able to get no more than maybe ten-to-one of what was claimed.

How did the JACL help find jobs? Could you talk about this in a little more detail? I think the best source for that type of information is a senior citizen by the name of Tats Kushida When they had problems, they would go to JACL for assistance. Of course, there were many trailer homes for returning families. Long Beach is the second largest city in Southern California, 19 miles south of downtown Los Angeles. I think JACL also—not so much the regional office—but the chapters initiated athletic programs.

They also, of course, a social center. JACL assisted Issei in interpreting, translating problems of that kind. JACL in those days was very service-oriented, because there were no other organizations outside of the churches. Today, it's just the other way around. We have all types of service organizations, so the JACL has concentrated on human and civil rights.

How did the Pacific Citizen play a role in all the activities that you have just talked about? Well, the paper itself was trying to keep up-to-date with what was happening, not only in JACL, but in the Japanese American community at large. Some of the big stories that occurred—this is before my time—in the late-forties when Japanese American families were coming out to the West Coast and discrimination was still an issue because of the Alien Land Law. Enacted in various western states and prevented Japanese and other Asian immigrants from purchasing agricultural land.

California's Alien Land Law, enacted in , it prevented ownership of land by "aliens ineligible for citizenship" and restricted leases to such people to three years. Tomoya Kawakita was a California-born Nisei who lived in Japan from to While in Japan, he was enrolled at a Japanese university and worked as an interpreter for a company that used the labor of American prisoners of war in its mines and factories.

After his return to the United States, he was recognized by a former prisoner of war and reported to the FBI. He was later charged with 15 counts of treason, related to allegations of mistreatment of prisoners of war. On September 2, , Kawakita was found guilty on eight counts of treason and also found that he had not expatriated himself of American citizenship. Although Kawakita was initially given a death sentence, President Eisenhower commuted the sentence in November 2, , to life imprisonment.

President Kennedy later granted him a presidential pardon on the condition that he return to Japan and never seek entry into the United States.


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Kawakita spent approximately 16 years at the Alcatraz penitentiary. Tokyo Rose was the name coined by American soldiers to refer to any female radio broadcasters heard on Japanese-controlled radio stations. Iva Ikuko Toguri d'Aquino is the person often associated with this name. A California-born Nisei, she went to Japan in to care for her sick aunt. Unable to get clearance to return to the United States, she remained in Japan for the duration of the war.

UBC Theses and Dissertations

In , she was ordered by the Japanese government to broadcast over Radio Tokyo. After the war, she was the only one of the 14 English-speaking radio announcers at Radio Tokyo, arrested and tried for treason. She was fined, sentenced to prison, and lost her citizenship. On January 19, she was pardoned by President Gerald Ford. And we still had problems with Tule Lake The PC, to me, was very instrumental in keeping the community together in that respect.


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  • People out on the East Coast couldn't afford to subscribe to a daily newspaper like the Rafu Shimpo because it was too expensive. So PC had a very definite place as far as Japanese American families were concerned. At that time, families would have to subscribe. Right now, by being a member [of JACL], you would get the paper. But in those days, even a member has to shell out a little extra. Immediately after the war, families were occupied with rebuilding their lives, and the Japanese American community remained somewhat disenfranchised. At what point would you say was the turning point for the Japanese American community in re-establishing itself?

    Well, just that when they first resettled, it was more the terms of each family's survival, and at what point did the Japanese American community come together and really form a community, or do you think that was happening all along? I think the camp experience welded the community a lot closer than people think, because here they were a whole camp full of a same kind, you might say. Being cooped up together for three, four years, they form very fast and solid friendships.

    Some of them who had farms in Central Valley or Imperial Valley didn't want to go back, because they knew there was nothing for them. So they would move to L. So you could say the community, as you see it today, really was there all along. It's just that they were dislocated because of the war. Now it's being spread out a lot more. Somehow maybe the REgeneration[s] project will pinpoint where we start to fall apart.

    I'd like to talk a little bit about family life after the war. What notable changes in the family structure were evident in you or your family in the postwar era? Well, in my case, my youngest sister had already been married during the war years in Chicago, and she stayed in Chicago. So in Los Angeles it was just my sister, Fusako, my parents, and I. And of course, our family was small in terms of numbers. We only had one set of cousins, unlike others that had four, five cousins, families.

    So our family was fairly tight from the standpoint of being knit. The Issei were able to stay together because of kinship by prefecture, kenjinkai. Important Japanese American social organizations made up of people who originate from the same prefectures in Japan. I think the postwar picnics were a great gathering place for the Nisei. Aside from the races, and the games, and the entertainment, it was a chance to get together.

    Some hadn't seen each other since camp, maybe. In my case, some of the guys that I had met in the army were at picnics—not knowing that their folks and my folks were from the same prefecture. And eventually, the Nisei leaders were able to carry on the picnics. The Issei leaders were getting old. Somewhere in the late-'60s and maybe in the early-'70s, it was getting to be a big job, so they dropped the picnics all together which is too bad.

    But I think those picnics are now being duplicated, you might say, by clan picnics. My wife happened to have six brothers and sisters married. So chuckles , their kids, our kids, and grandkids get together, you have a picnic all in itself, where it's a chuckles family picnic [with] the same proportion from the standpoint of numbers. You have maybe 70 or 80 people together. Public parks, mostly. Elysian Park Established in April , Elysian Park is a downtown recreation area.

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    During the s and '50s, many Nisei were getting married and starting their own families. Does that include yourself? I'm a late-bloomer, you might say. A lot of Nisei—I wouldn't say a lot, but many Nisei couples were married in camp. They didn't want to be separated, so they got married in camp or before evacuation perhaps.


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    • And I'm sure they must have struggled, huh? Getting back to your role as editor at the Pacific Citizen, could I have you describe a little bit more about your position as editor once the offices moved in '52 to Los Angeles? Well, a lot of that is written up in that story that I just gave you.

      But in a nutshell, when I took over the paper in '52, [it was] just myself as a writer. Then I had a young lady [employed] to take care of the business side—circulation, ads—and then, we [also] had a typesetter. The typesetter and myself were able to put the paper together. And then, it was sent to the printer.

      And when it came back [from the printer], we had a part-timer address the papers and who would bundle them off to the post office. The business manager at that time also happened to be the JACL regional director who did double-duty. We had a pro bono accountant take care of the books. So it was a very humble beginning. It was more fun, than hard work as far as I was concerned. Otherwise, I wouldn't be in this business to this day. What it was—there were long hours involved, and I banked on people making contributions and sending us stories.

      We had columnists, of course. And Bill Hosokawa William K. In , he worked with the Des Moines Register, and moved to the Denver Post in and eventually became the Post's editorial page editor. Masaoka played a decisive role in shaping the history of the Japanese American community during World War II, and the resettlement years.

      He was one of the prime supporters for Nisei participation in the armed forces, and viewed military service as the best way to demonstrate the loyalty of Japanese Americans. But I think the best role for the paper was during the war years when it started to publish the casualty list of those who were killed in action, who were wounded in the war. Their names and the next of kin would be on the front page of the paper. It was a very anticipated list of names that people wanted to see in late-' But in my case, those days were over, so it was more or less routine to keep up with what was happening around the country.

      I was able to develop contributors from different parts of the country who served as a columnist from Seattle, someone from San Francisco, someone from Chicago. Bill Hosokawa was in Denver. So we had kind of a glimpse of what was happening around the country. We even had a columnist from the Rafu Shimpo to write on what was happening in the L. And also, did the Pacific Citizen document any of the activities? Discrimination was still very much a concern for JACL, as well as the community at large.

      PC had a column called "Minority Week" in which we reported in not more than maybe 50 words, different events that were happening in the minority field, especially with the blacks, just to make the Japanese American community conscious of what a minority problem was like. Of course from that, JACL was able to focus on civil rights. I've read that the Pacific Citizen is now mostly Sansei-run. Is this true? And how did that transition come about from the Nisei to the Sansei? Third-generation Japanese Americans.

      Well, it' s a matter of age, you might say. Some of our writers have just begged off or resigned. Bill Hosokawa who is now in his mid-eighties is still writing for us. But I think the trend today is that those who are active in the writing field are basically very young Nisei in their sixties or Sansei who are pushing But there's no definitive line—you might say—when the change took place.

      So it was very gradual. We've had youth writers. This is now 30 years, so they must be pushing 50 [years old] today. At least the paper tried to be a place where comments, contributions from all walks of life would find a place. Well, I'll always believe that as long as there are problems affecting Asian Americans and Japanese Americans in particular, there will be a need for JACL or an organization like it. And for an organization to be effective, it needs a public media, a public voice, a public way of disseminating information.

      And Pacific Citizen is able to fulfill that role. As long as it's a newspaper trying to show a balanced picture of what's happening, the paper will survive. I mean, there is a role to fill. And the fact that PC goes across the country is a plus. My life? I tell everybody I shook hands with Alberto Fujimori Alberto K. Fujimori is the current president of Peru. Elected on July 28, , Fujimori is the first person of Japanese ancestry to be elected head of state of a Latin American country. I met the priest in Mexico City 10 years earlier, a gentleman speaking fluent Japanese.

      Of course, he spoke English, so I was able to get along real well with him. And we corresponded and kept it up, for he was the one that told me that Professor Fujimori was going to run for presidency. I reported that in the PC, saying that the Peruvian-born Nisei was a candidate for the presidency in Peru. I think we were perhaps the first U. It was like a national agricultural university. So when the news broke out in the major press, the U. State Department had to scramble to find out who the young man was that's going to campaign to be president of Peru.

      They had no idea that there would be a minority person in Peru running for the presidency. To me, that's the most outstanding chuckles event. I can't think of anything else. Not many people can say, "I shook hands with Fujimori. Just wrapping up the interview, is there anything else that you'd like to add that we left out? Well, I hope your REgenerations project is a success, and I'm sure it will be.

      However if it's going to be distributed, disseminated, when it's done, we're here to help get the word out. You can count on that. Present in the room besides the narrator and the interviewer, is Sojin Kim, who will be videotaping this particular interview. In your last interview there wasn't as much information on your parents. Can you tell me about your parents? You mentioned that you attended Fukuoka kenjinkai picnics.

      UBC Theses and Dissertations

      What part of Fukuoka were your parents from? First of all, both of my parents were from Fukuoka- ken, [which is in the] western part of Japan. My father was in the next mura, 1. Village Japanese. Do I recall? Well, the family history shows that my dad came in the lates to San Francisco, and he spent one or two years up in Alaska in a cannery.

      And my mother came in It so happened that my dad was fortunate enough to have enough funds to go back to Japan to get married, and they came back together. I take it back. They did not come back together. My mother had some eye problems so she was detained at Yokohoma until the eye condition was cleared up.

      She came the following year in late And yes and by that time, they were all in Los Angeles, and that's where I was born. Very quiet, hard working gentleman. I think he was the third son in the family. He had an older brother who was a very successful nurseryman in Los Angeles. My mother was the youngest of them. I think there are four or five. I don't remember now, but four or five children in that family. She was the youngest. That's about all I can say. The thing about recalling family history is that I didn't have the opportunity to really get to know that. Because one of the best ways to get know family was during the camp years when the kids were able to talk to their parents day in and day out.

      And that's how children were able to understand what it was like when their parents were growing up. In my case, I was already in the service, so I missed all of that. You have mentioned before that you had sisters. How many sisters did you have and did you have any brothers? Just two sisters. Kayoko, the youngest one, passed away 25 years ago in Chicago, and the other sister, Fusako, resides in L. So there were just three of us kids in the family. Not at all? Did your parents first settle in the Temple and Figueroa area of Los Angeles, or elsewhere?

      When they came to Los Angeles, it was basically in the same area where we were before— in the Temple Street area. And what was that area like? You mentioned in the previous interview that it was ethnically diverse. It was a very, very mixed neighborhood in the s. There were Japanese families, Korean families, Chinese families, and a number of Jewish families. The area, at one time, was solid Jewish, a solid Jewish community with three synagogues within a four-block square. So you can see how thoroughly Jewish it was until the s when they started to move to Brooklyn Avenue 2.

      Renamed Cesar E. Chavez Avenue. Towards the s, Temple and Figueroa at that time had several restaurants, barbershops, and bars that also catered to the Filipino community. Some were calling it Little Manila. During the s, Filipinos established a presence in Los Angeles. With the passage of the Immigration Act of , which effectively ended Japanese immigration to the United States, Filipinos were able to fill a void in the agricultural labor force.

      Filipinos were neither citizens nor aliens, but they were able to legally enter the country. Most came to work temporarily in agricultural or canning jobs, and eventually return to the Philippines. So, because it was called Little Manila— then ethnic group-wise— it was more numerously Filipino then? Yeah, I should also mention there are a number of Mexican families as well.

      So, we had a very— well I should say, a friendly neighborhood with all the different people. Predominantly what were families doing occupation-wise in that area— looking at the different groups? My dad was a shoe repairman. Let's see what else did they have? One Chinese family sold herbs.

      I think a lot of the women were working in garment factories at that time. Some were running a hotel or an apartment. So it was kind of a small, real small community with a little bit of everything. We also had a number of Caucasians and one— now that I think back happened to be— [he had] come from Scotland, and he was a milkman. Of course, milk people, [those] who delivered milk were all through by noontime. So he would be home around noon and he would drag out and play his bagpipe to keep in practice.

      To this day, I remember playing with Bruce Kaji, 4. Colonel Young O. He played a crucial role in allowing the Fifth Army to attack Anzio and then Rome, which fell on June 5, Anna May Wong was a popular Chinese American actress during the s. Well, she was a silent movie star [many years ago], so we're talking about— what 60, 70 years ago. We are presented with Dark-blue Ribbon Medal in Showa We are presented with kunshitoasahinichishojusho in Heisei 6. We worked at Iwata glass Seisakujo in Horikiri, Katsushika-ku.

      In Showa 56 , we made our debut in "amanjakugayattekita". It is easy to get close to children including little cat Toranosuke series and continues announcing pleasant juvenile literature work. Katsushika City is resident than Heisei 2. Shinji Uchiyama we believe Uchiyama Talent 1. Variety and gourmet program, talent who is multi-, and plays an active part including drama. We performed regularly on "admirable saury authority" subsidiary of Fuji TV as student position and got popularity from first grader. We are appearing on TV, movie, CM a lot now. Restaurant in Katsushika City gathered in November, Heisei 28 and was held and acted as formal PR ambassador for the third generation of "Katsushika foods Festa ".

      Yuji Uchiyama house and the eyebrows maggot Supervision, scriptwriter 1. Animation supervision, scriptwriter who deals with animation "arutsuhaimu" and "paper rabbit rope. We deal with supervision, script of animation "field suko" which we set on the stage of Katsushika City in the same way afterwards from September of the year.

      Because grandmother lives in Tateishi, Katsushika-ku, Katsushika is place where we got used to, and Katsushika City comes up for setting of animation for Uchiyama. Yutaka Osawa osawayutaka Movie director 1. Movie director, producer who win a lot of prizes for domestic and foreign movies. We made our debut as supervisor by "ringleader march" as assistant directors such as Director Akira Kurosawa, Director Satsuo Yamamoto, Director Hiroshi Teshigawara movie in experienced back, Showa In Showa 60 , we won Berlin International Film Festival children's film section three prize in "battlefield of me" about wartime evacuation School children care club and did.

      Because we produce many works which took up social problem in independent production and showed, in Heisei 9 , we win the Japanese movie Japan P. In addition, we won light culture Prize of life in "I love you" that featured the theme of sign language in Heisei 12 from Iwate in "the mountains and rivers of life" in association of Japanese academy special winning the prize, Heisei Katsushika City residence. Minako Onuki we pull, and everybody comes Former volleyball player 1. In addition, we participated in World Cup and the world championship as all-Japan all-star representative.

      In Heisei 20 , we retired. Yoshimitsu Ono Mitsuo Kikkawa onoyoshimitsu good Swordsmith 1. We were interested in sword in college student days and studied with Yoshihito Yoshihara. We won Prince Takamatsu Prize in Showa 57 and won Manager of Agency for Cultural Affairs Prize in Showa 58 , and we were authorized in Showa 63 by latest fine sword exhibition without audition. Was appointed in 8, Heisei nenseikuraingodaikatanakinsakuhoshi, by Katsushika City-designated intangible cultural asset.

      We studied swordsmith with Yoshihito Yoshihara in Takasago, Katsushika-ku. Nosho Omura cormorant fisherman of irregularity Composer 1. Meiji 26 - Showa 37 2. With hit maker which represented the early days of the Showa era, we composed "trip umbrella journey" "graduates of the same class". We entered Yokosuka ground force of a naval base at 15 years old and became member of the navy military band, but returned home by death of father in Yamaguchi of hometown.

      In Taisho 15 , we wanted to be composer and went to Tokyo again. In Showa 10 , "trip shade journey" sells about , pieces; made a big hit. We have begun to work on upbringing of young singer eagerly the other day. We were said to have composed 20, pieces or more throughout life, and, of these, about 8, pieces appeared in the world. We established after the war "ability chapter meeting" which performed charity performance and consolation performance of music. We lived in existing Higashiyotsugi, Katsushika-ku. The first person of the fair sex haiku poet. We presided over haiku magazine "morning" commencing with contributor's haiku in Showa 55 from Showa We are presented with kunshitotakarakansho in the Purple Ribbon Medal in Heisei 11 in Heisei 6.

      It is resident in Higashikanamachi, Katsushika-ku than Showa Kiyoshige Kasai we seem to do shade breath Samurai 1. Late twelfth century - thirteenth first half 2. Chief vassal of Yoritomo Minamoto who became the first general of the Kamakura Shogunate. We participated in Oshu Fujiwara attacks who ruled over Taira hunt and the current Tohoku district.

      We took important role on the peace and order maintenance of Oshu and continued supporting the Shogunate as posthumously old chief vassal of Yoritomo. Kasai is the whole family descending from Taira based in Musashi country Chichibu-gun area around existing Chichibu-gun, Saitama. In around Jisho 4 , Kiyoshige succeeded to Kasai area that Toshima Kiyoharu of father ruled and became independent from Toyoshima as surname in Kasai of the place name. It was thought that Kiyoshige played oblation, and oblation done area touched "sacred kitchen" which expressed feudal tenure such as Ise Grand Shrine, and, at the around the latter half of twelfth century, he came to be called "Kasai sacred kitchen" by Ise Grand Shrine in a part of Kasai area.

      Kasai sacred kitchen of the Kamakura era was form that Kasai ruled over feudal tenure of Ise Grand Shrine locally. Grave informed that we hushed up Kiyoshige is left in graveyard of the west light temple in Yotsugi. Feudal lord of Kasai area of the Middle Ages including Katsushika area. Yoshio Katsu and we give up Poet 1. Meiji 35 - Showa 56 2.

      We played an active part as poet from the old-system junior high school era and announced work to "appear in field with idiocy" in nom de plume of yoishimashunkichi. In addition, we wrote a song of a lot of school songs such as national Elementary school and junior high school including Katsushika Ward Michigami elementary school. We wrote a song of school song of in primary, middle and high schools schools in city including Katsushika Ward Michigami elementary school.

      Kazuyo Katsuma without and winding up Economic analyst 1. Economic analyst, Chuo University business school guest professor. We acquired qualification of assistant accountant at the youngest 19 years old and worked at auditor from all over Keio University attendance at school in those days. We became independent as economic analyst via foreign-affiliated consulting companies. In Heisei 20 , we win the first best mother Prize economic section. There is much writing, too. The Kameda three eldest son who is brother having Guinness world record of "three brothers simultaneous world king" "three brothers world kings" of boxing.

      We achieved three classes of Japanese first conquest of the world. We retired in October, Heisei We lived in Ohanajaya, Katsushika-ku in Heisei 20 and repeated exercises by gym which rebuilt private house. Kameda brothers Katsushika supporters association was organized by such a relationship. The Kameda three second son who is brother having Guinness world record of "three brothers simultaneous world king" "three brothers world kings" of boxing. We achieved two classes of conquest of the world. For the left eye detached retinas, we retired in November, Heisei The Kameda three third son who is brother having Guinness world record of "three brothers simultaneous world king" "three brothers world kings" of boxing.

      Matazo Kayama mountain again elephant Japanese painter 1. From Showa 2 to Heisei 16 2. We are presented with the Order of Culture in persons of cultural merits, Heisei 15 in Heisei 9. We were in charge of art lecturer at Katsushika Ward Yotsugi junior high school and produced the original picture "spring time" of cheap theater of Katsushika City Cultural Center coliseum in Heisei 3. Hideharu Kawase kawasehideji Public employee 1. Tenpo era 10 - Showa 3 2.

      We were born in samurai family of Tanabe feudal clan and we became adopted child of the Kawases at 10 years old and served Miyazu feudal clan. We become public employee in the Meiji era and we successively hold buzochikenji, Governor Kosuge prefecture right, Governor of Kosuge until Meiji former - Meiji 4 and have jurisdiction over Katsushika area. We established shosugekenritsukarigakuko for government officials of the prefectural office in Shogakuji current Kosuge and we established "repayment of kindness company regulations" to gather fund and rice from general volunteer and government official of the prefectural office, and to save, and to put at the time of disaster and did.

      After having retired from Governor Kosuge, we were in charge of local administration and industrial development as public employee until Meiji We act as the prefectural governor of Kosuge prefecture including Katsushika area. Kaname Kawabata we experience whether it is Kawabata Singer 1. We are playing an active part mainly on solo activity now. Katsushika Ward Kameari junior high school graduation. Exercise place of song before debut was karaoke shop of Kameari. When triumphant return live was carried out in Kameari on December 13, Heisei 26 , we willingly consented to becoming "Katsushika City goodwill ambassador".

      Ikkei Kitazawa kitazawaikkyo Edo tree sculpture Craftsman 1. One of the engravers representing modern Edo wooden sculpture. We deal a lot with "board carving" such as tools for ranma, mikoshi and funeral of shrines and temples architecture. We were apprenticed under Iijima Yoneyama of Asakusa said to be master craftsman of Edo wooden sculpture world at 15 years old and established studio in Katsushika City independently in Showa There are humped-head goldfish of Naritasan Shinshoji Temple, sculpture of mikoshi of Tomioka Hachiman shrine in masterpiece. We set up Kitazawa tree sculpture place which is studio in Mizumoto, Katsushika-ku.

      We dealt with sculpture of mikoshi of Shinkoiwa Emperor's ancestors Shrine and exhibited approximately life-sized Ebisu which we carved in relief in three days at traditional industry exhibition of Katsushika City industry fair of Heisei 5 again. We were authorized Tokyo folkcraft person in Heisei 10 in Heisei 5 by Katsushika City folkcraft person. Shuta Kitazawa of son was authorized in Heisei 26 by Katsushika City folkcraft person, too.

      Motoi Kimura we come and solve irregularity Historian 1. Taisho 13 - Heisei 16 2. Historian who proposed study in the Japanese village history to analyze scenery and life of village into historically. We successively held important post in Meiji University and acted as president from 63, Showa to Heisei 4. We became Meiji University's emeritus professor after retirement. We lived in Katsushika City from Showa We worked for private mutual prosperity girl commercial school existing mutual prosperity school Junior High School, high school as teacher from December, Showa 18 to around January, Showa In writing about Katsushika City, there is "war of girls" that spelled experiences that led girl student of mutual prosperity for work mobilization in wartime.

      Toshio Kiyota kiyotatoshio Decoration rake craftsman 1. It is craftsman making decoration rake with specialty and handcrafts materials such as rice straw. We had own shop by the Cock Fair of Asakusa while we did the brokerage of lotus root in Showa 26 and came to sell decoration rake which we always produced in the Cock Fair. In Showa 26 , we became bridegroom in the Kiyotas of existing Aoto, Katsushika-ku. After that we produce decoration rake in Aoto and sell by the Cock Fair. In Heisei 5 , we were authorized by Katsushika City folkcraft person.

      In entrance hall of Katsushika-ku hometown and astronomy Museum, huge decoration rake of 4 meters in total length that we produced is displayed.

      THE DIRECTORY OF WORLD CINEMA: JAPAN by Otaku Magazine - Issuu

      Criticism is "outline of literature" and, in Showa 52 , makes our debut the 20th group rookie of the year title. We win the Eiji Yoshikawa literature rookie of the year title in "sanctuary of string" in Showa Announce many writing in spite of being use in two noms de plume called Kaoru Kurimoto and Azusa Nakajima in the wide field including criticism, SF and fantasy, mystery and the times, story of adventure; did.

      We are born and raised in Aoto, Katsushika-ku. It is resident in city until Showa 56 than Showa After the death, we donated handwriting manuscript, the collection of books to Katsushika City. Takanobu Kobayashi kobayashitakanobu Western picture painter 1. Aichi Prefectural University of Arts art department graduation. We emigrate to Bangkok in Heisei 11 and live in Bangkok and Shinkoiwa, Katsushika-ku more from Heisei 14 to Heisei 24 and perform fictionization. Musashino Art University's professor.

      It is resident in Shinkoiwa, Katsushika-ku from Heisei 14 to Heisei Hideo Kobayashi kohayashihideo Composer 1. Composition, composer who arranged of song which is broadcasted by "Songs for Everyone" of NHK, and is got close to to many people. We arranged composition of "downright autumn" or "big old clock". After having graduated from Tokyo University of the Arts, we win they encouragement prize by "Mako Bo and limited express" in "doll ga call ndeiru" Showa 36 in NHK commission art festival entry radio music drama, Showa We compose many songs, madrigals, and madrigal "Japanese larch" pine is published in textbook above all.

      Instruct for a long time since local chorus club "Katsushika Joyfull harmony" is formed in Showa 60 , also, made an effort for "federation of Katsushika City chorus" establishment, and acted as advisor for many years. When "symphony Hills boys and girls chorus" which moved into action based in Katsushika City Cultural Center Katsushika symphony Hills in Heisei 16 was founded, we acted as advisor of chorus. Susumu Kobori koborisusumu Western picture painter 1. Meiji 37 - Showa 50 2. Painter who drew very large space by the original law of painting by picture in watercolors targeting at scenery and mountain, the sky, the seas of Suigo.

      We played an active part from prewar days and, in Showa 15 , founded federation of picture in watercolors in eight comrades. In Showa 45 , we win ex-Emperor art Prize in Japan in reorganization first Nitten exhibition "early fall". We were elected to member of House of art in Japan as watercolor painter for the first time in Showa 49 by achievement that brought position improvement and development of watercolor.

      We spent more than 40 years in Takasago except wartime time when we evacuated since we moved to south Katsushika county Arajukucho Sumiyoshi existing Takasago, Katsushika-ku in Showa 4. In Heisei 5 , exhibition was held as painter with connection in Katsushika in Katsushika City Cultural Center Katsushika symphony Hills , and four points of watercolors about scenery of Katsushika were displayed. Chambers komurohitoshi Folk singer 1.

      Folk singer who energizes including live and musical piece offer. In Showa 43 , we formed music unit "six sentences money". We are from Horikiri, Katsushika-ku. Kosuke Komiya komiyakousuke Colorman Edo-dyed clothe 1. Meiji 15 - Showa 36 2. The first person of "Edo-dyed clothe" which is cloth that it is likely that we are particular so that solid color shows from far away production. We studied with expert of "model charge account" to add resist style seaweed to part that it was likely from early childhood before dyeing cloth and became independent in Meiji When "harsh training dyeing" using chemical dye was put to practical use in around Meiji 43 , we adopted this quickly and came to perform dyeing of cloth which previous dye house performed by oneself.

      Because workshop which was in Asakusa by the Great Kanto Earthquake in Taisho 12 suffered big damage, in Showa 4 , we transferred workshop to south Katsushika county Okudo-mura existing Nishishinkoiwa where Nakagawa was near. Reason of move was because it was easy to use water of irrigation canal where muddy water of field flowed into. We continued working on production afterward in the ground, and we were authorized in Showa 30 by holder of an important intangible cultural property living national treasure.

      In addition, name of "Edo-dyed clothe" was acquired to distinguish from other fine patterns at the time of authorization. We are resident in Nishishinkoiwa, Katsushika-ku and work on production. Yasutaka Komiya komiyayasutaka Colorman Edo-dyed clothe 1.

      Colorman who let production technique of "Edo-dyed clothe" which Kosuke Komiya of father established develop the succession. Edo-dyed clothe is cloth that it is likely that we are particular so that solid color shows from far away. We deal with minute, minute design, and color development pursues dyed goods which it is hard to play of vivid discoloration with free color. In Showa 4 , we move to south Katsushika county Okudo-mura existing Nishishinkoiwa with move of workshop of father.

      We had spatula for the first time in summer vacation of sixth grader and began study of printing a fine pattern with father after the graduation. After having inherited business, we improve dye and restore design of the Edo era by collection of old paper patterns and cooperation with paper pattern craftsman and work on preservation and succession eagerly.

      In Showa 53 , we were authorized following father in parent and child two generations by holder of an important intangible cultural property living national treasure and were presented with Purple Ribbon Medal, kunshitoasahinichishojusho later. We give improvement to technique that we inherited from father and refine and tell the technique to successor more. Katsumoto Saotome Saotome and the cause Writer 1. Report "Tokyo blitzkrieg" about Tokyo blitzkrieg that we experienced at the age of 12 years old in Showa 46 becomes bestseller and wins Japanese journalist meeting encouragement prize.

      In Heisei 14 , we take office as the director of Tokyo blitzkrieg, war damage document center of minritsuminei. We lived in Katsushika City until from Showa 32 to Showa Masashi Sada Masashi Sada Singer, novelist 1. In Showa 47 , we made our debut as fork Duo "grape" in "snowy dynasty". In Heisei 13 , novel "send-off-spirits ceremony" of autobiography becomes bestseller. Bizan" which we announced became bestseller, and all were filmized afterwards.

      In Heisei 27 , we establish "lion foundation taking wind" and support individual and group doing homage and goodwill activity at home and abroad and perform organizing for support to be active when great disaster got up. After elementary school graduation, we go to Tokyo for violin study alone. We lived in Katsushika City until Showa 42 from Showa The founder of Takara Co. Because we developed hot seller such as "Dakko-chan" or "chola Q" in sequence, it was called "King of toy". We are presented with kunshitoasahinichishojusho in Medal with a Yellow Ribbon, Heisei 7 in Showa We retired from Takara's chairperson in Heisei In Showa 30 , we established Sato vinyl industry place that was forerunner of Takara in existing Takaramachi, Katsushika-ku.

      Not company where was specialized in toy, we processed various plastic products at first. Because achievements looked up, in Showa 34 , we reorganized in Sato vinyl industry place and relocated company building to existing Aoto, Katsushika-ku. In Showa 35 , plastic doll "Dakko-chan" made a big hit. After company name change of several degrees, we assumed Takara Co. After metropolitan Mukaishima technical high school machine department graduation, we received making a sword approval commencing with study of swordsmith in earnest from Agency for Cultural Affairs under the first country house which was grandfather in Showa We were authorized in Showa 57 by new item fine sword exhibition without audition and assumed Master's name of person of country as a successor for the third generation.

      In Heisei 15 , we appeared on movie "last samurai" as swordsmith. We appointed for Katsushika City-designated intangible cultural asset in Heisei 10 , and was appointed in Heisei 20 by Tokyo-designated intangible cultural asset. We set up sword training place in Nishimizumoto, Katsushika-ku. Katsushika City-designated intangible cultural asset. Sanyutei Yuza sanyuuteiyuuza Comic story teller 1.

      Comic story teller who continues walking the right track of classical storytelling that is faithful to basics. We were promoted to star performer without ten people, and, in Showa 39 , the director of rakugo Arts Council served at the age of 26 years old, too. We win award for excellence of Agency for Cultural Affairs art festival in Showa There is living-in-going career in Shinkoiwa, Katsushika-ku. Yoshiko Shibaki beat Yoshiko Novelist 1. Taisho 3 - Heisei 3 2. In Showa 17 , we win the 14th Akutagawa Prize in "city of fruits and vegetables".

      Other than 3 works of "dried bean curds" called autobiography trilogy "Sumida River" "Marunouchi Building No. We were elected in Heisei 1 by persons of cultural merits. Novel which assumed neighborhood of Mizumotokoen, Katsushika-ku the stage wrote "woman of Katsushika". There is literature monument which ticked away one paragraph of "woman of Katsushika" in metropolitan Mizumoto Park.

      Kotaro Shimizu we asked without soaking Person of dyeing and weaving signal gong informal summer kimono 1. Meiji 30 - Showa 63 2. The first person of signal gong informal summer kimono. About board of about 7m to use by "model charge account" to add resist style seaweed to part that "signal gong" is likely, "informal summer kimono" is meaning of large design a little than fine pattern. After elementary school graduation, we studied model charge account of signal gong informal summer kimono with father.

      In Showa 3 , we moved to south Koorimoto, Katsushika Tamachi existing Yotsugi with move of workshop of father and inherited business in Showa Mass production of cloth was enabled from the early days of the Showa era, and jobs decreased, but continued producing time-consuming signal gong informal summer kimono. In Showa 30 , we are authorized by holder of an important intangible cultural property living national treasure. They put paper pattern to a hair's breadth, and table of cloth and the skill to touch seaweed so that the back became the same design were appreciated.

      We burnt with passion for preservation of signal gong informal summer kimono until the year of a person's death and continued producing in the ground of Katsushika. We are resident in Yotsugi, Katsushika-ku and work on production. Yukio Sugino we do Rubber manufacturing industry 1. President of Sugino rubber chemical industry place Shiratori, Katsushika-ku. It was unmanned proposer of bottom of the sea probe "Edoite 1" who succeeded in taking picture of deep sea uncooked food with 3D hi-vision camera for the first time in the world and, in the end of November, Heisei 25 , led project in the 7,m point of the Japan Deeps.

      The project wins the industry, academia and government cooperation person who has rendered distinguished services commendation Prime Minister Prize with participant, engine which we shared in Heisei Product "rubber you" clay which becomes rubber when we add heat of Sugino rubber chemical industry place, "partitioning UFO" rubber base becoming support of partitioning board to use at refuge at the time of disaster were authorized as product by superior techniques by Katsushika brand "Katsushikacho factory story" the 21, Heisei [] year, the 25, Heisei [] year.

      In response to request of "meeting cleaning river of Katsushika" working on environmental protection in Heisei 26 , we are concerned with development of bottom of a river search camera "Katsushika native 1" based on technique that we cultivated by development of Edoite 1 and receive the furtherance of Katsushika City, and we develop the deep sea probe "do Vaughn " exploring depth of the water 1,m, and marketing aims at making. Takuo Segawa segawatakuo Doll writer 1. The theatrical company Taro-za president, writer, folktale researcher. We dealt with script, direction of puppet play, and writer, Miyoko Matsutani product which was wife staged puppet play of "child Taro of dragon" in the whole country, and many works were broadcasted as puppet play with NHK educational television.

      Couple proceeded to each place in form called saiho for the first time in around , and modern version of old tales, "folktale of Shinano" "folktale of Akita" compiled old tale. In Showa 30 , we launched "theatrical company Taro-za" in Kanamachi in city. Novelette "visitors of distant place" became the Akutagawa Prize candidate in Showa 29 and marked charges called the talented woman era with Sawako Ariyoshi and others.

      Support activities to developing country play an active part widely while they write many novels, essays afterward. We lived on Katsushika City until we became 3 years old. Former sumo wrestler of the Grand Sumo Tournament that assumed migiyotsu, gathering the skill good at for the active play era. We began sumo in fourth graders. In Heisei 17 after Senshu University graduation, we became a disciple of Abu pine room and stepped on the first sumo ring at place in March of the year.

      We won the championship at Jonokuchi, sumo wrestler at the second lowest column later and were promoted to the top division for the first time at place in July, Heisei We assume Master's name of old person, Onogawa as a successor after the retirement in Heisei 28 and deal with young upbringing in Abu pine room. Katsushika Ward Daidou junior high school graduation.

      It is said that we attached professional name called "Daidou" from here. Former professional baseball player who pitched in Major League. We retired in Heisei Shuutoku High School graduation in Aoto, Katsushika-ku.