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What Really Happened to Martin Eden. The Scapegoat: A Fable. A Voice in the Wilderness. Connecting the Dots in Pointillist Paintings. The Perspicacity of Soaring Eagle. Heroes and Other Illusions: Stories. Katabasis: A Journey into the Mind. Camp College: A Story of the Future. The Dragon Ticket and Other Stories. After the Fireflood. Apocalypse Bluff and Other Stories. The Rip Van Winkle Effect. The Siege of Bright Hope. The Earth-Born: A novelette of the future. The Library at the End of the World. Reviews and Reflections on Books, Literature, and Writing.
Opting Out and Other Departures. State of Grace. The Fantasy Book Murders. Manifest Destiny: A Story of the Future. Caliban's Children. Clouds Without Rain: A Fantasy. Apocalypse Bluff: A Novelette. Mendocino Mellow: A Fantasy. Love Children: A Novel. Opting In. Invasive Procedures: A Novelette. Painsharing and Other Stories. Painsharing: A Fable of the End of Days. Portals: A Fantasy. Eventually, thanks to the efforts of the Lancre Coven , Lily was deposed and sent to a dimension of endless mirrors, and Ella was able to assume her role as Baroness of Genua without, as Lily had intended, marrying a frog.
The state first gained power under General Tacticus , who, having been sent there by the Morporkian Empire to stay out of the way, proceeded to declare war on Ankh-Morpork. According to the novel Going Postal , Genua is located approximately miles from Ankh-Morpork by road, a journey of two months by stagecoach. A faster method is to travel by flying broomstick , whereby the city can be reached in a single day, but unfortunately you will most likely blow your own ears off or possibly just freeze to death on the way. The continent of Klatch consists of that part of the Discworld's super continent that is rimwards of the Circle Sea.
Like the distinction between Europe and Asia, the difference between Klatch and the unnamed continent that Ankh-Morpork stands upon is arbitrary and cultural rather than geographically evident. It can be thought of as roughly equivalent to Africa in our world.
The continent's principal nation, also called Klatch , is a large multi-ethnic empire rimwards to turnwise of the Circle Sea. It resembles medieval Arabic states, and has a political system similar to the Ottoman Empire. Its capital is Al Khali popularly known as 'the Gateway to the mysterious continent of Klatch' , and it includes outlying regions such as Hersheba and Syrrit.
Klatch is a commercial rival of Ankh-Morpork — the book Jingo depicts a brief war between the two mainly on economic land ownership grounds. It is also a common metaphorical boundary for anything considered genuinely "foreign", despite other areas of similar distance not being considered as such. There is some cultural mistrust between the Sto Plains and Klatch, as evidenced by the phrase "Pardon my Klatchian" upon speaking a rude word.
Despite the tendency of Morporkians to see Klatchians as savages, Jingo makes clear that Klatchians are technologically and scientifically is on par with the Sto Plains. It is said that the Klatchians had 15 words for assassination before the rest of the world had caught on to the idea of hitting each other with rocks. This situation parallels that which existed between Europe and the Arab world throughout the Middle Ages. In Sourcery , the Seriph was Creosote , a rather vain and foolish man who was obsessed with poetry.
A genie reportedly granted a great fortune to his grandfather, which was more or less squandered by modern times. It is unknown whether Creosote is still Seriph; the Prince Cadram and Prince Khufurah appeared in Jingo , but it is unknown whether they are relatives of Creosote. The name is probably a play on " coffee klatsch "; a recognition of its most famous export, Klatchian coffee. The principal deity of Klatch is Offler , a crocodile -headed god. Al Khali has been described by Rincewind as "like Ankh , only with sand instead of mud".
It is bisected by the Tsort River. The city is noted for its wind, which blows from the vast deserts of Klatch, and has been described as "a gentle but persistent breeze". Notable features of the city include. Klatchian coffee is a strong, nearly magical coffee, brewed in Klatch and drunk only by the initiated in very small cups. Presumably an exaggerated version of Turkish coffee , Klatchian coffee has a strong sobering effect, bringing the drinker "to the other side of sobriety".
This state of sobriety is referred to as knurd "drunk" spelled backwards; compare the entry in the Jargon File . Knurdness is described as the opposite of being drunk: not sober, which is merely the absence of drunkenness, but just as far away from sobriety in the opposite direction, resulting in a terrible, existential clarity. According to Sourcery , being knurd strips away all the comforting illusions in which people usually spend their lives, letting them see and think clearly for the first time.
This is a very traumatic experience, although it is noted that it sometimes leads to important discoveries. To counteract the effects of Klatchian coffee, in Klatch it is drunk with Orakh a very violent alcoholic beverage made by mixing scorpion venom and cactus sap and fermenting it in the sun for several weeks , possibly referring to Italian "espresso" coffee which is often drunk with "grappa", a very strong, often homemade, alcohol although the name "Orakh" is presumably a reference to arak.
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After a few screams, a lie down and a stiff drink, the occasional drinker will try never to be "knurd" again. Although knurdness is a state usually only obtainable by drinking Klatchian coffee, Samuel Vimes , one of the Discworld 's most notable characters, is described in Guards! This makes him slightly knurd by default, which partially accounts for his depressive nature and tendency towards alcoholism—he started out looking for a cure to knurdness.
Once he starts drinking, however, he cannot stop and always gets the dosage wrong. Ephebe is largely the Discworld analogue of Athenian Greece , however also takes influences from Alexandria and Minos ; the name is an Anglicization of the Greek concept of ephebos. Ephebe lies on the hubwards shores of the Circle Sea on the Klatchian continent , widdershins of the Klatchian Empire, Tsort and Djelibeybi and turnwise of Omnia. Ephebe has only been visited twice in the novels, in Pyramids and Small Gods. However, we know from Eric that in its early history, it fought a series of damaging wars against Tsort, with which it remains in a cold-war situation to this day.
The disappearance of the Djel River valley in Pyramids briefly sparked a resumption of hostilities, which mostly involved highly reluctant soldiers hiding in wooden horses, waiting for the other side to take them into the city. This was quickly ended by the Djel's abrupt reappearance.
In Small Gods , it was briefly invaded by Omnia; however, this occupation quickly collapsed and Ephebe launched a decisive counter-strike. The country was heavily affected by the first temporal shattering mentioned in Thief of Time , as a result of which the philosophers living there appear extraordinarily long-lived.
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Ephebe has a population of about 50,, according to The Discworld Companion. Much of this population is made up of slaves, who have steadfastly refused any efforts to give them more rights; they are quite happy with their guaranteed income and safety as slaves and the possibility of owning slaves of their own. As a democracy, Ephebe is unusual on the Discworld. Those citizens who are not disqualified by being foreigners, mad, poor or female, elect a Tyrant to run the city, who invariably turns out to be a criminal madman. They then elect another Tyrant, who is much the same. At the time of Small Gods the position of which in the Discworld chronology is somewhat obscure , Ephebe was ruled by a small, fat man with skinny legs, who resembled an egg hatching upside-down.
It is unknown whether he is still ruler. According to The Discworld Companion , it does not have an economy. The people are perfectly happy living off the fish and olives farmed by the slaves, or the way Teppic described it in Pyramids, they made wine of everything they could stuff in a bucket and ate whatever couldn't crawl out of one, which gives time for Ephebe's major export: philosophy. For what it's worth about one Ankh-Morpork penny , the currency of Ephebe is the talent. Ephebe is a city of philosophers; some hardware merchants have taken to stocking towels, in case of clothing-challenged brilliant thinkers an allusion to Archimedes' "Eureka!
The philosophers are noted for pondering the existence of gods, but carefully in case the gods get angry. Brawls between varying philosophical factions frequently erupt across Ephebe's many taverns, but Ephebe is on the whole a peaceful city, which ambles by from day to day The New Discworld Companion. One of the philosophers Teppic met in Ephebe was instrumental in the building of a lighthouse. Sadly, the proposed location for the lighthouse was deemed to be disruptive to the view of the harbour and so it was placed some distance inland.
Sailors who find themselves stranded on the rocks of the harbour have considered the lighthouse a quite beautiful thing to look at whilst waiting to be rescued. Djelibeybi is based on the cultures of Ancient Egypt. Also called the Kingdom of the Sun and the Old Kingdom. Principal crops: melons, garlic and, since they are increasingly encroaching on the fertile agricultural land, pyramids.
The name "Djelibeybi" is a pun lost on most people outside the UK, South Africa and Australia, playing on " Jelly baby ", a popular gummi sweet in those countries. The joke is compounded when Pratchett says that "Djelibeybi" means "Child of the Djel" its main river; the line is a parody of Herodotus 's famous claim that Egypt was the "gift of the Nile ".
The ancient country of Ur lies Rimward of it. The kingdom is almost entirely underwater during the flood season, and both threatened and protected on either side by stronger neighbours Tsort and Ephebe. It was once great, but all that now remains is an expensive palace, a few ruins and pyramids. The entire economic life of the country is, until after the events of Pyramids , devoted to building them. As a result, Djelibeybi is permanently bankrupt. The country has an enormous number of local gods , unknown to the world outside. Its ruler, the Pharaoh , is also a god, although in human form.
Under the current ruler, Queen Ptraci I , it is quite likely that the mask has been sold and the money spent on plumbing. Tsort : A mythical place no books have yet been set there, with the possible exception of the events portrayed in Faust Eric where Rincewind and Eric Thursley appear briefly , the Disc's analogue to ancient Troy. Its enmity with Ephebe began with the famous Tsortean War , when King Mausoleum of Tsort kidnapped Queen Eleneor of Ephebe , leading to a siege that lasted for decades.
To this day Tsort and Ephebe believe there is a place for giant wooden horses in combat. Tsort possesses a Great Pyramid, although pyramid-building has long been out of fashion and — no doubt because of the example of nearby Djelibeybi — modern Tsorteans scorn the things. Tradition claims Tsort was razed by the armies of Ephebe under Lavaeolus , and that it was home to the famed Tsortean Knot until the Knot was undone — sliced in half — by Carelinus. The people of Tsort worship all manner of gods , some of which seem to comprise all the bits the other gods had left over.
The river Tsort bisects the desert rimwards of Al Khali. Omnia is a desert theocracy ruled by the Cenobiarch, the head of the Omnian Church, from the Citadel in the capital city of Kom a sort of cross between Qum , Jerusalem and the Vatican. There is also a connection to the Latin word ' Omnis ', meaning all or everything, ironic due to the nation's unipolar outlook.
When Omnianism was an intolerant religion it was known for its imperialism , as it conquered neighbouring countries in the name of the Great God Om. After Brutha became the Cenobiarch, the country reversed directions and became the home of a renowned theological college and library.
These days it is known for the constant arguing amongst the clergy, as new interpretations of Brutha's teachings spring up every day. The currency of Omnia is the obol. Howondaland is the Discworld's principal "jungle" region. It lies on the Klatchian continent, and is the Disc's rough analogue to Sub-Saharan Africa , although the Tezumen Empire gives it Mesoamerican overtones as well. Howondaland is not so much a country as a blank patch on the map. Just as "darkest Africa" remained largely unexplored until the 19th century, "darkest Klatch" is largely unknown to most Discworlders.
Exploration of the land has been hampered by the habit of explorers ending up nailed to trees. Its name is probably a play on Gondwanaland or perhaps a play on the expression "How on earth? In some of the early Discworld novels American publications it is spelled "Howonderland. The Great Nef is a vast desert on the Klatchian continent, noted mainly for containing the Dehydrated Ocean , an ocean consisting of dehydrated water.
Dehydrated water is a peculiar substance found only in areas of high magical concentration. It resembles fine sand, but can be reconstituted into normal water by adding water. The Dehydrated Ocean is home to its own, unique, kinds of fish. The name "Nef" is a reversal of fen , a type of wetland; "Great Nef" in particular may be a reference to the Great Fen, an historical wetland area in England in the area now known as The Fens and the subject of a restoration effort known as the Great Fen Project.
Only briefly mentioned in the books, Hersheba is a small desert kingdom rimwards of Klatchian empire, practically on the more-or-less vague boundary of Howondaland. The country is said to be ruled by a queen who lives forever probably a reference to H. Rider Haggard 's She. The nomadic tribes known as the D'regs occupy areas of Hersheba as well as Klatch. Depredations against Klatch by Hersheban D'regs , against Hersheba by Klatchian D'regs, and against both sides by their own D'regs has led to the border being in a permanent state of war.
The name is a play on Hershey bar and also resembles Israeli Beersheba ; Pratchett initially suggested it as an alternative name for Djelibeybi , to aid American readers mystified by the pun. Very little is known about the Theocracy of Muntab. Its ruler is known as a Pash Lu-Tze , the History Monk , once had to make sure one of them choked on a fishbone. It is often used as a generic third-world country, as in "Eat your dinner, there are starving children in Muntab who'd be glad to have that!
Muntab is known to be eager to emerge as a dominant nation in the modern world, and is suspected to have ambitions to conquer the hubward nations, most notably Borogravia. As a result, it figures into the famous political problem, the Muntab Question — most often quoted as "Where's Muntab? Muntab is very likely one of the nations in the Alliance that Borogravia is fighting in the novel Monstrous Regiment.
Muntab's calendar counts down ; no-one really knows why, but it's probably NOT a good idea to stay there to see for oneself what happens when the count reaches zero. Nothing is known of Istanzia , although it is a state big enough to send an Ambassador to Ankh-Morpork for Commander Vimes to frighten: when in The Fifth Elephant the Istanzian forces were reported to be making repeated armed incursions across the Slipnir River, Vimes's offer to arrange for the Istanzian Ambassador to " The Tezumen Empire is a jungle civilisation in the darkest depths of Howondaland that resembles the Aztecs.
They are renowned as the most pessimistic and angst-ridden culture on the Disc; their writing is engraved on giant slabs of stone rather than more conveniently written on paper, the better to beat yourself to death against when finished. Large discs of precisely-carved stone with holes in the middle are used for almost every imaginable purpose except making wheels, a technology which they have not yet discovered.
Before the events in Eric , they worshiped the "feathered boa" Quezovercoatl , a parody of the Mesoamerican deity Quetzalcoatl , but have since tired of gods and killed all their priests. It is smaller than these other two landmasses but acts as a counterweight because its crust is made up largely of gold and octiron , both dense, heavy metals. It is roughly comma-esque in shape, and the tip of the comma extends all the way up to the ice cap at the Hub.
Its closest point to the Unnamed Continent is about 15 miles away but, as the channel is under an ice cap, it is often referred to as an isthmus. The cultures of the Counterweight Continent are a play upon those of our world's Far East, or at least Western perceptions of it. In a pun on the Orient , it is also known as the Aurient , from the Latatian Latin word 'aurum' gold , meaning 'the place where gold comes from'.
The Agatean Empire is the home of Twoflower and the Luggage. The country was first mentioned in the very first Discworld novel The Colour of Magic , but was not explored: its main role was as the place from which Twoflower had come. It appeared in a brief segment of Mort , and was the setting for most of Interesting Times. The Agatean Empire is similar to feudal Japan or Imperial China , most obviously in the vast wall that surrounds it, and the belief that anyone from outside the Empire must be an invisible vampire ghost probably a play on gwailo , lit.
The name is a pun on the term "Jade Empire," referring to ancient China. The capital of the Empire is Hunghung and the biggest port and only one mentioned is Bes Pelargic. The crust of the Agatean Empire is composed largely of gold, octiron and other heavy metals. Exchange rates between the Ankh-Morpork dollar and the Empire's currency, the rhinu, has never been established because the solid gold coins are worth significantly less on the Counterweight Continent than on the Sto Plains.
Large amounts of octiron make Agatean Empire home of the rare sapient pear trees. The wood of this tree is used to build luggages. Until fairly recently it was ruled by a number of constantly fighting and somewhat psychotic noble families the Hongs, the Sungs, the Fangs, the Tangs and the McSweeneys , all jockeying to be emperor.
They viewed politics as similar to chess ; the goal was to put one's opponent in an untenable position, and the best way to do that was to take as many opposing pieces as possible without regard to sacrificing your own pawns. As in our own feudal Japan and later imperal Japan , the Emperor was seen as a god, and could do anything he liked. Given how nastily inventive a noble had to be to get to this point, this was not a good thing. In The Colour of Magic and Mort the Emperor was an idealistic young boy; however, by Interesting Times he had been supplanted by an elderly man who was quite insane.
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During Interesting Times , Cohen the Barbarian was declared Emperor, and started changing the system into one a no-nonsense barbarian could feel comfortable with. It was felt by many of the peasantry that he was the "preincarnation" of One Sun Mirror, because Agateans believe in a form of backward reincarnation in which the soul's next life takes place chronologically earlier than its previous life. Details of his replacement are unknown, although it is implied that most of the duties of governance had already been assumed by his Grand Vizier Twoflower by the time of his intended-to-be death.
The island fulfills the role of Borneo on our world, in as much as it is large, covered in jungle, and home to the orangutan. It is also the site of the death of explorer Sir Roderick Purdeigh, after he yelled at a "native" and jabbed him with his walking stick in an attempt to make him stand up straight and say something other than "ook". Bhangbhangduc's unusual flora includes the sledgehammer plant, one of the Disc's carnivorous plants.
It appears unusual in the economics of the disc in that Bhangbhangduc uses the Silver Standard to base its money. This is unpopular in other areas who use gold which does not tarnish. Bhangbhangduc has its own distinct ethnic cuisine, encountered via Feeney Upshot's grandparents in Snuff. Examples include:. Like Australia, Fourecks is both a country and a continent. It consists largely of desert land, which for some time remained unfinished. It was created some time after the rest of the Discworld by the old man who carries the universe in a sack.
Lu-Tze and other sources state that on Fourecks time and space are very twisted up, and there is a big time source right in the middle probably the Red Rock, the Ecksian version of Uluru.
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The continent's name is a play on Castlemaine XXXX , a Queensland lager , and advertised there with adverts playing on Australian stereotypes. According to the books, maps used the label "XXXX" because no-one knew what the place was called. Both the flora and fauna of the continent are extremely dangerous, as Death's Library attests. For much of its history, the entire continent was surrounded with a huge anticyclone which effectively prevented rainclouds from arriving or ships from leaving.
This was due to interference by the wizards of Unseen University while fleeing the bug-obsessed god of evolution during the creation of Fourecks. Shortly before the permanent drought reached catastrophic proportions the anticyclone was dissipated by Rincewind, although, as usual, he received no credit.
Many Ecksians have since taken the opportunity to explore the Disc. According to Lu Tze, the relief barman everywhere now comes from Fourecks. The indigenous population are very similar to Indigenous Australians , with a strong mythology. Until recently, their main peculiarity was a tendency to attack anyone who talked about the weather. There is also a population of Ankh-Morporkian settlers, from various shipwrecks.
The capital of Fourecks is evidently Bugarup. Other known settlements are Dijabringabeeralong, Cangoolie a parody of Kalgoorlie and Worralorrasurfa. Time and space appear more consistent in these areas. An odd quirk of the Fourecksian government is that they immediately put their politicians in jail as soon as they are elected. According to the locals, "It saves time. It has a huge billboard featuring a grinning kangaroo.
I were cutting willow switches, and then I seen them in the middle of the water. But whatever it were doing, the horse were coming straight for me. Or something. He had hair red as a fox, all curly, and the bit below his shoulders were wet and dripped water onto his jerkin. It were noisy-like, snorting and blowing and grumbling. He whispered into it, and let it go. He were using magic. The orange spot that were his hair grew smaller and smaller amongst the grass and the buttercups. Plus simply priceless new poetry by K. Conlon, and Grant Stone.