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In a long diary entry of 20 March , Schumann expressed a desire to leave Vienna within a fortnight. Hoffmann, when the work appeared as op. Schumann left Vienna on 4 April , but when he arrived in Zwickau on 9 April, Eduard had already been dead for three days. Works in the larger forms appear side-by-side with character-pieces and cycles of miniatures. Most striking, however, is the tendency to conflate larger and smaller forms and a resultant dialectic between accessibility and esotericism.

After failing to reach an agreement with Wieck in late June, and acting on the counsel of the lawyer Wilhelm Einert, Schumann submitted his petition to the Leipzig court on 16 July. On 19 August he and Clara met for the first time for nearly a year in the Leipzig suburb of Altenburg and later went to Zwickau, where they celebrated their reunion with extended sessions of four-hand piano playing. Back in Leipzig by the end of the month, they met 31 August Archdeacon R.

Fischer, the court-appointed mediator in their lawsuit, but were dismayed to find that Wieck, claiming urgent business in Dresden, had cancelled the appointment at the last moment. When Wieck failed to appear at the hearing this time without even proffering an excuse , the court set a new date for 18 December. The lull in the legal proceedings afforded Schumann time to give thought to composition after a lengthy hiatus.

The Drei Romanzen op. Threatening to sue Wieck for slander, Schumann responded on 13 February with a written refutation. By now a master of postponement, Wieck managed to stretch from six weeks to six months the period granted him to prove that Schumann over-indulged in drink. Although confident he would ultimately prevail, Schumann sought to strengthen his hand against Wieck by inquiring, through his friend Gustav Keferstein, about the possibility of obtaining the doctorate at the University of Jena.

In early February he offered to demonstrate his scholarly aptitude by undertaking a long essay on the significance of music in Shakespearean drama, an exercise that proved unnecessary. After sending the university officials a curriculum vitae , representative articles from the Neue Zeitschrift and testimonials to his musical skills, he received the doctoral diploma from Jena on 28 February Indeed, by January he had completed about lieder, well over half his output in the genre.

A letter to Kistner of 18 February indicates that he was also contemplating an opera. Having returned to Leipzig on 1 May, Schumann again immersed himself in vocal composition. Certain of victory, Schumann and Clara began their search for an apartment the following day, and before a week had elapsed Schumann was again immersed in the composition of lieder. Although he started a cycle on texts by Robert Reinick Sechs Gedichte op. With the posting of the banns on 16 and 30 August, the way was clear for the wedding to take place. Although Schumann completed a few songs during the month of August, he devoted most of his energies to preparations for the forthcoming marriage ceremony.

The simple ceremony was conducted by Pastor C. As a rule, Clara kept up her side of the exchange better than her husband, with entries richer in detail and more pointed in their assessments than his.

To judge from the diary, they rapidly settled into Biedermeier cosiness. Though plans for a tour of Russia were put off because of a volatile political situation and an unwillingness to compete with Liszt, Clara made renewed requests in October and November for Schumann to accompany her on projected tours to Belgium, the Netherlands and Denmark.

While Schumann understandably composed little in the weeks after his wedding, he resumed creative work in early October with a set of three vocal duets op. Seidl op. Late in the same month he turned to the poetry of Kerner for the first time in over a decade and completed 14 settings by late December. Clara also made significant contributions to the song literature at this time. His turn to what was probably the most marketable of musical genres and the concomitant search for a more easily understandable style no doubt reflected his desire to attain the financial stability Wieck accused him of lacking.

In addition, the lieder of , like many of the earlier piano pieces, were closely interwoven with his feelings for Clara. Finally, in the lied Schumann would have found an ideal means of fulfilling his longstanding quest for a synthesis of music and poetry. Construed as more than a singable melody supported by a decorative accompaniment, the lied unites voice and piano as equal partners in a shared discourse.

The songs of the Liederjahr more than meet these standards. Schumann struck a balance between apparent naivety and refinement at all levels, perhaps most obviously as regards melody, but no less notably in the realm of form. In Der Nussbaum Myrthen op. While about half his chosen texts can be classified as lyric in the strict sense of the term, the remainder divide almost evenly into narrative and dramatic types. The topical range is equally broad, encompassing love in all its nuances, patriotism, wandering, death, isolation and even madness. In some of the collections, folk- and drinking-songs appear side by side with lullabies, visions and depictions of festive scenes.

Tonal and motivic relationships are also coordinated with textual factors. The motion from D to F over the course of the Reinick Sechs Gedichte , for instance, reinforces a thematic shift in the poems from reality to dream world. Motivic recall and transformation are deftly aligned with poetic content in the Eichendorff Liederkreis second version , where a compact but expressive figure first introduced in the accompaniment of the opening song In der Fremde becomes an emblem for yearning, removal in time and space, and finally for an ecstatic union with nature.

The restatement of entire melodies over broad expanses, often a function of the piano part, may call up reveries of bygone days Frauenliebe und -leben or add a consoling touch to texts that would have otherwise ended on a bitter note Dichterliebe , Kerner cycle. In all of these cases, the technique of melodic recurrence underlines the power of memory itself, the theme through which Schumann confirms his role as musical poet. Although there is no evidence that he made a conscious decision to pursue this course at a specific moment in his career, his orderly exploration of genres probably answered to both artistic and psychological imperatives.

By he had already attempted a similar undertaking, though its products were often incomplete piano concerto in F, symphony in G minor , or remained at the level of preliminary planning the Hamlet opera. While keyboard music dominated between and , it is important to recognize the variety of this repertory, where essays in the larger forms give way to a concentration on the miniature.

Moreover, both sub-genres, the large and the small, are conflated in such works as the C major Fantasie and the Novelletten. Like his poetic cycles for keyboard, his song cycles may be viewed as constellations of lyric fragments. The symphonic works of make both overt and covert allusions to the earlier songs and piano pieces. In the oratorio Das Paradies und die Peri , he drew on his previous experience as a composer of vocal and orchestral music. Indeed, it was often in the transformation of one genre into another that he best displayed his mastery.

Kennst du das Land , the first of the Wilhelm Meister songs op. The identity of the C minor symphony to which Schumann alluded in entries of 21—2 January in the Haushaltbuch is still a matter of controversy. This notwithstanding, he had indisputably embarked on the activity that would claim his attention for the better part of the ensuing year. Revisions of the first movement, scherzo and finale followed in June and August. With the First Symphony, he thus established a pattern of rapid sketching, textural elaboration and revision often in reaction to a trial performance that he was to employ in many of his subsequent works in the larger forms.

His next symphonic composition was sketched and scored in April and May. While still occupied with the first version of the finale in May , he drafted a Phantasie in A minor for piano and orchestra, which, with the addition of a slow movement and rondo finale a little over four years later, became the Piano Concerto op. While the sketching process had come to an end by mid-June, the work did not achieve provisional completion until October.

In the meantime, the Schumanns were caught up in a number of activities great and small. Early in July they enjoyed a holiday in the environs of Dresden. On 1 September, soon before her 22nd birthday, Clara gave birth to their first child, a daughter, named Marie. Late in the same month, Schumann sketched yet another symphony, this one in C minor. While the continuity draft was not fully elaborated for orchestra, the music for the scherzo was later reworked as no.

Unable at first to interest a publisher in the symphony, he revised it extensively in December , issuing it two years later as his Fourth Symphony op. The grandeur of the First Symphony gives way in the Overture, Scherzo and Finale to a more compact design and an elfin orchestration redolent of Weber. To judge from the sketches for the C minor Symphony, the finished product would probably have been deliberately Classical in style.

Faced with the problem of developing lyrical material into the dynamic forms expected of every post-Beethovenian symphonist, Schumann naturally turned to Schubert as a model. But even in the First Symphony, the most derivative of his mature orchestral works, he managed to forge convincing alternatives to the strategies of his predecessors. A prime means of achieving coherence on the large scale, the technique of inter-movement thematic recall figures prominently in the works of the symphonic year, though Schumann was equally anxious to circumvent the monotony that might result from the over-use of a limited number of ideas.

In the First Symphony, the concluding trombone chorale of the slow movement prefigures the main theme of the following scherzo in a gesture that provides both continuity and variety. Although the A minor Phantasie owes much to the rhetoric of sonata form, its various sections, each articulated by a change in tempo and each presenting related motifs in an ever-changing light, are close to the fast—slow—fast disposition of a typical concerto.

A third quartet in A, op. Thus in less than a year he had completed a comprehensive survey of the instrumental chamber idiom with a series of works varied in both scope and character. As a critic, Schumann made two principal demands of the prospective composer of string quartets.

His fugal studies of March and April aided the creation of contrapuntally integrated string quartets where every member of the ensemble is accorded a crucial strand in the total discourse. Similarly, his immersion in the quartets of the Viennese Classical tradition left a definite imprint on his treatment of sonata form. It is important to remember that Schumann, like Mendelssohn, reached artistic maturity during a period in which chamber music came to occupy an intermediary position between private entertainment and public display.

Apart from its surface similarities with the Piano Quintet, the Piano Quartet projects an exuberant character through musical materials of a decidedly neo-classical stamp. In addition, the mediation of esoteric and popular styles in these works prefigures an important trait of the Hausmusik of the late s. Between late January and early March , musical life in Leipzig was considerably enlivened by the presence of Berlioz. Although the text was essentially complete by January , Schumann left it untouched until February By 16 June Schumann had brought the work to provisional completion, although he returned to it for polishing and revision in July and September.

The public acclaim Schumann garnered as a consequence of these events may have caused Wieck to send his son-in-law a formal letter of reconciliation dated 16 December. The Peri lives up to this epithet on several counts. In the first place, the work effects a fusion of the sacred and secular realms, with the semi-human, semi-divine Peri herself providing an emblem for the 19th-century artist. A delicate web of melodic recurrences contributes to the same end.

The upheavals of the following years delayed the realization of this plan, but when, in the later s, Schumann did fulfil his longstanding desire to compose dramatic music, he returned to a poetic theme first represented musically in the Peri , the notion of redemption. In December Schumann reluctantly agreed to embark on a concert tour of Russia with Clara.

In some respects the tour was a success. During their first visit to St Petersburg, the Schumanns met the leading figures on the Russian musical scene, including Glinka and Anton Rubinstein, and developed a warm rapport with the art-loving aristocrat Mateusz Wielhorski, a talented cellist, and his brother Michal, an amateur composer. Elected an honorary member of the St Petersburg Philharmonic Society, and granted an audience with the imperial family if only after a tiresome and humiliating series of political machinations , Clara succeeded in consolidating her reputation as an international artist.

In contrast, for Schumann the artistic results of the Russian tour were decidedly meagre. However, by the end of the Russian tour Schumann was in a physically and psychologically precarious condition. An eyewitness account of his behaviour in St Petersburg presents him as depressed, preoccupied and incommunicative. Attacks of dizziness that impaired his sight caused him to seek medical advice in Moscow.

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At the same time, he made an effort to devote himself wholly to composing. Indeed, his discontinuation of the marriage diary and his decision, in early June, to sell the Neue Zeitschrift should be viewed in this light. Nor did his condition improve during a brief holiday in the Harz mountains 10—18 September. Their ultimate decision to move to the Saxon capital was motivated by several factors.

Passed over in favour of Niels Gade in his pursuit of the directorship of the Gewandhaus concerts, Schumann held out few hopes of advancing his career in Leipzig. Further, the many spas in the area would allow him to continue the hydrotherapeutic treatment he had tried, with some success, in late August.

Nonetheless, by December Schumann had abandoned his earlier plans for a Faust opera. Schumann began to recover from his depression in late January Concurrently he studied counterpoint, along with Clara, who soon produced a series of preludes and fugues on themes by her husband and J. Intrigued by the pedal piano he had initially rented in order to master the fundamentals of organ technique, he composed two sets of pieces for this unusual instrument alternatively for piano, three to four hands , between April and June: four Skizzen op.

After completing the Studien , Schumann brought his contrapuntal projects to a temporary halt. Having had no success in placing the A minor Phantasie for piano and orchestra with a publisher, he attempted to enhance its marketability by adding a slow movement and finale composed in reverse order from 14 June to 16 July. While finishing the concerto in July, Schumann received an invitation to the Beethoven festival on 10—12 August in Bonn.

On returning home in mid-August, Schumann met regularly with Hiller, Wieck and Julius Becker regarding a projected series of orchestral concerts in Dresden, and by September he felt well enough to resume his work on the B—A—C—H fugues, all six of which were drafted by November. In the meantime he subjected the last movement of the Overture, Scherzo and Finale to extensive revision.

Soon after Christmas he had nearly finished sketching the work that was to be published as his Second Symphony in C major op. Beginning in late January , Schumann composed a series of choral partsongs, several on texts by Burns, that were subsequently issued in two volumes opp. Soon after the birth of a son, Emil, on 8 February, he turned to the elaboration of the symphonic sketches, a process that occupied him intermittently for almost a year. His tortuously slow progress on the symphony — indeed, the near cessation of his creative work in the spring and early summer — can be attributed to recurrent bouts of illness, the chief symptoms of which included dizziness, auditory disturbances and general malaise.

Only between September and October did Schumann manage to make significant headway on the orchestration of the C major Symphony. To put it succinctly, the linear development of a single motif often recedes in favour of the simultaneous development of motivic combinations. Like the D minor Symphony of , the Second Symphony coheres by virtue of a web of recurrent thematic strands. After a week in Dresden they went to Berlin, where the Singakademie planned to perform Das Paradies und die Peri on 17 February, and remained there until late March.

The Viennese leg of the tour was hardly a success. The performance of the Peri in Berlin, with Schumann conducting, met with a positive response in spite of difficulties with the Singakademie directors Eduard Grell and K. Rungenhagen , frustrating episodes with ill-prepared vocal soloists and technical mishaps at the performance itself. Apart from these annoyances, the tour provided Schumann with an opportunity to immerse himself in opera.

Indeed, he remained in generally good health throughout much of the ensuing year despite its tragic events. In the meantime, however, he suffered another tragic loss when Mendelssohn died on 4 November Shortly after returning from the funeral ceremony in Leipzig, he made preliminary notes for a memoir. In November he also began to give composition lessons to the young Karl Ritter. Schumann composed little in , but was rich in creative activity. The orchestration of the closing scene of the second part of Faust was completed in April. At about the same time he prepared a four-hand piano arrangement of the Finale from op.

Clara assumed a central role in preparing a vocal score of the Faust setting, for which Schumann composed an alternative final chorus between May and July. In May and June he completed Beim Abschied zu singen for chorus and wind op. Though conceived as a pair, they differ markedly in tone, the sunny quality of the second with its allusion to Dein Bildnis wunderselig op. Within days Schumann sketched an overture, drafted a scenario and engaged Robert Reinick as librettist. Schumann therefore assumed responsibility for the libretto, on which he worked sporadically from May to December.

With the text nearly complete, Schumann elaborated the sketches for the overture between 17 and 26 December. He then sketched and orchestrated the four acts in turn, the entire process occupying him until August Meanwhile the Schumann household reacted with joy and awe to a series of personal and public events. A second son, Ludwig, was born on 20 January. Finding a performance venue for Genoveva , however, proved an immensely frustrating task. The intrigues of C. By September he had also completed a Lehrbuch der Fugenkomposition consisting of excerpts from the treatises of Marpurg and Cherubini amplified with his own glosses.

In mid-October he returned to Manfred , sketching and scoring its imposing overture by the end of the month and completing the music for the body of the drama by 23 November. The affinity among these three works is further confirmed by their varied but related musical embodiments of the theme of redemption.

If the music for Genoveva is characterized less by a family of recurrent motifs than by a sumptuous lyric tone, it is because she is the agent through whom the play of mourning is transformed into a hagiographic drama of redemption. In keeping with his desire to place this text in the sharpest relief, Schumann relied extensively on melodrama, the conjunction of unadorned though sometimes rhythmed speech and illustrative instrumental music.

In contrast, the spirit of church music prevails in the passages for the Blessed Boys and in the stile antico opening of the final Chorus mysticus. Indeed, in alone Schumann completed nearly 40 works, many of them sizable. He further supplemented his earnings, beginning in November , by giving private instruction to Heinrich Richter. The productive phase reaching into the early part of also proved to be a period of physical and psychological well-being. While Schumann had concentrated on dramatic music for much of , his focus shifted towards the end of the year. In November and December, just after finishing the music for Manfred , he drafted the Adventlied op.

While completing this work, he began a set of pieces for piano four hands, Bilder aus Osten op. The Waldscenen op. Later that month he completed several works conceived for the participants in his Chorverein which by then had grown to include between 60 and 70 members — most of them later issued as Romanzen und Balladen for mixed chorus opp.

Two days later a republican security brigade attempted to draft Schumann into its ranks but he, Clara, and their eldest daughter, Marie, fled through the back gate of their home to the nearby railway station. Travelling part of the way alone and on foot, Clara who was pregnant returned to Dresden on 7 May to fetch the rest of the children Elise, Julie and Ludwig , who had been left with a maid.

The royalists recaptured the city on 9 May, and the next day Schumann and Clara ventured back into Dresden to collect some of their belongings. Schumann closely followed the news of the revolution, spent many afternoons on long hikes with his children and continued composing with remarkable fluency, apparently unruffled by the outer tumult. If the lighthearted tone of many of these pieces seems strangely at odds with the shocking world events surrounding their composition, the four marches for piano, op. Another son, Ferdinand, was born on 16 July.

By the end of the year, Schumann had completed a diverse array of vocal and instrumental works: Vier Duette op. Sketched in December and January , the Neujahrslied op. For some time Schumann had been hoping to obtain a salaried post. In July he expressed an interest in the recently vacated directorship of the Gewandhaus concerts. On 18 May the Schumanns again went to Leipzig for the long-awaited rehearsals and production of Genoveva. Although the performances of 28 and 30 June were more assured, Schumann did not achieve the triumph he had hoped for.

In June he also participated in discussions regarding the newly formed Bach-Gesellschaft. This second Liederjahr ended with Sechs Gedichte von N. Lenau und Requiem op. On 25 August, when the cycle was first performed for a private gathering at the home of his friend Eduard Bendemann, Schumann learnt that the poet had in fact died on 22 August in an asylum near Vienna. It would be a mistake to search for a single, dominant trend in all this variety. The convivial side manifests itself most clearly in the folkish melodies, straightforward but elegant harmonies and syllabic settings typical of the choral partsongs.

Similarly, the euphonious parallel 3rds and 6ths of the vocal chamber music and the ensembles in the Liederspiel a nearly moribund genre that Schumann essentially brought to life convert the personalized messages of lyric poetry into collective utterances. In his Hausmusik for keyboard, for solo voice and piano, or for instrumental ensemble, the educational aspect of the Biedermeier sensibility comes into prominence.

Through an allusion to Dein Bildnis wunderselig op. While Schumann somewhat modified the Goethean original in nos. Tonal coherence is ensured by the use of D minor and its relative major at crucial junctures. A recurrent melodic idea bearing an uncanny resemblance to one of the motifs linked with Margaretha in Genoveva becomes a musical emblem for Mephistophelean trickery, gnawing guilt and mystical yearning. At the same time, the score is noteworthy for its employment of a range of vocal and instrumental styles, ranging from the conversational idiom of the garden scene no.

Similarly, the music evokes a variety of genres across the span of the work: lied no. Though he complained of rheumatism in his foot after the family moved into lodgings on the corner of Allee- and Grabenstrassen, Schumann was soon caught up in the discharge of his new duties. As municipal music director, he was in charge of the orchestra and chorus Gesangverein of the Allgemeiner Musikverein, which presented from eight to ten subscription concerts annually in seasons extending from October to May.

The magnificent cathedral of Cologne, which he first beheld in late September, is supposed to have inspired the symphonic project he undertook between 2 November and 9 December. Since this title was rejected by the publisher F. At the turn of the year Schumann took up orchestral composition with the overture op.

By this time, then, his creativity had fallen into a pattern whereby larger compositions intended for public performance alternated with more easily marketable works in the smaller genres. In early February Schumann drafted the scenario for an oratorio called Luther , and enlisted Richard Pohl as a collaborator. Work on both compositions proceeded more or less concurrently into the late spring and early summer. Ballscenen op.

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On 6 July the Schumanns celebrated the move to their new lodgings on the Kastanienallee with a performance of Der Rose Pilgerfahrt with a hand-picked group of singers from the Gesangverein. Between 19 July and 5 August they were travelling along the Rhine and in Switzerland, enjoying a holiday that Schumann would remember as one of the most idyllic experiences of his married life.

Wortmann a leading member of the administration of the Allgemeiner Musikverein , over the selection of repertory and soloists for the forthcoming winter concerts. Correspondingly, his creative activity in the autumn of emphasized vocal and instrumental chamber music. A number of large-scale works for vocal forces and orchestra followed in the first half of Work on the Missa sacra op.

The new work was orchestrated by 23 May, just after the drafting of an orchestral accompaniment for Verzweifle nicht im Schmerzenstal in the middle of the month. Two projects of a literary nature also occupied Schumann in late spring Then, on 27 May, he set about ordering his own writings on music for publication in a collected edition. Although suffering from nervous attacks, rheumatism, coughing fits and general exhaustion, he hoped to relive the pleasantries of the previous summer with a trip along the Rhine.

Unfortunately, his attempts to proceed with the sketching process while on holiday 26 June—2 July were cut short by persistent nervous complaints. Having failed to experience relief through a regimen of daily bathing in the Rhine, he set off with Clara on 12 August for Scheveningen, a spa on the Dutch coast. But while at work on this cycle of five brooding lieder on translations of texts attributed to Mary Queen of Scots, he was confronted with a troubling request from the administrators of the Musikverein.

On 30 December Schumann conducted his first complete concert with the orchestra since the end of the last season and at about the same time regained his compositional stride, though now his focus shifted from vocal to instrumental music. The second and last instalment of Bachiana, harmonizations of the six suites for unaccompanied cello, was ready by 10 April.

From 15 to 19 April he drafted the exuberant Fest-Ouverture op. Towards the end of the month the Schumanns and their friends developed a passion for table-rapping. Along with Hiller and Tausch, Schumann served as co-director of the event and garnered public acclaim for performances of his D minor Symphony version , Piano Concerto with Clara as soloist and the recent Fest-Ouverture. After a brief hiatus in July, Schumann started composing again, and with a vengeance, in mid-August. A diverse series of works followed in rapid succession: the overture to the Faust scenes 13—17 August ; the Introduction and Concert-Allegro op.

While still occupied with the Violin Concerto on 30 September, Schumann was visited by a young pianist and composer from Hamburg who had been recommended to him by Joachim. Named Johannes Brahms, he was immediately recognized by the older man as a genius. The members of the Gesangverein refused to sing under his direction after a disastrous performance of a mass by Moritz Hauptmann on 16 October, when he continued to conduct well after the music stopped.

In private consultation with Clara on 7 November, two members of the executive committee, Julius Illing and Joseph Herz, suggested that Schumann conduct only his own pieces and leave his other duties to Tausch. Incensed by what he considered a breach of faith, Schumann failed to appear at the subscription concert of 10 November, thus leaving himself open to the charge of violating his contract.

Schumann officially broke off relations with the executive committee in a bluntly worded letter of 19 November. At the same time, he and Clara considered a future move to either Berlin or Vienna. On 19 January he set off with Clara for Hanover, where Joachim was leader of the court orchestra and where, over the course of the next 12 days, he engaged in a round of music-making which included a private reading of his Violin Concerto.

On 3 February he drafted a brief but spirited introductory essay for publication with the collected edition of his critical writings. Fearful that he might unwittingly bring harm to his wife, Schumann demanded to be removed to an asylum on 26 February. After working for a time on the fair copy of his variations, he slipped undetected out of the house in the early afternoon and made for the bridge over the Rhine. After diving headlong into the river, he was rescued by fishermen who had observed him from nearby.

Thereafter Clara was not allowed to see him, nor was she informed of his suicide attempt though she soon realized the truth. Clara was prevented from bidding him farewell when he departed in the company of Hasenclever and two male attendants on 4 March. She would not see him again until July The alternation of larger with less imposing projects speaks to an outlook in which idealism was tempered by a shrewd sense for the marketplace. Perhaps biassed by their foreknowledge of his unfortunate end, many commentators have searched for signs of mental decay in this repertory, a dubious exercise at best.

In the first place, the scoring of the late works is by no means uniformly sombre: the overture to Hermann und Dorothea , to cite one of many examples, is as deftly orchestrated as anything by Weber or Mendelssohn. It was a matter less of a discrepancy between psychic state and sonorous elaboration than of a musical imagination capable of embracing a diversity of styles. As a lyric poet, Schumann explored the inner lives of his subjects in the Sieben Lieder on Kulmann texts op.

The generally affirmative tone of the earlier work, however, gives way to mysterious understatement in the Kulmann lieder and an unusual blend of passion and austerity in the Maria Stuart cycle. At the opposite pole from the introspective lyricist is the extroverted symphonist. Similarly, the concertante works of the last years are characterized by a synthesis of virtuosity and musical substance, most obviously in the written-out cadenzas of the Cello Concerto, the Introduction and Concert-Allegro for piano and the Phantasie for violin, where the traditional site of soloistic display becomes a secondary development section.

The recall of thematic ideas over the span of a multi-movement work, a feature of the Third Symphony and the concertos for cello and violin, is an essentially narrative technique and hence a manifestation of the storyteller persona. This figure naturally dominates in the ballad-type works for chorus and orchestra, most of which take the preservation of memory as their poetic theme.

Gesänge, op. 19a

The religious side of his personality was free of dogmatism. Hoffmann isolated as the hallmarks of genuine church music. The figure of the collector is concerned with redemption of a material sort, with the preservation and arrangement of fragile objects that might otherwise perish. Once assembled into a collection, these objects are imbued with an aura, a mixture of distance and proximity intended to fill the beholder with awe.

If the collector preserves objects, then the pedagogue preserves traditions. While all of these belong to the world of Hausmusik , aiming to promote conviviality and edification, several of their constituent pieces disclose an undeniably poetic quality. Situated on a well-kept estate in Endenich, a suburb of Bonn, the private asylum where Schumann spent his last years was one of the more progressive institutions of its type.

Though he neither force-fed nor drugged his patients, Richarz discouraged direct contact with relatives in the belief that such meetings might set off untoward reversals. It was chiefly for this reason that Clara did not see her husband until nearly two and a half years into his confinement, and just two days before his death. In the meantime, on 11 June Clara had given birth to another son, named Felix, after Mendelssohn.

After a brief period of improvement, the final decline set in, leading to death in July Perhaps other compositions were among the papers and letters that, according to Richarz, Schumann consigned to the flames in April The hallucinations and auditory disturbances he experienced in February probably mark the onset of the final stage of the disease after a long period of latency.

The steady deterioration of his neurological system brought with it convulsive fits, the gradual loss of the ability to speak clearly, delusional ideas among them the conviction that he was being poisoned , aggressive behaviour and protracted periods of screaming that left him hoarse.

But when she learnt from Brahms in June that Schumann had not left his bed for several weeks, she decided to investigate for herself. Twice prevented from seeing him by Richarz and Brahms during visits to Endenich on 14 and 23 July , she was finally admitted to his sickroom on 27 July. Now in the throes of pneumonia and barely conscious, Schumann mustered the strength to embrace her and mumble a few words of recognition. Two days later he was buried in a cemetery near the Sternentor in Bonn. Asked for an opinion on Schumann, a follower of the European musical scene in about would probably have identified him as a critic, not a composer.

Even members of the relatively limited circle who knew his earlier compositions often found them bizarre and eccentric. Reacting to charges of this sort at mid-century, Schumann reissued opp. With the First Symphony and the Piano Quintet, he began to garner the public recognition that had previously eluded him. Performed in centres as remote from his native Saxony as Riga and New York, Das Paradies und die Peri established his reputation as a composer of international stature. The appropriation of his music by the spokesmen for what was then taken to be musical progress also played a part in this shift.

Adorno has also pointed to the remarkable affinity between Schumann and Berg, both of whom demonstrated a predilection for allusions, encoded messages and musical ciphers. In a sense he was all of these things and many others besides. A fastidious miniaturist, he was no less adept as a fabricator of monumental forms. Mayeda, K. Niemoller and others Mainz, — [NSA]. SATB, unaccompanied, unless otherwise stated; incipit given only if different from title.

Ritornelle in canonischen Weisen [orig. Geiringer Vienna, ]:. Schubert; opening used as opening of Carnaval, op. Canon], 28 Erinnerung [orig. Zum Schluss]. Verrufener Ort], 5 Freundliche Landschaft [orig. Freier Ausblick], 6 Herberge [orig. A Catalogues. B Bibliographies. C Genealogies. D Iconography. E Diaries. F Letters. G Writings and aesthetics. H Documentary studies and compilations. I General studies, collections of essays. J Biography, memoirs.

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Place Type. City Country. State Browse All. Sign In Article Navigation. Subscriber sign in. Forgot password? Don't have an account? Sign in via your Institution. Sign in with your library card. Search within Article contents 1. Formative years: Zwickau, — Jean Paul and Schubert: Leipzig, —9.

The decision for music: Heidelberg, — Discoveries and disappointments: Leipzig, — The music critic: Leipzig, —4. Viennese prospects, —9. The battle for Clara, — The symphonic year, The chamber music year, —3. The oratorio year, Russia and after, A new manner of composing: Dresden, —6. The musical dramatist: Dresden, —8. Unbounded creativity: Dresden, — The late styles. Endenich, —6. Open in new tab. In his New Year editorial for the Neue Zeitschrift issue of 2 January , Schumann wrote that his journal aimed to acknowledge the past and its creations and to draw attention to the fact that new artistic beauties can only be strengthened by so pure a source; next, to oppose the recent past as an inartistic period with only a notable increase in mechanical dexterity to show for itself; and finally, to prepare for and hasten the advent of a new, poetic future.

Works Open in new tab. Editions Robert Schumanns Werke , ed. Schumann, J. Folkelivsbilder Op. Ballade In G Minor Op. Suite Fra Holbergs Tid Op. Fire Albumblad Op. Allegro Con Moto. Allegretto Espressivo. Fire Klaverstykker Op. Allegro Con Leggerezza. Non Allegro E Molto Espressivo. Mazurka - Con Grazia. Allegretto Con Moto. Poetiske Tonebilder Op. Allegro, Ma Non Troppo. Allegro Cantabile. Con Moto. Andante Con Sentimento. Humoresker Op.

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Tempo Di Menuetto Ed Energico. Allegretto Con Grazia. Allegro Alla Burla. Nordiske Danser Og Folkeviser Op. Nils Tallefjorden. Norske Folkeviser Op. Prillaren Fra Os Praestegield. Nils Rekve's Halling. Stemninger Op. Agitato EG Halling Fra Osterdalen. Four Songs, Op. Margrete's Cradlesong. Langeland Folksong. A Mother's Grief. Peer Gynt's Serenade. Solveig's Cradlesong. Rocking, Rocking On Gentle Waves.

Kind Greetings, Fair Ladies. Christmas Song. Spring Showers. Little Kirsten. The Mother's Lament. On The Water. A Bird Cried Out. Midsummer Eve. Two Brown Eyes. The Poet's Hear. I Love But Thee. The Youth. The Berry. Beside The Stream. A Vision. The Old Mother. The First Thing. At Rondane. A Piece On Friendship. He Goal. Autumn Farewell. The Pine Tree. To Her. Your Eyes Are Closed Forever. The Mountain Thrall, Op.

Seven Children's Songs, Op. The Ocean. The Christmas Tree. Fisherman's Song. Good-Night Song For Dobbin. The Norwegian Mountains. Fatherland Hymn. EG d: The Sparrow. EG f: In The Hayfield. EG g: Velsemoy Wondering. EG h: Doomed. EG i: Veslemoy Longing. EG l: Cow-Call. The Enticement. The Young Maiden. Blueberry Slope. The Tryst.

Kidlings' Dance. Hurtful Day. At The Brook. EG Clara's Song. EG The Princess. EG Sighs. Six Songs Op. The Orphan. Morning Dew. Hunting Song. The Old Song. Where Have They Gone? Four Songs By Bj. The First Meeting. Say What You Will. The Way Of The World. The Nightingale's Secret. The Time Of Roses. A Dream. To The Motherland. Henrik Wergeland. The Shepherdess. The Emigrant. The Maid Of The Mill. Closely Wrapp'd In Misty Billows. I Stood Before Her Portrait. What Shall I Say. Four Songs By Chr. Woodland Song. Song Of The Flowers. Song On The Mountain. Nine Songs, Op. Moonlit Forest.

The Poet's Farewell. Autumn Storms. The Young Birch-Tree. The Cottage. The Rosebud. Serenade To Welhaven. A Swan. Album Lines. With A Water-Lily. A Bird-Song. Songs Without Opus Numbers. Easter Song EG The Hunter. Songs And Ballads By A. The Harp. Cradle Song. Outward Bound. The First Primrose. Autumn Thougts. Romances, Op. From Monte Pincio. Hidden Love. Upon A Grassy Hillside. Hearing A Song Or Carol. To My Son.