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Date created:. The author has placed restrictions on the PDF copy of this thesis. The PDF is not printable nor copyable. If you would like the SFU Library to attempt to contact the author to get permission to print a copy, please email your request to summit-permissions sfu. Document type:. Copyright remains with the author. File s :. Thesis type:. She based it on sacred Sioux ritual, which the federal government prohibited the Ute from performing on the reservation. It was the first opera to be co-authored by a Native American.
She continued to write during the following years, but she did not publish. These unpublished writings, along with others including the libretto of the Sun Dance Opera ,  were collected and published posthumously in as Dreams and Thunder: Stories, Poems, and the Sun Dance Opera , edited by P. Jane Hafen. Some recounted stories of people she knew or taught, in addition to her own personal story.
She countered the contemporary trend that suggested Native Americans readily adopted and conformed to the Christianity forced on them in schools and public life.
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Much of her work is characterized by its liminal nature: tensions between tradition and assimilation, and between literature and politics. These tensions are expressed particularly in her autobiographical works. In her well-known American Indian Stories, for example, she both expresses a literary account of her life and delivers a political message.
The narrative expresses her tension between wanting to follow the traditions of the Yankton Dakota while being excited about learning to read and write, and being tempted by assimilation. This tension has been described as generating much of the dynamism of her work. The second period was from to She and her husband had moved to Washington, D. She published some of her most influential writings, including American Indian Stories , with the Hayworth Publishing House.
Christian Biography & Memoir
Sniffen of the Indian Rights Association. The autobiographical writings described her early life on the Yankton Reservation, her years as a student at White's Manual Labor Institute and Earlham College, and her period teaching at Carlisle Indian Industrial School. Her autobiography contrasted the charm of her early life on the reservation with the "iron routine" which she found in the assimilation boarding schools. But, however tempestuous this is within me, it comes out as the low voice of a curiously colored seashell, which is only for those ears that are bent with compassion to hear it.
The work influenced Congress to pass the Indian Reorganization Act of , which encouraged tribes to re-establish self-government, including management of their lands. Under this act, the government returned some lands to them as communal property, which it had previously classified as surplus, so they could put together parcels that could be managed. From to she served as editor for the magazine, as well as contributing numerous articles.
Many of her political writings have since been criticized for favoring assimilation. She called for recognition of Native American culture and traditions, while also advocating US citizenship rights to bring Native Americans into mainstream America. She believed this was how they could gain political power and protect their cultures. Hanson , who taught at Brigham Young University. She wrote the libretto and songs.
Crazy Horse - Wikipedia
She also played Sioux melodies on the violin, and Hanson used this as the basis of his music composition. It was significant for adapting the Native American oral musical tradition to a written one. Its debut was met with critical acclaim. Few works of Native American opera since have dealt so exclusively with Native American themes.
Its publicity credited only William F. Hanson as composer. He was on his horse in that world, and the horse and himself on it and the trees and the grass and the stones and everything were made of spirit, and nothing was hard, and everything seemed to float. His horse was standing still there, and yet it danced around like a horse made only of shadow, and that is how he got his name, which does not mean that his horse was crazy or wild, but that in his vision it danced around in that queer way.
It was this vision that gave him his great power, for when he went into a fight, he had only to think of that world to be in it again, so that he could go through anything and not be hurt.
Spirit Car: Journey to a Dakota Past
Until he was killed at the Soldiers' Town on White River, he was wounded only twice, once by accident and both times by some one of his own people when he was not expecting trouble and was not thinking; never by an enemy. Crazy Horse received a black stone from a medicine man named Horn Chips to protect his horse, a black-and-white pinto he named Inyan rock or stone.
He placed the stone behind the horse's ear so that the medicine from his vision quest and Horn Chips would combine—he and his horse would be one in battle. In addition, "Horn Chips" is not the correct name of this medicine man, though it has become a repeated error since its first publication in His Lakota name was Woptura and he was given the name "Chips" by the government, and was referred to as Old Man Chips.
Horn Chips was one of his sons, who was also known as Charles Chips. Crazy Horse was known to have a personality characterized by aloofness, shyness, modesty and lonesomeness. He was generous to the poor, the elderly, and children. In his own teepee he would joke, and when he was on the warpath with a small party, he would joke to make his warriors feel good. But around the village he hardly ever noticed anybody, except little children.
All the Lakotas like to dance and sing; but he never joined a dance, and they say nobody ever heard him sing.
But everybody liked him, and they would do anything he wanted or go anywhere he said. Through the late s and early s, Crazy Horse's reputation as a warrior grew, as did his fame among the Lakota. The Lakota told accounts of him in their oral histories. His first kill was a Shoshone raider who had murdered a Lakota woman washing buffalo meat along the Powder River. William Fetterman 's 53 infantrymen and 27 cavalry troopers under Lt. Grummond into an ambush.
They had been sent out from Fort Phil Kearny to follow up on an earlier attack on a wood train. Crazy Horse lured Fetterman's infantry up a hill. Grummond's cavalry followed the other six decoys along Peno Head Ridge and down toward Peno Creek, where several Cheyenne women taunted the soldiers. Meanwhile, Cheyenne leader Little Wolf and his warriors, who had been hiding on the opposite side of Peno Head Ridge, blocked the return route to the fort.
The Lakota warriors swept over the hill and attacked the infantry. Additional Cheyenne and Lakota hiding in the buckbrush along Peno Creek effectively surrounded the soldiers. Seeing that they were surrounded, Grummond headed his cavalry back to Fetterman. The combined warrior forces of nearly 1, killed all the US soldiers in what became known at the time to the white population as the Fetterman Massacre.
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Lakota forces numbering between and attacked a wood-cutting crew near the fort. Most of the soldiers fled to a circle of wagon boxes without wheels, using them for cover as they fired at the Lakota. The Lakota took substantial losses, as the soldiers were firing new breech-loading rifles. These could fire ten times a minute compared to the old muzzle-loading rate of three times a minute.
The Lakota charged after the soldiers fired the first time, expecting the delay of their older muskets before being able to fire again. The soldiers suffered only five killed and two wounded while the Lakota suffered between 50 and casualties. She did so by moving in with relatives or with another man, or by placing the husband's belongings outside their lodge. Although some compensation might be required to smooth over hurt feelings, the rejected husband was expected to accept his wife's decision.
When he found them in a teepee , he called Crazy Horse's name from outside. Touch the Clouds , Crazy Horse's first cousin and son of Lone Horn , was sitting in the teepee nearest the entry. He knocked the pistol upward as No Water fired, deflecting the bullet to Crazy Horse's upper jaw. No Water left, with Crazy Horse's relatives in hot pursuit. No Water ran his horse until it died and continued on foot until he reached the safety of his own village. Several elders convinced Crazy Horse and No Water that no more blood should be shed. As compensation for the shooting, No Water gave Crazy Horse three horses.
Because Crazy Horse was with a married woman, he was stripped of his title as Shirt Wearer leader. The elders sent her to heal Crazy Horse after his altercation with No Water. Crazy Horse and Black Shawl Woman were married in Black Shawl outlived Crazy Horse. She died in during the influenza outbreaks of the s. Interpreter William Garnett described Larrabee as "a half-blood, not of the best frontier variety, an invidious and evil woman".
Garnett's first-hand account of Crazy Horse's surrender alludes to Larrabee as the "half blood woman" who caused Crazy Horse to fall into a "domestic trap which insensibly led him by gradual steps to his destruction. On June 17, , Crazy Horse led a combined group of approximately 1, Lakota and Cheyenne in a surprise attack against brevetted Brigadier General George Crook 's force of 1, cavalry and infantry , and allied Crow and Shoshone warriors in the Battle of the Rosebud.
The battle, although not substantial in terms of human losses, delayed Crook's joining with the 7th Cavalry under George A. Crazy Horse's actions during the battle are unknown. Hunkpapa warriors led by Chief Gall led the main body of the attack. Crazy Horse's tactical and leadership role in the battle remains ambiguous. While some historians think that Crazy Horse led a flanking assault, ensuring the death of Custer and his men, the only proven fact is that Crazy Horse was a major participant in the battle.
His personal courage was attested to by several eye-witness Indian accounts. Water Man, one of only five Arapaho warriors who fought, said Crazy Horse "was the bravest man I ever saw. He rode closest to the soldiers, yelling to his warriors. All the soldiers were shooting at him, but he was never hit.
Another Planet: A Teenager in Suburbia by Tracey Thorn – review
Today is a good day to die! The earliest published reference is from , in which the phrase is attributed to Low Dog. The soldiers killed American Horse and much of his family after they holed up in a cave for several hours. His people struggled through the winter, weakened by hunger and the long cold. Crazy Horse decided to surrender with his band to protect them, and went to Fort Robinson in Nebraska. The Last Sun Dance of is significant in Lakota history as the Sun Dance held to honor Crazy Horse one year after the victory at the Battle of the Little Big Horn , and to offer prayers for him in the trying times ahead.
Crazy Horse attended the Sun Dance as the honored guest but did not take part in the dancing. Clark as the first step in their formal surrender. The attention that Crazy Horse received from the Army drew the jealousy of Red Cloud and Spotted Tail , two Lakota who had long before come to the agencies and adopted the white ways.
Rumors of Crazy Horse's desire to slip away and return to the old ways of life started to spread at the Red Cloud and Spotted Tail agencies. In August , officers at Camp Robinson received word that the Nez Perce of Chief Joseph had broken out of their reservation in Idaho and were fleeing north through Montana toward Canada. When asked by Lieutenant Clark to join the Army against the Nez Perce, Crazy Horse and the Miniconjou leader Touch the Clouds objected, saying that they had promised to remain at peace when they surrendered. According to one version of events, Crazy Horse finally agreed, saying that he would fight "till all the Nez Perce were killed.
Cavalry scout during the summer of Grouard reported that Crazy Horse had said that he would "go north and fight until not a white man is left. A council of the Oglala leadership was called, then canceled, when Crook was incorrectly informed that Crazy Horse had said the previous evening that he intended to kill the general during the proceedings.
Bradley , to carry out his order. Additional troops were brought in from Fort Laramie. On the morning of September 4, , two columns moved against Crazy Horse's village, only to find that it had scattered during the night. Crazy Horse had fled to the nearby Spotted Tail Agency with his wife, who had become ill with tuberculosis. Lee, the Indian agent at Spotted Tail. Arriving that evening outside the adjutant's office, Lieutenant Lee was informed that he was to turn Crazy Horse over to the Officer of the Day.
Lee protested and hurried to Bradley's quarters to debate the issue, but without success. Bradley had received orders that Crazy Horse was to be arrested and taken under the cover of darkness to Division Headquarters.