Manual Bavarian Historiography in Early Medieval Salzburg

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The many lives of Saint Rupert

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One of the most important survivals from this period most of the wall was long ago demolished is the Marienplatz -- then and now the centerpiece of the city and the crossing point of the Salzstrasse Salt Route , a crossroads that is still marked on the city map. During its early days, the Marienplatz was known as the "Marketplace" or the "Grain Market. By this time, however, Munich was simply too well established to succumb to his efforts. By , a new force had arisen in Munich, the Wittelsbach family. They were part of a new generation of merchant princes, and through a shrewd imposition of military and economic power, their family patriarch, Otto von Wittelsbach, succeeded in having himself designated as the ruler of Bavaria shortly after the banishment of Henry the Lion.

Thus began the longest and most conservative reign of any dynasty in Germany. The Wittelsbachs ruled in Munich and the rest of Bavaria until the forces of socialism swept them away during the final days of World War I. Today, they are still viewed by the Bavarians with a kind of nostalgic affection. Between and , the population of Munich increased fivefold, the result of migration from the countryside and a period that was relatively free from plagues. Members of at least three religious orders established monasteries, convents, and hospitals within the city walls.

As the population grew, the city's encircling fortifications were enlarged to protect new suburbs.

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Although predominantly Catholic, the city fostered a small population of much-persecuted Jews, as well. The worst pogrom against them occurred in , when of Munich's Jews, accused of the murder of a small Catholic child, were burned alive inside their synagogue, which was, at the time, just behind the present-day location of the Neues Rathaus New Town Hall. Two years later, other groups of Jews came to Munich, but ironically, the handicaps the city imposed upon them exclusion from all trades except moneylending led to a modest, if precarious, degree of prosperity.

Pogroms were repeated throughout the rest of the Middle Ages, and in , the Jews were banished from Munich altogether. Just before the dawn of the 14th century, the artisans and merchants of Munich staged a revolt against the Wittelsbach family because of debased coins that were being issued by the dukes' mint.

A mob destroyed the mint and killed its overseer, and they were fined for it by the dukes, as punishment and for reimbursement for the loss. During the s, Munich was the richest of the several cities ruled by the Wittelsbachs. Grains, meats, fish, and wine were traded within specifically designated neighborhoods a medieval form of zoning thought to lead to greater efficiency.

The collection of tolls from the roads leading in and out of the city continued to help make their controllers in this case, the Wittelsbachs very rich. In a Wittelsbach, Duke Ludwig IV, later to be known as Ludwig the Bavarian, was elected by a tribunal of secular and ecclesiastical authorities called the Electors as the German kaiser, thanks to his status as the least threatening choice among a roster of more powerful contenders.

The election suddenly threw Munich into the center of German politics. Ludwig traveled to Rome for his coronation and brought back from his visit one of the treasured religious icons of medieval Munich -- the severed arm of St. Anthony, which still can be seen in the church of St. Anna in Lehel.

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In , one of the Wittelsbachs' most vindictive enemies, the Habsburg family in the person of Frederick the Handsome, attacked Munich and laid siege to its walls. Against expectations, the Wittelsbachs prevailed, eventually capturing the Habsburg leader and holding him prisoner. However, the pope sided with the Habsburgs and excommunicated Ludwig. Despite this serious handicap, Ludwig retained his throne. Consequences of the excommunication were enormous and were widely viewed as an example of a pope overplaying his cards.

Two hundred years later, when various German princes were forced to choose between allegiance to Rome and allegiance to the new Protestant order, the meddling of the popes in the secular affairs of Germany was widely remembered, often with disdain, a fact that played into the hands of the Protestants. To reward Munich for its loyalty and also to line his own pockets , Ludwig created a lucrative monopoly for the city in by ordering that all the salt mined within Hallein or Reichenhall must pass directly through Munich. Although Bavaria remained Catholic, and continued to be Catholic even after the Protestant Reformation, Munich had positioned itself as a centerpiece of resistance to papal authority.

Along these lines, Ludwig offered shelter to William of Occam, a brilliant scholar trained in the monasteries of both England and France and persecuted as a heretic by the pope. Occam spent his last years in Munich, striving for reform of the Catholic Church. His presence helped to define Munich as a hardheaded Catholic city that catered only reluctantly to the whims of the faraway religious potentate. While hunting bear in the Bavarian forest in , Ludwig the Bavarian was accidentally killed.

His enemies joked that he was killed "just at the right time" to escape trouble from those who wanted to overthrow or assassinate him. His unbridled ambition and his successful defiance of the pope in Rome had earned Ludwig enemies, notably some of the most powerful German princes, who were poised to overthrow him. Although he escaped battle with his powerful enemies, Ludwig's death signaled the end of Munich's role as the headquarters of the German-speaking empire.

During Ludwig's tenure, the city had experienced explosive growth, and a new wall was built in , so spacious that it encompassed the city throughout the next years. Despite a strong temptation to alter Munich's central core, the Marienplatz was never changed from its original form -- which it more or less retains today.

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Throughout the s, Munich became a boomtown. More than 28, four-wheeled carts bearing marketable goods passed through the city gates every year in addition to the vast number of two-wheeled carts and people on foot. In response to this traffic, some of the town's main avenues, narrow though they were, were paved. Between and , the city's increasingly prosperous merchant class built or altered into their present form many of the city's centerpieces, including the Ratsturm, the Altes Rathaus Old City Hall , the Frauenkirche, and St.

Peter's Church. Munich had graduated from a dependence on the salt trade, and was now reaping most of its profits from trade with Italy, especially Venice. Kesselberg to speed up trade routes to the "Queen of the Adriatic. By , Munich had a population of almost 14, persons, of whom were beggars, and of whom were priests, nuns, or monks. It also included about three dozen brewers whose products were quickly becoming associated with the town.

Bavarian Historiography in Early Medieval Salzburg | D&R - Kültür, Sanat ve Eğlence Dünyası

Pigs were engaged to eat the garbage strewn in the streets, and about two dozen innkeepers supplied food, drink, and lodgings to the medieval equivalent of the business traveler. The city's core but not the surrounding fields that kept it fed was protected from invasion by an ever-expanding ring of fortifications and towers.

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The most serious dangers were plagues and fires, both of which devastated the city at periodic intervals. In , the city adopted legislation that later helped confirm its role as beer capital of the world. Known as the Bavarian Beer Purity Law, it was the first law in Europe to regulate the production of any food or beverage by setting minimum standards for quality and cleanliness in production. The showy and sometimes pompous building boom associated with the Counter-Reformation marked the debut of the Renaissance in Munich.

The lavish building programs as well as the entertainments of the Wittelsbach rulers became legendary, both for their grandeur and extravagance some feasts lasted for 3 weeks and for the burdens they imposed on the citizenry who had to pay for them. Munich blossomed with the appearance of Michaelskirche St. Michael's Church , begun in The largest Renaissance-style church north of the Alps, it was conceived as a German-speaking response to St. Peter's Basilica in Rome. It took 14 frenetic years to build, and its construction costs almost bankrupted the Bavarian treasury.

One of the best options is on a private tour of the ice caves, waterfalls, and salt mines from Salzburg. In addition to including tours of three of the top-rated tourist sites in Werfen — the massive Eisriesenwelt ice caves, the meter-tall Golling waterfalls, and the historic Salzwelten salt mines — you'll have a personal English-language guide, as well as transportation to and from your hotel. Other highlights of these nine-hour adventures include a stop at famous Hohenwerfen Castle and a cable car ride.

Official site: www. Although a three-hour drive east of Salzburg or 2. Long the seat of the Austro-Hungarian Habsburg monarchy, Vienna offers memorable attractions such as the spectacular Hofburg Palace , home to every Austrian ruler and now the country's President since Covering nearly 60 acres in the heart of the city and boasting an impressive 19 courtyards and 2, rooms, the palace features highlights such as the Sisi Museum and the Imperial Apartments, with their fine collections of furniture, personal artifacts, and artworks.

Another Vienna must-see is the famous Spanish Riding School , home to the country's magnificent Lipizzaner horses since tickets for demonstrations and events sell out far in advance, so be sure to book early. Founded in , the ambience of this superb "food palace" doesn't fail to impress nor do its wonderful strudels and decadent cream-filled pastries.

An easy and extremely scenic minute drive south of Salzburg through the Bavarian Alps and into Germany, the Obersalzberg makes for a wonderful outing. This WWII-era community in the district of Berchtesgaden was once favored by the leaders of the Nazi party and is where you'll find the infamous Eagle's Nest, Hitler's favorite place of rest and relaxation. Little is left of the original structures built to house the Nazi elite, and the Obersalzberg's notorious past, but historians and war-buffs will find it fascinating.

In addition, some of the top things to do involve hiking and enjoying the magnificent views of the beautiful Bavarian Alps.

Land sales in eighth‐ and ninth‐century Bavaria: legal, economic and social aspects

If you enjoy letting others do the work while you're on vacation, consider visiting the area by participating in the fascinating Eagles Nest in Berchtesgaden Tour from Salzburg. Included in this half-day experience is transportation along the scenic route to Eagle's Nest, a dedicated guide, as well as priority admission. Another reason to visit is the splendid year-old salt mine at the base of the Obersalzberg. Now a popular museum and visitor attraction, Salt Mine Berchtesgaden takes you deep under the mountain through numerous caverns and grottos and includes a ride on a refurbished underground railway, a raft ride, and a fun slide.

The area's walking trails are also lovely and offer a great opportunity to view diverse flora, including native orchids. Named after its nearby salt mine, Hallstatt is home to a number of attractions worth visiting. A great way to see the highlights of this beautiful region of Austria is to join the popular five-hour Hallstatt Tour from Salzburg.

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Highlights include a visit to the spectacular Muhlbach Waterfall, a cable car ride to the meter-tall Hallstatt World Heritage Skywalk optional , the Hallstatt Ossuary with its unusual collection of more than 1, human skulls, along with endless great photo opportunities on your way to and from Halstatt. In addition to the services of an English-speaking guide and transportation, you'll also have 2. A pleasant two-hour train or car ride southwest of Salzburg, the former Winter Olympic city of Innsbruck is well worth exploring.

Idyllically located in the wide Inn Valley, Innsbruck has long been one of Austria's most visited tourist destinations, whatever the season. Much of the city's popularity is undoubtedly due to its distinctive medieval architecture, most notably in the pedestrian-friendly Old Town Innsbruck, with its wonderful-to-wander narrow, twisting streets and lovely old buildings, including the Helblinghaus, with its fine decorative ornamentation. Another must-see architectural highlight, and perhaps the city's most iconic piece of architecture, is the famous Golden Roof Goldenes Dachl , built in and made up of 2, gilded copper tiles.

Other buildings of note include Innsbruck Cathedral Innsbruck Dom , with its imposing twin-towers and magnificent ceiling paintings, and the spectacular Hofkirche, built in and home to the Tomb and Museum of Emperor Maximilian I. And, of course, no trip to Innsbruck would be complete without spending a little time admiring the views from the many mountains surrounding the city, the highest of which is the 2,meter Saile and the Serles group, along with the 2,meter Patscherkofel, where some of the country's best skiing lies.

Accommodation: Where to Stay in Innsbruck. Perched on a long ridge of hills, this picturesque medieval town is a treat to explore, with its narrow streets and centuries-old gabled houses. Getting to the top is surprisingly easy, thanks to the many chairlifts and cable cars available. It's a journey that's well worth the effort — the views of the surrounding countryside are wonderful, as are the many excellent walking trails leading back down, and even if you only go part of the way, it's a worthwhile experience.

A pleasant minute drive northeast of Salzburg, Linz is located on the banks of the mighty Danube River. Linz can trace its roots back to Roman times, when in the 2nd century AD, it served as a camp for the empire's troops. Today, lovely Linz is famed for its many museums and cultural activities, with numerous attractions and festivals focusing on such luminaries as Mozart and Bruckner , both of whom once called the city home. One of the city's most famous landmarks is majestic Linz Castle Linz Schloss.

Standing high above the Danube, this historic site has acted as a fort since the early 9th century the original walls can still be seen , with much of the present structure built in the 16th century. History buffs will also want to wander through the Schlossmuseum, with its artwork and displays of artifacts from the prehistoric, Roman, and medieval periods, including arms and armor. In addition to its splendid cathedral, Linz is home to the country's oldest church, St.