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It is evident that Khirbet Qeiyafa is connected neither to the emergence of the kingdom of Judah nor to king David, and should be studied in the context of the Shephelah, the district in which it is located. Many scholars struggle to understand the reasons behind Jonah's reluctance to go to Nineveh. Using Abravanel's interpretation as its starting point, namely that Jonah sought to ensure Israel's survival by refusing to prophesy to Nineveh, this article explores the notion of foreknowledge, shared by the authors and readers of Jonah.
In particular, it asks how our knowledge of Nineveh's fall, inferred from both Nahum and history, influences our understanding of the message of Jonah. Bakhtin's concept of dialogic truth is used to propose that the meaning of each stage of development of the text is in conversation with its earlier versions. Summarising this dialogic meaning in the categories of transgressors, transgressions and punishment, it will be shown that the current context also connects to different voices in the text. Samuel's appearance occurs at a major transition in the Chronicler's narrative, which links Josiah to not only David, but Saul.
While there is yet to be a consensus among scholars as to why a negative death scene follows Josiah's laudable Passover, the social memory associated with Samuel adds rhetorical weight to the Chronicler's narrative. This article focuses on the numbers given in the book of Chronicles for the armies of the Judean kings, with an emphasis on the sequence of the first four kings of Judah. It argues that these numbers were inserted by the Chronicler according to a clear and systematic pattern.
Specifically, they are used as a literary device to express a pattern of changes in royal power, in which power increased from the time of Rehoboam's reign until Jehoshaphat, before gradually decreasing until the reign of Ahaz. It argues that the locations of such dedications in temple spaces provide new insights into the literary location of the priestly blessing in the book of Numbers. Research on cities in the Hebrew Bible shows that urban spaces are often personified. This article argues that in the case of Nahum's Nineveh this personification is part of a conceptual metaphor, in which the city is depicted as a body.
The same metaphor underlies other comparative devices in the text, which similarly share a corporeal focus. Together, these devices tell the story of a weakening city body, in a way that is both cognitively accessible as well as narratologically and communicatively efficient. The last decade has seen a growing interest in empirical models from the cognate literature to trace the growth of Hebrew scriptures. Yet, deeply rooted intellectual commitments within the history of the diachronic study of the Bible retard the incorporation of this approach within source-critical theory.
Intellectual winds of the Enlightenment and German historicism and romanticism contributed to this situation and a reconsideration of some basic premises of source-critical method is needed. The Hebrew Bible often portrays Sheol in a manner evocative of the tomb. In texts such as Psalm 88 the tomb is a dreary and isolating symbol. Yet this contrasts with the positive role of the family tomb where the dead are reunited with their ancestors.
The ritual analysis of Judahite bench tombs, however, reveals a dynamic concept of death. This suggests that the varying images of the tomb in biblical literature were not contradictory, but reflective of a process of dying that began with burial. These building blocks from the Gideon narrative serve as a foil for the actors in the Michmash narrative. These findings illuminate the early stages in the formation of the Gideon cycle as well as the growth of the Michmash narrative. It includes an introduction by the editor, Frauke Uhlenbruch, as well as a response by James F. This paper reexamines the literary function of the narrative toledot formulae in Genesis, claiming that the formula thrice Gen ; ; introduces a passage about the specified father rather than one solely about his sons.
This finding is based on a philological analysis of the word toledot and the formula's unique literary design in these three instances. This reading illuminates the inner tension between renewal and continuity in the Flood narrative; leads to the exposure of a unit about Isaac within the patriarchal cycles; and offers a new understanding of chapter 1's exclusion from the toledot framework.
Cognitive linguists are increasingly recognising the value of metonymy for understanding the way language works. Scholarship has tended to emphasize a positivistic view of Zechariah—namely, that the text, constructivist in nature, reflects what the prophet viewed as the eventual outcome of his community. However, when the narrator reveals a key detail previously unmentioned, the reader is surprised and forced to re-evaluate the entire episode. This frames Lot's shocking offer in a new light, and the reader comes to a new conclusion about Lot's character. This article analyzes the relationship that exists between the qatal and wayyiqtol forms in Biblical Hebrew.
It provides a twofold approach, based on complexity theory, fuzziology, cognitive linguistics and the theory of dynamic semantic maps, on the one hand, as well as on an original empirical study involving all the instances of the two grams in the book of Genesis, on the other. As a result, the article advances a model of an intricate, multi-level and dynamic interaction of qatal and wayyiqtol in terms of two kinetic waves that spread along a grammaticalization channel recursively used in the language—in this case, the resultative stream.
The Amarna letters from Canaan ca. These passages attest to the existence of the short prefix conjugation in contemporaneous Canaanite dialects. This conclusion is based on the close similarity of their syntax to the Biblical Hebrew wayyiqtol. While this reading yields a greater understanding of its final form, it disassociates it from constituent elements preserving earlier versions.
From an archaeological and historiographical point of view, this article examines those elements to argue that this complex accretion of collective memories has more to tell us about Israel's developing identity than first meets the eye. In the present article we offer an alternative, quantitative interpretation of the data in the Lexicon. Our main conclusions are that the late language cataloged in the Lexicon is rare and idiosyncratic in late biblical writings and accordingly the value of the late language for linguistic periodization and linguistic dating is negligible.
The strange beasts of Daniel 7 have generated multiple investigations exploring their biblical and ancient Near Eastern backgrounds. This article focuses on the purpose served by the beastly imagery rather than its source material. Using Monster Theory, the article argues that the author intentionally embodies Antiochus IV as a monstrous being who defies moral and cultural boundaries to dehumanize him and encourage the Jewish community to anticipate divine punishment for Antiochus.
This syntax was identical in direct speech, subordinate clauses, narration and poetry. This paper proposes a new methodology for describing, explaining, and tracking the linguistic and non-linguistic shifts that occurred in the ancient biblical translations. Second, it summarizes the principles and methods of Optimality Theory OT , arguing that this linguistic model may be harnessed in order to benefit the study of ancient translations.
Third, this article applies the theory and methods developed here to a single sample verse, 2 Sam Through this study, I demonstrate that the combined theoretical and methodological model provided by DTS and OT allows us to identify, describe, evaluate, and organize the norms constraining the translator of Tg. This article provides an in-depth analysis of the reflective passages of the book of Qoheleth and argues that they constitute an originally independent composition that exhibits a coherent train of thought. Via a close reading of the reflective passages that exposes their content as well as the manner of their distribution, the article demonstrates that through the twenty-two passages strewn throughout the book's core, the author has developed a systematic line of reasoning that examines the premise of world order and posits an alternative objective and way of life.
This article argues, pace Thiessen, that the boundaries of restored Israel in Ezra 1—6 are porous: the texts that establish the community's exclusivism do so only provisionally, in place of a working temple cult. This is shown especially in Ezra —63, where priests who cannot find written proof of their ancestry must wait for Urim and Thummim. Thus, during the Passover in Ezra —21, the cult rather than written documents ultimately establishes boundaries, permitting the inclusion of outsiders.
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In particular, it evaluates the contested question of whether this text is implicitly polemical in light of extra-biblical texts dealing with similar subject matter, especially a ritual for the treatment of skin disease from Emar. These comparisons enable a more precise characterization of the Priestly agenda reflected in Lev 14 and suggest that the traditional notion of pollution in Israel may have been deliberately reinterpreted.
This essay explores how Ezra—Nehemiah partially inverts the traditional paradigm of exile found in other biblical writings. When one community is formed at some distance from another in antiquity, the derivative community normally appears as a dependent community or colony.
Yet, in Ezra—Nehemiah the homeland repeatedly experiences renewal through initiatives undertaken by diaspora Judeans. Particular attention is given to how the vertical alliances forged within the Achaemenid administration by two diaspora leaders—Ezra and Nehemiah—are deployed to benefit Yehud. The commendation of Ezra and Nehemiah raises fascinating issues about developing notions of Judean ethnicity and identity in a world dominated by imperial interests. This article offers a new interpretation Job , a passage which is arguably one of the most difficult and obscure in the book.
The article surveys earlier interpretations, including the various versions of the text as well as medieval and modern commentators, and points to the limits of the readings that have been offered so far. Taking into account the immediate context of v. In the resulting reading, Job expresses his conviction that God will eventually vindicate him, and heal his skin and flesh. In keeping with recent studies of Job, this reading can be related to the broader issue of disability in the book.
This study investigates front dislocation in Biblical Hebrew from a cognitive—semiotic perspective, employing evidence from Structure Building Framework theory to explain how the syntagm's formal components trigger psychological dynamics that yield rhetorical impacts. By momentarily suspending full alignment between linguistic code and message, front dislocation leverages ambiguity between expression and meaning, placing the listener into an acutely amplified state of expectation and bolstering the authority of the speaker over the communication event.
This article seeks to explain the development of the Biblical Hebrew Qal feminine singular active participle's curious combination of grammatical forms. The article provides a first publication of the Ashkar-Gilson manuscript, describing its main features. It argues that this manuscript, along with another, better preserved manuscript the so-called London Manuscript , is the remnant of a 7th or 8th-century Torah scroll of exceptionally high quality. Several unique details suggest that the scroll was consulted by the Tiberian Masoretes when they developed their project of producing model codices of the Bible.
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This article argues the Satan in Zech 3 was modeled on Achaemenid imperial structure. First, the term in the Hebrew Bible is discussed. Second, a brief overview of Achaemenid offices and loyalty ceremonies is given. These are applied to Zech 3 and the Satan, arguing that the vision is a heavenly version of satrapal confirmation of priests. This article presents a literary analysis of the extant text of Samuel 15 and argues that Saul's deposal is represented as the result of his lack of recognition of God's authority over him as king.
Identifying Saul's behavior as exemplifying one of the ancient views of Israelite monarchy, the article also elucidates the relationship between the king and God reflected in the relevant chapters of the book of Samuel. When approached from this perspective, the reference to the riddles of the past highlights the distinctive didactic process staged by the psalm.
The study argues that to persuade Judeans in Babylon that Yahweh, not Marduk, authored Cyrus' victories, and they should move to Judea, the author of Isa countered an historiographically advanced ideology that divine embodiment in royally sponsored temples proves divine will, power, and presence.
The author rejects any such historiography as based in human faculties; develops a complex notion of divine irreducibility and prophetic ability; and presents it in a text to match. This study proposes that chiastic structures encompass at least the first half of 1 Chronicles, helping to underscore the rejection of Gibeon and the Saulides in favor of Jerusalem and the line of David.
Of methodological consequence, it emerges that the Chronicler relied heavily upon design in order to generate new meaning from texts already in circulation. The parable of the poor man's ewe 2 Sam —4 is best interpreted along two separate axes as a commentary upon the David and Bathsheba narrative in 2 Samuel In one, the parable is an allegory for the sin of adultery with Bathsheba.
In the other, the parable is an allegory for the sin of the murder of Uriah. This double interpretation of the parable matches Nathan's censure of David in — This article examines one component of the exegetical method of Malbim — , an Orthodox rabbi of a strongly conventional bent, and questions the scholarly assumption that he invariably defends outstanding biblical figures. An analysis of the findings reveals five characteristics of his exegetical approach on this question which at times is comprised of two phases , and suggests that he occupies a middle ground between two of his contemporaries, R.
Jacob Zvi Meklenburg and R. Samson Raphael Hirsch. The later Jacob story overtook the earlier Jerubaal story, a phenomenon I dub tradition cannibalism, as Jerubaal became identified with Gideon and shed his own story. When the idea of a conquering patriarch fell out of favor, the account reemerged as the Dinah story, with Simeon and Levi as the conquerors of Shechem.
The first half of Hab has long been a crux; numerous emendations have been proposed over the years. The result is a reading of the vision which makes reference to the divine as well as human protagonists. The seal's quality and the reconstructed title of its bearer indicate that it was used by a high official in the royal Judahite administration. Despite its significance, the question of why the book of Zechariah was expanded with chs.
By combining literary and sociohistorical insights, this article demonstrates that Zech 9—14 was composed as the continuation of Zechariah in order to bring the prophetic corpus up to date in light of the sociopolitical changes of the Ptolemaic period. Did the author s arrive at this idea by adopting, adapting or refuting other texts and traditions, and, if so, which? Scholars have long pointed to Josephus, Ant. The details of the campaign are, however, available from Jeremiah or by inference from it. As such, the study argues that Ant. Priests claiming descent from Aaron controlled the high priesthood of temples in Jerusalem and on Mount Gerizim in the Second Temple period.
These Aaronides were in a position to influence religious developments in this period, especially the scripturalization of the Torah. This claim can be tested by correlating what little we know about the Aaronide dynasties with what little we know about the scripturalization of two different portions of the Hebrew Bible, the Pentateuch and Ezra—Nehemiah.
This article argues for the Christian provenance of chapters 22—29 of Joseph and Aseneth. In particular, the article interprets these chapters as promoting the adoption of Christian ethics toward enemies as a means for obtaining salvation in the Church, which is personified by Aseneth. This article approaches the problem of the precative qatal in Biblical Hebrew from a cognitive and typological perspective.
In this way, the article relates the two, superficially contradictory, semantic spheres i. In light of the current disparity of views regarding the dating of Leviticus and Ezra-Nehemiah, this study revisits similar traditions found in these books in order to gain a sense of logical progression.
The author calls attention to elements from Leviticus which are present in Ezra-Nehemiah but not found elsewhere in the Torah. She argues for the chronological priority of significant cultic traditions from Leviticus over their counterparts in Ezra-Nehemiah. This is a pilot attempt to combine literary-critical, text-critical, and historical linguistic approaches in an analysis of selected linguistic variants between the MT and DSS with an application to the book of Judges.
As a heuristic device, Melanie Klein's theory on projective identification helps identify constructivist elements in Haggai that highlight postures of defensive preservation as legitimations of the Jerusalem temple as a shared object. This article explores the usage and relevance of new persuasive technology for display and interpretation of complex linguistic data in Hebrew Bible texts. This approach is exemplified through an analysis of the discourse structure of Joshua and Two pieces of rhetorical theory support reading Pss 4 and 62 as arguments to strayers to return to faithfulness.
First, amplitude is devoted to direct address of strayers and directives for returning. Second, with positive identification, speakers connect to hearers with shared experiences and values; with negative identification, speakers repel hearers away from rivals by painting them as radical extremists. Modern rhetorical theory proves useful for addressing contested elements of the psalms. This article discusses the composition, structure, and geography of Ps Ps is characterized by a numerical pattern of 70 cola arranged concentrically. Contrary to the prevalent view, the psalm is not about the rivalry between mountains.
This article examines the treatment of dual incipits in the Pentateuch by various representatives of medieval Jewish exegesis. Were dual openings identified as such? What explanations did those exegetes offer for dual formulae? The article contrasts the approach of medieval exegetes with contemporary scholarship, focusing on four instances of dual incipit in the Pentateuch: Exod —2; —5; Lev —2 and —4.
It argues that the differences between Chronicles and Kings cannot be explained either as representing exegetical changes or as reflecting a different Vorlage. Rather, as in this instance, such differences point to the fact that the Chronicler had access to sources that were not available to the authors of Kings.
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This article claims that the collection of ten short oracles in Zechariah 8 is ordered in a well planned structure, and is meant to be read a meaningful sequence, even though each one is an independent entity. The article demonstrates a sophisticated structure of these oracles, and reveals the meaning of the structure. The understanding of biblical prophetic literature has been hindered by a presumed dichotomy between prophecy of salvation and prophecy of judgement.
This can be illustrated by Jer That text has always been interpreted on the basis of this dichotomy, but the result is a forced reading. This article proposes an alternative reading that suits better the text, the inner logic of ch. The article further argues that the mentioned dichotomy has no base in historical prophecy. The performative sense of the qatal is compatible with the remaining components of the semantic load offered by the gram. Employing a chaining procedure built on the framework of universal paths and adopting a cognitive perspective whereby the verbal meaning is a network of conceptually and diachronically related senses, the author demonstrates that since the qatal is defined as a manifestation of an anterior cline and since it is possible to posit a performative stage on this trajectory, the anterior cline may also accommodate the performative sense.
This article builds on the work of anthropologists who focus milk kinship to demonstrate that biblical Hebrew narrative understands breast milk as a kinship-forging substance. The Bible presents breastfeeding as a process through which a mother or wet nurse confers upon an infant her own tribal identity and royal or priestly status. The prohibition of foreign marriages in the HB disqualifies both, wives and their offspring. Similar laws from Greek cities suggest that membership in the popular assembly was the problem behind, since sons of citizens gained citizenship rights when of age.
Wealthy people were able to enhance their stance by marrying several wives. The parallel development suggests that Persian period Israel was organized like Greek cities: as an association of persons. Such polities need to control membership. Studies by A. Bellis and H. This article examines their arguments in detail and demonstrates that the evidence does not support their hypothesis.
Furthermore, this article considers to what extent social location as well as racial and political bias affect biblical scholarship, and particularly reconstructions of history. Two substantially different approaches concerning the phenomenon of the Judahite stamped jars, as well as about underlying methodologies for their study, have been advanced in recent research.
This article documents the points of dispute and discusses their implications for critical assessments of the connections between archaeological facts and their interpretation along with their general significance regarding our understanding of the history of Judah in the late 8th and 7th centuries BCE.
This article investigates the possibility of seeing this program as a utopia meant for the reading elite rather than for the public. It is a vision of a reading community based on the explication of the Book of the Torah of Moses. Both are used for slave wives in Genesis, in legislation contexts, in deferential language by women, in property lists, and in relation to the master or mistress. Yet patterns of use occur. This article reviews the main suggestions that have been made for the term. This article challenges the conclusions of recent studies that have attributed the entirety of Exodus —17 and —3 either to a Holiness H author or another post-Priestly author.
It offers a new redactional analysis of these Sabbath texts, arguing that each contains an earlier Priestly P stratum that was subsequently expanded by H. It identifies a P stratum by giving close attention to the narrative features in these pericopes and their participation in the larger historical claims of P. Attention to such narrative qualities is then usefully combined with stylistic and theological elements to identify the secondary stratum in these units as an H composition. Biblical Hebrew allows a great deal of variation in the order of words within a clause: the Verb can precede the Subject and vice-versa , the Object can precede or follow both the Subject and the Verb, and adverbs and prepositional phrases can be thrown into a variety of positions.
Describing precisely what determines the order of words, though, remains an elusive task. Yet, it is universally understood that determining a rhyme and reason for the variation exhibited in the biblical texts would provide access to subtle linguistic cues the ancient authors used to get their message across. And so many Hebraists have attempted to identify the patterns. As with all investigations, though, the initial assumptions strongly influence the conclusions and for Hebrew word order studies the almost universal starting point has been to assume a basic Verb-Subject order.
In this essay I challenge this assumption, thereby potentially undercutting the methodologies and conclusions of the vast majority of existing word order studies. I introduce, describe, and illustrate the typological linguistic criteria for determining basic word order and conclude, contrary to near-consensus position, that Biblical Hebrew is better classified as a Subject-Verb language. Although the biblical text contains no explicit condemnation of the sexual act that takes place between Lot and his daughters in Gen , this article suggest that analysis of micro-structures and stylistic patterns may reveal that a negative impression of this sexual act lurks sotto voce in the text.
A literary analysis shows that repetitions of terms from the semantic fields of kinship and sexual intercourse provide special emphasis to the theme of a sexual act occurring between father and daughters. Instead of the expected relations in which fathers own their daughters, the daughters depicted here possess and manipulate their father. Moreover, taking into account that the general initiative and focalization are assigned to the elder sister, the constructed narrative pattern departs from the more common biblical pattern in which the younger siblings are more dominant and theologically prominent.
While some scholars have suggested that the daughters had no choice, and even acted heroically, the analysis suggested here may lead to a reading that considers the reported sexual acts as negative and uncommon among Israelites. Following Knauf's suggestion , the article raises the possibility that in most periods in the second and first millennia BCE the main built-up area of Jerusalem was limited to a mound on the Temple Mount.
This mound, which may have covered an area of five hectares and more, was boxed-in under the Herodian platform. At these periods activity in the City of David ridge was restricted to the area near the Gihon spring. In the Iron IIB and late Hellenistic Periods the fortified settlement expanded simultaneously to both the City of David ridge and the southwestern hill.
In these two periods there was no need to fortify the western side of the City of David, as this line ran in the middle of the city. Within a canonical context of exile, the hymns of celebration found in Pss 84—89 become ironic expressions of a grieving Israel looking to reorient their theology by appealing to Temple, land, and Davidic covenant. Those traditional elements, however, are no longer capable of providing hope. Davidic kingship and Zion gives way to Yahweh as king, enthroned forever.
A concise, non-reductionist and non-taxonomist synchronically valid definition of the Biblical Hebrew wayyiqtol is based on findings of evolutionary linguistics and panchronic methodology. The author demonstrates the following: all semantic and functional properties such as taxis, aspectual, temporal, modal and discourse-pragmatic values of the wayyiqtol may be unified and rationalized as a single dynamic category: advanced portions of the anterior and simultaneous trajectories developed within the three temporal spheres and, additionally, contextualized by the incorporation of an originally independent lexeme with a coordinative-consecutive force.
Comparison with David is a literary device employed throughout the book of Kings as a way to assess the kings whose deeds are recounted in the book both kings of Judah and at least Jehu of Israel. Explicit comparisons to David are linked to literary allusions to him and understood as a single basic phenomenon. The comparisons also include a sophisticated system of inverted analogies among David, Solomon and Jeroboam. From this perspective Joel fills the lacuna in prophetic literature between Ezekiel, whose latest prophecies date to c.
This article examines various descriptions of David and his warriors. The booty of war was instrumental in building the temple. In more recent research, discussions on the meaning of such labels are ever so prevalent. Nevertheless, the positions do not move far beyond the common patterns of interpretation. Built on concepts from Kings and Jeremiah, the whole text is deuteronomistic. A variety of known difficulties in Amos —17 are addressed e. Specific characters such as Abimelek and Jephthah are parasocial leaders whose existence fits within known categories of regional social change.
By extension, Judges may be read as the most sustained literary product in the ancient Near East depicting a world of habiru-like actors generating political transformation. This article argues that the first eight oracles in Zechariah —19 are based on the ideas and vocabulary of Jeremiah 30—33, while the last two oracles, vv 20—23, have no parallel in Jeremiah, but correspond to oracles of the anonymous prophet in Isaiah 40— Zechariah selectively used and adapted the material of his predecessors, in order to address the specific social and political reality of his generation.
The ways in which this process was carried out are assessed in this article. This is a rejoinder to N. Becking and L. Grabbe eds. Between Evidence and Ideology OtSt, 59; Leiden: Brill, — that claims that although archaeological evidence can be fragmentary and may be misinterpreted, when solid data from well-excavated sites is compared to assumptions regarding the nature of biblical texts and their date of compilation, the former should prevail, at least until tested by new archaeological evidence or extra-biblical texts.
An ancient Mesopotamian proverb states: "even the tallest man cannot reach heaven; even the broadest man cannot cover earth". This proverb, occurring in different contexts, periods and versions, expresses the limitedness of the human ability, physically as well as mentally. The proverb seems to stand at the background of several biblical passages, especially Deut —13; Amos —3; Job —9; Job —22; and Ps — Th is article seeks to re-examine the different manifestations of the proverb, and to trace the development of the topoi reflected in it, with a focus on their adaptation in the Hebrew Bible.
An analysis of the portrayal of the origins of human civilization in Mesopotamian literature, in comparison with that of Genesis 1—11, reveals discontinuity with regard to the divine mediation of civilization. YHWH is usually understood to play two roles in Psalm that of prosecutor of the gods vv 2—5 and that of high judge who convicts the gods to death vv 6—7. YHWH serves as prosecutor of the gods in El's court.
In this reading YHWH speaks only in vv 2—5. After sentencing the gods of his council to death vv 6—7 , El appoints YHWH to rule the world in their place v 8. It is generally accepted that Zech 1—8 consists of two distinct sections: Zech 1—6 and Zech 7—8. This article argues that the main divide is between chapters 1—7 and ch.
Zech 8 is a collection of oracles that offers a revision and digest of sections of the previous chapters in Zech 1—7. These oracles re-quote key phrases of units in Zech 1—7, re-word similar ideas, or use different wordings for similar ideas. Texts in Zech 8, at times, modify those they parallel or complete them.
In addition, this article shows that a characteristic feature of many of the literary units in chapter 8, in comparison with chapters 1—7, is that they emphasize greater hope and comfort. However, the ambiguity involves more words as well as the grammar of the verse. This article revisits the curse proposing an ambiguous reading as the Hebrew text offers it. Secondly, the grammatical structure of the verse adds to the indefinite nature. Thirdly, the deliberate confusion allows connecting small and larger narratological units. It reveals a play between two characters, the snake and God, trying to outclass each other in terms of craftiness.
Thus, the ambiguous language in Gen b is not a problem; it is the key to interpretation. With Guillaume, I hold the position that the crisis was episodic rather than structural, temporary rather than systemic. We differ, however, on which sociological model best illuminates the text and therefore, we reach different conclusions about the socio-economic circumstances of the time. In the beginning of the 20th century several scholars B.
Stade, F. Schwally, J. This view became dominant in scholarship. However, the detailed study of O. Steck arguing for the literary unity of the story marked an important turning-point, the impact of which continues to be felt strongly today. This is followed by observations of important differences of specific motifs and particularities of language between the "divine-word"-statements and "divine-act"-statements. For example, in the "word-account" God collaborates with other entities such as the firmament, sea, earth, but the "act-account" attributes creative activity to God alone.
Since the vocabulary and the theological view of the later "act-statements" can be associated with the priestly document Pg , the early "divine word account" should be taken as another sign in addition to, for instance, Gen 5 that P is based on — at least to some extent — identifiable sources. This is a response to E.
Ben Zvi and J. Nogalski is a major proponent of the thesis that the Twelve Minor Prophets are a redactional unity, while Ben Zvi is its most forthright sceptic. After summarizing the views of both scholars, the author introduces some considerations from his perspective as a literary critic. In particular, he contends that: i the question of literary unity is an extremely fraught one; ii arguments for the unity of the Twelve tend to ignore contrast; and iii the hypothesis that the Twelve were redacted as a book raises acutely not only the methodological difference between redaction-critical and reader-oriented approaches, but also the question of whether prophets were poets, characterized by literary daring.
The article concludes with reflections on models of reading in antiquity, and the opposition between metanarratives and marginality. This article demonstrates that applying the panchronic methodology based on the grammaticalization and path theories as well as on principles of cognitive linguistics all apparently heterogeneous meanings provided by the BH yiqtol can be explained as manifestations of a consistent phenomenon.
This contribution emerges out of a session devoted to a critical assessment of the book that took place at the SBL Annual Meeting. The crisis described in Nehemiah 5 serves as the literary backdrop for the presentation of Nehemiah as the paradigmatic generous patron. Current social-scientific exegesis of the HB tends to use Nehemiah 5 to support the notion of a structural economic crisis in Yehud. This article argues that Nehemiah 5 and these social-scientific readings make excellent theology but poor economic history.
This article explores the possibility that a polemic between disempowered Davidic and emerging Saulide groups motivated the murder of Gedaliah and the 70 pilgrims in Jeremiah This article examines the special role and function of animals in the book of Jonah. Throughout the book, all elements of creation natural forces, flora and fauna serve as emissaries of the Lord. At the end of the book animals are viewed as part of the penitent community and an object for divine forgiveness, alongside the human citizens of Nineveh. I believe there may be a link between the role of animals in the story as divine emissaries and their special status as members of the community and as worthy of divine compassion.
The book of Samuel contains ancient and original materials and both main versions were composed as early as the tenth century BCE. But the earlier of the two versions was edited and integrated within the latter enlarged one, and eventually lost its separate existence. This article deals with the relatively short-lived Association of Archaeologists in Israel and its Code of Ethics. By doing so, it sheds light on an episode in the history of Israeli archaeology that has not received much attention in research.
In recent decades several scholars have argued for the coherence of Judges 13—16 based on its multiple internal thematic and structural parallels. Yet previous generations of scholars considered Judges 13—16 to be a loose cycle of stories. This article shows the contribution that archaeozoological studies may bring to the identification of animals mentioned in the Hebrew Bible, by focusing on the ten clean ungulate species whose flesh is permitted to be eaten according to Deut —5.
Van Seters's personal response to the recent article by G. Aichele, P. Miscall and R. While group speech in biblical narrative is generally expressed as a single voice, in certain cases the plain sense of the text is improved by discerning a number of different voices at work. While these voices are unmarked, they are clearly sensed in the cases discussed here, and their presence adds significantly to the dramatic force of the text. In addition to the well known case of Saul and the young women at the well in 2 Sam —13, there are a number of instances in the Joseph story in Genesis 37 and 42 in which the brothers' speeches reflect multiple voices, providing a fuller picture of their disagreements.
In Jonah the sailors interrogate Jonah in what appears to be a cacophony of voices, and David's return to Jerusalem in 1 Sam 19 is punctuated by verbal disagreements among the Israelites, most noticeably in 2 Sam — This is a rejoinder to several recently published articles which take issue with my views on Persian period Jerusalem and Yehud.
The article deals with methodological issues such as inconsistencies between archaeology and text and the meaning of negative evidence in archaeology. On the factual level, with the available data at hand, I see no reason to change my views : Persian period Jerusalem covered ca. Responding to recent scholarship which discounts apparent traces of an alphabetic acrostic in Nahum 1 as purely coincidental, this essay argues that earlier scholarship was right to detect a tendency towards an alphabetic acrostic in Nahum 1.
But while previously the disruptions to the alphabetic sequence were considered an imperfection caused by lack of concern on the part of the poet or a later redactor or as the result of copying mistakes in the transmission of the text, I suggest that the tendency towards an acrostic and the irregularities belong to a single purposeful design. This design communicates a message of disrupted order and fits well with the remainder of the book of Nahum.
The word's given ambivalent nature is exploited on every level. It fits the major themes in the Isaac story as well as the small nuances in individual sentences. As such it illustrates the potential power of polysemy and its multiple, so to say polysemous, role in biblical narrative. A new interpretation is offered for Qoh that highlights the Sitz im Leben of the Ptolemaic regime. Qoh , though couched in cultic terms and with a Temple setting, contains allusions to the Ptolemaic reality of spies and informers who helped the Ptolemaic administration exact heavy taxes.
It is shown that this dual level cultic and non-cultic meaning persists in the unit Qoh — The Babylonian, Persian and early Hellenistic periods are unique in the history of Judah. They represent a kind of "interlude" between two periods of greatness and political independence. This article discusses the archaeological finds from Jerusalem in the Persian and Early Hellenistic periods. It includes an assessment of the scope of the built-up area of the city, and an estimate of the city's population, on the basis of the archaeological data.
This article's emphasis on the importance of the Ophel hill as the main built-up area in the Persian and Early Hellenistic period is unique in present archaeological and historical research of ancient Jerusalem. The language of the book of Qohelet has both intrigued and frustrated generations of scholars due to its abundant orthographic, morphological, syntactic, and lexical peculiarities.
The independent subject pronoun is variously described as pleonastic, a strategy for emphasizing the subject, and a strategy for marking an important narrative point. However, none of these descriptions accurately describe its use in the book, and so in this essay I will address the syntax and function of Qohelet's use of the first-person subject pronouns.
Nadav Na'aman's recent dating of the Deuteronomic Law by social history is methodologically seminal, even if I disagree with the substance of his argument. Six complete alphabetic acrostics structure the first chapters of the book of Lamentations. Midrash Eikhah Rabbah suggests that there are seven acrostics. In the footsteps of Siegfried Bergler and of Azriel Rosenfeld, this article identified another four letters of the puzzle. This paper explores the ascription of physical disability as one of a number of stigmatizing strategies used by biblical writers to denigrate iconic worship.
However, the existence of such translations did not guarantee that scholars, especially church historians and historians of the Reformation took such Bible translations seriously. Luther himself had claimed polemically that the Bible had been entirely unknown and unavailable when he was a young man. The rather dispassionate scholarship of the eighteenth century, which included important works on pre-Reformation German Bibles by orthodox Lutheran divines, gave way in the second half of the nineteenth century to a rather bitter polemical discourse in the context of the Kulturkampf in Germany.
Luther the linguistic genius and Luther the theological hero were the protagonists on one side; the late medieval Bible, on which Luther drew heavily for his own translation, was on the other. Not so much a Catholic-Lutheran debate as an ideological one about the place, value and influence of medieval piety and culture and their relation to German national culture was played out by prominent church historians. By the eve of WWII, German Bible scholarship had become a more clear-eyed exercise in historical evaluation--yet immediately after the war, in the context of the Cold War and the construction of a lineage of democratic and liberty-oriented values for Christian western Europe, the Luther Bible began to loom ever larger, especially in textbooks and general surveys, as a turning point in the history of western culture.
Since the s, more specialized and careful assessments of the importance of pre-Reformation German Bibles have prevailed, perhaps as part of a general re-evaluation of medieval culture and piety from perspectives informed more by anthropology and literary theory than by ideological polemic. These findings might shed light on the modes of history-writing in the contexts of both myth-making and source analysis.
This study is an attempt to read Psalm 29 through the interpretive lens of insights taken from Czech structuralist and Russian Formalist literary theory. These two perspectives on literature share the theoretical perspective that a poetic work may be analyzed on the analogy of a structuralist approach to the study of a natural language. The article advocates a reading of Psalm 29 in which its own internal structure—its own set Einstellung —expresses not so much what it means but how it means.
It includes an introduction by the editor and two contributions, one by the editor and Matthew Forrest Lowe and another by Roland Boer, and concludes with a response by Steven Schweitzer. Literary approaches to the text have proposed that Samuel's entry into the story is a literary device designed to surprise the reader. This paper demonstrates that Samuel's entrance into the narrative is not in isolation but is the culmination of suspense and anticipation built up throughout 1 Sam — This suspense is generated through a series of episodes which each consist of a pattern of anticipation, delay and resolution.
The recognition of this structure of suspense allows for a reinterpretation of two anomalous verses within the narrative: the list of place names in and the editorial insertion of Jonah's use of various antecedent HB texts and its purported Neo-Assyrian setting are prominent hermeneutical signposts that are integral to the book. Until now, however, the former question has not received sustained attention and the latter has been obscured by disagreement over the book's historical veracity.
This paper broadens the scope of postcolonialist discussion by considering empire through the Israelite perspective that Jonah affords and through the Neo-Assyrian literature dealing with its conquest of nation-states in the first half of the first millennium BCE. Special attention is given to how Jonah the prophet and Jonah the book attribute different identities to the different groups that appear in the book and to the book's intertextual connections to other parts of the Hebrew Bible. The paper closes by reflecting on ways that different means of identification entail different responses to power.
Note: Readers of this article are encouraged to read first article 3 in this volume. The book of Jonah was probably written as a reaction to the negative view on foreign peoples found in Joel The writer of the book of Jonah builds his case upon the authoritative text from Exodus Both in terms of form and content, he is also inspired by the book of Nahum. Therefore, the repeated use of Exodus —7 in these texts needs not be ascribed to a separate layer, but is probably part of a process of one book reacting to the other.
But up to now the redactional relationship of these passages and their intention in the context of the book of the Twelve have only been defined inadequately.
The article shows that the redaction responsible for the final redactional stage of the book of Jonah and for the integration of this book into the book of the Twelve, is also responsible for Joel —14; Mic —20; Nah b, 3a; Mal a. Because of this redaction the Book of the Twelve can be read as a reflection on the conditions, the theological reasons and the limits of divine forgiveness. Ehud Ben Zvi's claim, in the preceding article, that the final verse of Jonah must be read both as a question and an affirmation is welcomed. Yet, it is argued here that reading a rhetorical question contributes little to the metaprophetic character of Jonah.
In fact, a final rhetorical question destroys the open-endedness of the book while YHWH's unambiguous affirmation that he will show no pity for Nineveh faces readers with a deeper meaning of prophecy. Like the Elohim in chapter 3, Jonah in chapter 4 is invited to come out of the circle of anger. Destructions and reversals of fortune occur, but humans are not privy to the divine council. The present study reaffirms the double ending, and above all, double reading of the book of Jonah.
This double reading contributed much to the metaprophetic character of the book of Jonah, by which I mean, a book that—within the discourse of the relevant historical literati—provided a key for, and reflected an understanding of prophetic literature. The first part of this article reviews significant scholarly contributions on the Book of Jonah for the last ten years.
Perry demonstrates that exegesis of Jonah has entered a very fruitful period, free of the anti-Jewish biases characteristic of earlier readings and armed with more information about post-exilic Judah than ever before. Next, the article looks at God's reference to the animals in Jon and reads it as an expression of God's desire for the newly submissive Ninevites to offer sacrifice to him, as the sailors do in and Jonah vows in Thus God is portrayed, like many ancient Near Eastern potentates, as extending his rule over peoples and exacting tribute.
As per title, an introduction to the following six articles that deal with the Book of Jonah. All but the final essay in the series reflect issues hotly debated at the conference of the European Association of Biblical Studies at Lisbon in August The final essay article 9 in this volume of JHS is based on a paper presented at the Society of Biblical Literature conference at Boston in November The task of reconstructing the religious history of Israel can only be accomplished incrementally.
2018 in books: a literary calendar
Regarding methodology, if one chooses to engage the complexities of, say, the Israelite priesthood, synchronic analysis alone does not reveal its stages of development. Meticulous redactional analysis moreover exposes only aspects or phases of the sophisticated historiographies of the major writers in the preexilic, exilic, and postexilic periods and their grand schemas. One method of penetrating the pretense of uniformity is to approach the material through the use of analogy. The Levite in many instances locates professionally and socially between elite priests living in larger cities and populace living in residential towns and villages.
It is the itinerant, often times prophetically-infused Levite who, while maintaining the most contact with the general population, must at the same time maintain a viable connection with central authorities. Because his situation often necessitates collaboration with laity of dubious lineage, the Levite's priestly power turns out to be one that empowers. It is claimed that on this basis scholars are able to date the composition of biblical books by analysis of their language. This is demonstrated by the language of the Qumran Pesher-commentary on the biblical book of Habakkuk.
The article discusses the location of the city of Shaaraim mentioned in Josh and 1 Sam It first argues that its proposed identification with Khirbet Qeiyafa, north of the Elah Valley is mistaken. Then it argues that Shaaraim is located on the main road that led from the Valley of Elah to the city of Gath. Building on Bill's Arnold's thesis that the presence of Aramaic in Ezra presents a shift in perspective to an external point of view, Joshua Berman has theorized that Ezra — presents a narrator who is speaking from a gentile point of view as opposed to a Judean voice for the Hebrew that precedes and follows this Aramaic section.
However, Berman's thesis does not account for all of the narration in this Aramaic text. The narrative verses that link the individual letters in this section indicate that the controlling voice for the overall narration is pro-Judean. These verses employ the Judeo-centric language and demonstrate that the author had a Judean source for much of the information he presents.
Moreover, the narrative that connects the letters demonstrates the narrator's knowledge of the Judean prophets, their names, patronymics and office as prophets ; , revealing his Judean perspective. Ultimately, this narrator reveals his viewpoint by placing the command of God next to the decrees of Persian kings Thus, Ezra — is a single literary creation, a document that is the result of an archival search and is designed to persuade the reader that the Judeans ought to be allowed to build in Jerusalem. Khirbet Qeiyafa is a 2. This is a key strategic location in the biblical kingdom of Judah, on the main road from Philistia and the Coastal Plain to Jerusalem and Hebron in the hill country.
It is the only site in the Kingdoms of Judah and Israel with two gates. It is located near the Elah valley, associated with King David twice, and not mentioned in conjunction with any other later First Temple period tradition. Sol M. BeronaMatthew J. SmithJohn A.
LentGert Meesters. Michael RhodeK. Section 2: Wizard! Moore, Morrison, and Superhero Comics. Section 3: Zoinks! Comics, Politics and Identity. Military in China, Metamorphosis of the Phylactery: changes in Emanata from the Medieval Times through the 18th Century. It's A bid, It's a Plane, it's BeronaJohn A. SmithSteven M. What Inflamed the Iraq War? The Perspectives of American Cartoonists. Matt Wuerker David A.
Remembrances of My Father, Alberto Breccia. From Mexifornia to Newyorktitlan: East vs. West Meets the Mexican Tradition. Making People Laugh: Toms and K. Yesudasan, Premier Cartoonists in Kerala, India. The Most Popular Polish Comics Comic Book Artists and Writers and Philosophers. Nigerian Cartooning and the Dearth of Female Cartoonists. A Stranger in an Strange Land? Guy Delisle Redraws the Travelogue. Thought Policing or Protection of Youth? Has the U. Won the Iraq War? So, How Was Your Day? Punch versus the Kaiser, Flashpoints of a Complex Relationship.
Coching Dean of Pilipino Illustrators. Fury and His Howling Commandos. John Picture Novels. Funny Education? Fredric Wertham: Scientist? A Transgeneration Paper in Two Parts. Reclaiming the Narrative: The 99 and Muslim Superheroes. What Comics?!